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Index Decision-making

In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionmaking) is regarded as the cognitive process resulting in the selection of a belief or a course of action among several alternative possibilities. [1]

193 relations: Aboulomania, Academy of Management, Acronym, Action plan, Adaptive performance, Addiction, Affect heuristic, Agent (economics), Allais paradox, Analytic hierarchy process, Anchoring, Anterior cingulate cortex, Anti-authoritarianism, Argument from authority, Argument map, Aron K. Barbey, Aron Katsenelinboigen, Attribution (psychology), Augur, Automated decision support, Availability heuristic, Bayesian regret, Benjamin Franklin, Bias, Big data, Bounded rationality, Business decision mapping, Buying center, Cambridge University Press, Cengage, Choice, Choice architecture, Choice modelling, Choice-supportive bias, Cognition, Cognitive inertia, Cognitive neuroscience, Communicative rationality, Concept-driven strategy, Confirmation bias, Consensus decision-making, Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, Cross-cultural differences in decision-making, Current Directions in Psychological Science, Daniel Kahneman, Decision analysis, Decision downloading, Decision fatigue, Decision Intelligence, Decision quality, ..., Decision support system, Decision-making paradox, Decision-making software, Decisional balance sheet, Delayed gratification, Delphi method, Developmental Psychology (journal), Divination, Dot-voting, Economics, Electroencephalography, Emotion, Emotional intelligence, Evaluation, Evidence, Executive functions, Explicit knowledge, Familiarity heuristic, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Feedback, Flipism, Foresight (psychology), Framing (social sciences), Free Press (publisher), Free will, Gofer (disambiguation), Group decision-making, Groupthink, GROW model, Herbert A. Simon, Heuristics in judgment and decision-making, Idea networking, Illusion of control, InformationWeek, Intuition, Irrationality, Irving Janis, Isabel Briggs Myers, James Rest, Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, Journal of Economic Psychology, Journal of General Internal Medicine, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Journal of Research in Personality, Keith Stanovich, Knowledge, List of cognitive biases, Logic, Macaque, Machine learning, Majority, Maris Martinsons, Mathematical optimization, Maximization (psychology), McGraw-Hill Education, Medical diagnosis, Mental accounting, Morality, Multiple-criteria decision analysis, Myers–Briggs Type Indicator, Naturalistic decision-making, Nature (journal), Nature Neuroscience, Neuroimaging, Neuroscience, Normative, Numeracy, Occam's razor, Opportunity cost, Optimal decision, Optimism bias, Orbitofrontal cortex, Pantheon Books, Parietal lobe, Participative decision-making, Paul Saffo, Peer pressure, Personality and Individual Differences, Plato, Plurality voting, Postmortem documentation, Predispositioning theory, Preference, Prejudice, Priming (psychology), Problem solving, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Prospect theory, Protagoras (dialogue), Pseudoscience, Psychological research, Psychology, Psychosocial, Puberty, Pyrrhic victory, Range voting, Rational choice theory, Rationality, Recognition primed decision, Reference class forecasting, Reinforcement, Representativeness heuristic, Revelation, Reward system, Rhesus macaque, Risk, Robust decision-making, Role-playing, Routledge, Russell Sage Foundation, SAGE Publications, Satisficing, Scenario optimization, Serial-position effect, Singleton Hospital, Slippery slope, Somatic marker hypothesis, Southern Illinois University Press, Springer Science+Business Media, Subjective expected utility, Sunk cost, Superior orders, Swansea, System dynamics, Systems neuroscience, Tacit knowledge, Tarot, Taylor & Francis, Temple University Press, Two-alternative forced choice, U.S. News & World Report, Uncertainty, University of Arkansas, University of Colorado, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Utility, Value (ethics), Ventromedial prefrontal cortex, Volition (psychology), Voting, Wales, Wishful thinking, Yale University Press. Expand index (143 more) »


Aboulomania is a mental disorder in which the patient displays pathological indecisiveness.

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Academy of Management

The Academy of Management (AOM; the Academy) is a professional association for scholars of management and organizations that was established in 1936.

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An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).

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Action plan

An action plan is a detailed plan outlining actions needed to reach one or more goals.

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Adaptive performance

Adaptive performance in the work environment refers to adjusting to and understanding change in the workplace.

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Addiction is a brain disorder characterized by compulsive engagement in rewarding stimuli despite adverse consequences.

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Affect heuristic

The affect heuristic is a heuristic, a mental shortcut that allows people to make decisions and solve problems quickly and efficiently, in which current emotion—fear, pleasure, surprise, etc.—influences decisions.

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Agent (economics)

In economics, an agent is an actor and more specifically a decision maker in a model of some aspect of the economy.

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Allais paradox

The Allais paradox is a choice problem designed by to show an inconsistency of actual observed choices with the predictions of expected utility theory.

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Analytic hierarchy process

The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a structured technique for organizing and analyzing complex decisions, based on mathematics and psychology.

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Anchoring or focalism is a cognitive bias that describes the tendency for an individual to rely too heavily on an initial piece of information offered (known as the "anchor") when making decisions.

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Anterior cingulate cortex

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is the frontal part of the cingulate cortex that resembles a "collar" surrounding the frontal part of the corpus callosum.

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Anti-authoritarianism is opposition to authoritarianism, which is defined as "a form of social organisation characterised by submission to authority", "favoring complete obedience or subjection to authority as opposed to individual freedom" and to authoritarian government.

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Argument from authority

An argument from authority, also called an appeal to authority, or argumentum ad verecundiam is a form of defeasible argument in which a claimed authority's support is used as evidence for an argument's conclusion.

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Argument map

In informal logic and philosophy, an argument map or argument diagram is a visual representation of the structure of an argument.

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Aron K. Barbey

Aron Keith Barbey (born January 6, 1977) is an American cognitive neuroscientist, whose research investigates the neural architecture of human intelligence.

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Aron Katsenelinboigen

Aron Iosifovich Katsenelinboigen (Арон Иосифович Каценелинбойген; September 2, 1927 – July 30, 2005) was a founder of predispositioning theory, a subject in decision theory and systems theory that models development in the context of uncertainty.

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Attribution (psychology)

Humans are motivated to assign causes to their actions and behaviors.

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An augur was a priest and official in the classical Roman world.

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Automated decision support

Automated Decision Support, or ADS, systems are rule-based systems that are able to automatically provide solutions to repetitive management problems.

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Availability heuristic

The availability heuristic is a mental shortcut that relies on immediate examples that come to a given person's mind when evaluating a specific topic, concept, method or decision.

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Bayesian regret

Bayesian regret is a term from game theory meaning the average difference between the average utility of a strategy and the ideal utility.

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Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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Bias is disproportionate weight in favour of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair.

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Big data

Big data is data sets that are so big and complex that traditional data-processing application software are inadequate to deal with them.

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Bounded rationality

Bounded rationality is the idea that when individuals make decisions, their rationality is limited by the tractability of the decision problem, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the time available to make the decision.

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Business decision mapping

Business decision mapping (BDM) is a technique for making decisions, particularly for the kind of decisions that often need to be made in business.

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Buying center

A buying center, also called decision-making unit (DMU), brings together "all those members of an organization who become involved in the buying process for a particular product or service".

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.

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Choice involves decision making.

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Choice architecture

Choice architecture is the design of different ways in which choices can be presented to consumers, and the impact of that presentation on consumer decision-making.

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Choice modelling

Choice modelling attempts to model the decision process of an individual or segment via revealed preferences or stated preferences made in a particular context or contexts.

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Choice-supportive bias

In cognitive science, choice-supportive bias or post-purchase rationalization is the tendency to retroactively ascribe positive attributes to an option one has selected.

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Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".

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Cognitive inertia

Cognitive inertia refers to the tendency for beliefs or sets of beliefs to endure once formed.

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Cognitive neuroscience

The term cognitive neuroscience was coined by George Armitage Miller and Michael Gazzaniga in year 1976.

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Communicative rationality

Communicative rationality, or communicative reason (kommunikative Rationalität), is a theory or set of theories which describes human rationality as a necessary outcome of successful communication.

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Concept-driven strategy

A concept-driven strategy is a process for formulating strategy that draws on the explanation of how humans inquire provided by linguistic pragmatic philosophy.

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Confirmation bias

Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias,David Perkins, a professor and researcher at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, coined the term "myside bias" referring to a preference for "my" side of an issue.

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Consensus decision-making

Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.

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Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research

Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research is the flagship journal of the Society of Consulting Psychology, a division of the American Psychological Association.

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Cross-cultural differences in decision-making

Decision-making is a mental activity which is an integral part of planning and action taking in a variety of contexts and at a vast range of levels, including, but not limited to, budget planning, education planning, policy making, and climbing the career ladder.

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Current Directions in Psychological Science

Current Directions in Psychological Science is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal from the Association for Psychological Science (APS) that is published by SAGE Publications.

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Daniel Kahneman

Daniel Kahneman (דניאל כהנמן; born March 5, 1934) is an Israeli-American psychologist notable for his work on the psychology of judgment and decision-making, as well as behavioral economics, for which he was awarded the 2002 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (shared with Vernon L. Smith).

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Decision analysis

Decision analysis (DA) is the discipline comprising the philosophy, theory, methodology, and professional practice necessary to address important decisions in a formal manner.

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Decision downloading

Decision downloadingClampitt,P.

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Decision fatigue

In decision making and psychology, decision fatigue refers to the deteriorating quality of decisions made by an individual after a long session of decision making.

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Decision Intelligence

Decision intelligence is a framework that unifies a number of best practices for organizational decision making.

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Decision quality

Decision quality (DQ) is the quality of a decision at the moment the decision is made, regardless of its outcome.

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Decision support system

A decision support system (DSS) is an information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities.

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Decision-making paradox

The decision-making paradox relates to decision-making and the quest for determining reliable decision-making methods.

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Decision-making software

Decision-making software (DM software) comprises computer applications that are used to help individuals and organisations make choices and take decisions, typically by ranking, prioritizing or choosing from a number of options.

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Decisional balance sheet

A decisional balance sheet or decision balance sheet is a tabular method for representing the pros and cons of different choices and for helping someone decide what to do in a certain circumstance.

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Delayed gratification

Delayed gratification, or deferred gratification, describes the process that the subject undergoes when the subject resists the temptation of an immediate reward in preference for a later reward.

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Delphi method

The Delphi method is a structured communication technique or method, originally developed as a systematic, interactive forecasting method which relies on a panel of experts.

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Developmental Psychology (journal)

Developmental Psychology is a peer-reviewed academic journal published by the American Psychological Association covering research in developmental psychology.

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Divination (from Latin divinare "to foresee, to be inspired by a god", related to divinus, divine) is the attempt to gain insight into a question or situation by way of an occultic, standardized process or ritual.

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Dot-voting (also known as dotmocracy or voting with dots) is an established facilitation method used to describe voting with dot stickers or marks with a marker pen.

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Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

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Electroencephalography (EEG) is an electrophysiological monitoring method to record electrical activity of the brain.

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Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.

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Emotional intelligence

Emotional intelligence (EI), also known as Emotional quotient (EQ) and Emotional Intelligence Quotient (EIQ), is the capability of individuals to recognize their own emotions and those of others, discern between different feelings and label them appropriately, use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior, and manage and/or adjust emotions to adapt to environments or achieve one's goal(s).

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Evaluation is a systematic determination of a subject's merit, worth and significance, using criteria governed by a set of standards.

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Evidence, broadly construed, is anything presented in support of an assertion.

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Executive functions

Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.

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Explicit knowledge

Explicit knowledge is knowledge that can be readily articulated, codified, accessed and verbalized.

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Familiarity heuristic

In psychology, a heuristic is an easy-to-compute procedure or "rule of thumb" that people use when forming beliefs, judgments or decisions.

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Farrar, Straus and Giroux

Farrar, Straus and Giroux (FSG) is an American book publishing company, founded in 1946 by Roger W. Straus, Jr. and John C. Farrar.

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Feedback occurs when outputs of a system are routed back as inputs as part of a chain of cause-and-effect that forms a circuit or loop.

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Flipism, sometimes written as "Flippism," is a pseudophilosophy under which all decisions are made by flipping a coin.

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Foresight (psychology)

Foresight is the ability to predict, or the action of predicting, what will happen or what is needed in the future.

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Framing (social sciences)

In the social sciences, framing comprises a set of concepts and theoretical perspectives on how individuals, groups, and societies, organize, perceive, and communicate about reality.

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Free Press (publisher)

Free Press was a book publishing imprint of Simon & Schuster.

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Free will

Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.

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Gofer (disambiguation)

A gofer is an errand runner.

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Group decision-making

Group decision-making (also known as collaborative decision-making) is a situation faced when individuals collectively make a choice from the alternatives before them.

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Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome.

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GROW model

The GROW model (or process) is a simple method for goal setting and problem solving.

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Herbert A. Simon

Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) was an American economist and political scientist whose primary interest was decision-making within organizations and is best known for the theories of "bounded rationality" and "satisficing".

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Heuristics in judgment and decision-making

In psychology, heuristics are simple, efficient rules which people often use to form judgments and make decisions.

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Idea networking

Idea networking is a qualitative method of doing a cluster analysis of any collection of statements, developed by Mike Metcalfe at the University of South Australia.

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Illusion of control

The illusion of control is the tendency for people to overestimate their ability to control events; for example, it occurs when someone feels a sense of control over outcomes that they demonstrably do not influence.

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InformationWeek is a digital magazine which conducts corresponding face-to-face events, virtual events, and research.

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Intuition is the ability to acquire knowledge without proof, evidence, or conscious reasoning, or without understanding how the knowledge was acquired.

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Irrationality is cognition, thinking, talking, or acting without inclusion of rationality.

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Irving Janis

Irving Lester Janis (May 26, 1918 – November 15, 1990) was a research psychologist at Yale University and a professor emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley most famous for his theory of "groupthink" which described the systematic errors made by groups when making collective decisions.

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Isabel Briggs Myers

Isabel Briggs Myers (October 18, 1897 – May 5, 1980) was an American author and co-creator of a personality inventory known as the Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI).

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James Rest

James Rest was an American psychologist specializing in moral psychology and development.

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Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience

The Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience is a peer-reviewed academic journal for scientific research on cognitive neuroscience and the interaction between brain and behavior.

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Journal of Economic Psychology

The Journal of Economic Psychology is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering behavioral economics.

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Journal of General Internal Medicine

The Journal of General Internal Medicine is a monthly peer-reviewed medical journal established in 1986 and covering internal medicine.

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Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

The Journal of Personality and Social Psychology is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Psychological Association that was established in 1965.

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Journal of Research in Personality

The Journal of Research in Personality is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the field of personality psychology, published by Elsevier.

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Keith Stanovich

Keith E. Stanovich is Emeritus Professor of Applied Psychology and Human Development, University of Toronto and former Canada Research Chair of Applied Cognitive Science.

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Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

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List of cognitive biases

Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics.

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Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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The macaques (or pronunciation by Oxford Dictionaries) constitute a genus (Macaca) of Old World monkeys of the subfamily Cercopithecinae.

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Machine learning

Machine learning is a subset of artificial intelligence in the field of computer science that often uses statistical techniques to give computers the ability to "learn" (i.e., progressively improve performance on a specific task) with data, without being explicitly programmed.

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A majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.

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Maris Martinsons

Maris Martinsons is a professor of management currently associated with the City University of Hong Kong, the Stockholm School of Economics, and the University of Toronto.

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Mathematical optimization

In mathematics, computer science and operations research, mathematical optimization or mathematical programming, alternatively spelled optimisation, is the selection of a best element (with regard to some criterion) from some set of available alternatives.

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Maximization (psychology)

Maximization is a style of decision-making characterized by seeking the best option through an exhaustive search through alternatives.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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Medical diagnosis

Medical diagnosis (abbreviated Dx or DS) is the process of determining which disease or condition explains a person's symptoms and signs.

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Mental accounting

A concept first named by Richard Thaler, mental accounting (or psychological accounting) attempts to describe the process whereby people code, categorize and evaluate economic outcomes.

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Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.

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Multiple-criteria decision analysis

Multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) or multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a sub-discipline of operations research that explicitly evaluates multiple conflicting criteria in decision making (both in daily life and in settings such as business, government and medicine).

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Myers–Briggs Type Indicator

The Myers–Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is an introspective self-report questionnaire with the purpose of indicating differing psychological preferences in how people perceive the world around them and make decisions.

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Naturalistic decision-making

The naturalistic decision making (NDM) framework emerged as a means of studying how people make decisions and perform cognitively complex functions in demanding, real-world situations.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nature Neuroscience

Nature Neuroscience is a monthly scientific journal published by Nature Publishing Group.

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Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.

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Neuroscience (or neurobiology) is the scientific study of the nervous system.

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Normative generally means relating to an evaluative standard.

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Numeracy is the ability to reason and to apply simple numerical concepts.

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Occam's razor

Occam's razor (also Ockham's razor or Ocham's razor; Latin: lex parsimoniae "law of parsimony") is the problem-solving principle that, the simplest explanation tends to be the right one.

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Opportunity cost

In microeconomic theory, the opportunity cost, also known as alternative cost, is the value (not a benefit) of the choice in terms of the best alternative while making a decision.

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Optimal decision

An optimal decision is a decision that leads to at least as good a known or expected outcome as all other available decision options.

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Optimism bias

Optimism bias (also known as unrealistic or comparative optimism) is a cognitive bias that causes a person to believe that they are at a lesser risk of experiencing a negative event compared to others.

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Orbitofrontal cortex

The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is a prefrontal cortex region in the frontal lobes in the brain which is involved in the cognitive processing of decision-making.

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Pantheon Books

Pantheon Books is an American book publishing imprint with editorial independence.

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Parietal lobe

The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".

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Participative decision-making

Participative decision-making (PDM) is the extent to which employers allow or encourage employees to share or participate in organizational decision-making (Probst, 2005).

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Paul Saffo

Paul Saffo (born 1954 in Los Angeles) is a technology forecaster based in Silicon Valley.

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Peer pressure

Peer pressure (or social pressure) is the direct influence on people by peers, or the effect on an individual who gets encouraged to follow their peers by changing their attitudes, values or behaviors to conform to those of the influencing group or individual.

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Personality and Individual Differences

Personality and Individual Differences is a peer-reviewed academic journal published 16 times per year by Elsevier.

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Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Plurality voting

Plurality voting is an electoral system in which each voter is allowed to vote for only one candidate, and the candidate who polls the most among their counterparts (a plurality) is elected.

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Postmortem documentation

A project post-mortem is a process, usually performed at the conclusion of a project, to determine and analyze elements of the project that were successful or unsuccessful.

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Predispositioning theory

Predispositioning theory, in the field of decision theory and systems theory, is a theory focusing on the stages between a complete order and a complete disorder.

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A preference is a technical term in psychology, economics and philosophy usually used in relation to choosing between alternatives; someone has a preference for A over B if they would choose A rather than B.

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Prejudice is an affective feeling towards a person or group member based solely on that person's group membership.

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Priming (psychology)

Priming is a technique whereby exposure to one stimulus influences a response to a subsequent stimulus, without conscious guidance or intention.

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Problem solving

Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, to find solutions to problems.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Prospect theory

Prospect theory is a behavioral economic theory that describes the way people choose between probabilistic alternatives that involve risk, where the probabilities of outcomes are known (.

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Protagoras (dialogue)

Protagoras (Πρωταγόρας) is a dialogue by Plato.

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Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.

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Psychological research

Leon Festinger, Henry W. Riecken, & Stanley Schachter, When Prophecy Fails: A Social and Psychological Study of a Modern Group that Predicted the End of the World (University of Minnesota Press, 1956).

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Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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The psychosocial approach looks at individuals in the context of the combined influence that psychological factors and the surrounding social environment have on their physical and mental wellness and their ability to function.

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Puberty is the process of physical changes through which a child's body matures into an adult body capable of sexual reproduction.

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Pyrrhic victory

A Pyrrhic victory is a victory that inflicts such a devastating toll on the victor that it is tantamount to defeat.

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Range voting

Range voting or score voting is an electoral system for single-seat elections, in which voters give each candidate a score, the scores are added (or, equivalently, averaged), and the candidate with the highest total is elected.

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Rational choice theory

Rational choice theory, also known as choice theory or rational action theory, is a framework for understanding and often formally modeling social and economic behavior.

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Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.

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Recognition primed decision

Recognition-primed decision (RPD) is a model of how people make quick, effective decisions when faced with complex situations.

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Reference class forecasting

Reference class forecasting or comparison class forecasting is a method of predicting the future by looking at similar past situations and their outcomes.

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In behavioral psychology, reinforcement is a consequence that will strengthen an organism's future behavior whenever that behavior is preceded by a specific antecedent stimulus.

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Representativeness heuristic

The representativeness heuristic is used when making judgments about the probability of an event under uncertainty.

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In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

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Reward system

The reward system is a group of neural structures responsible for incentive salience (i.e., motivation and "wanting", desire, or craving for a reward), associative learning (primarily positive reinforcement and classical conditioning), and positive emotions, particularly ones which involve pleasure as a core component (e.g., joy, euphoria and ecstasy).

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Rhesus macaque

The rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) is one of the best-known species of Old World monkeys.

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Risk is the potential of gaining or losing something of value.

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Robust decision-making

Robust decision-making (RDM) is an iterative decision analytic framework that aims to help identify potential robust strategies, characterize the vulnerabilities of such strategies, and evaluate the tradeoffs among them.

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Role-playing is the changing of one's behaviour to assume a role, either unconsciously to fill a social role, or consciously to act out an adopted role.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Russell Sage Foundation

The Russell Sage Foundation is an American philanthropic foundation that primarily funds research relating to income inequality.

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SAGE Publications

SAGE Publishing is an independent publishing company founded in 1965 in New York by Sara Miller McCune and now based in California.

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Satisficing is a decision-making strategy or cognitive heuristic that entails searching through the available alternatives until an acceptability threshold is met.

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Scenario optimization

The scenario approach or scenario optimization approach is a technique for obtaining solutions to robust optimization and chance-constrained optimization problems based on a sample of the constraints.

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Serial-position effect

Serial-position effect is the tendency of a person to recall the first and last items in a series best, and the middle items worst.

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Singleton Hospital

Singleton Hospital (Ysbyty Singleton) is a 550-bed hospital located in Sketty Lane, Swansea, Wales, operated by Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board.

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Slippery slope

A slippery slope argument (SSA), in logic, critical thinking, political rhetoric, and caselaw, is a consequentialist logical device in which a party asserts that a relatively small first step leads to a chain of related events culminating in some significant (usually negative) effect.

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Somatic marker hypothesis

The somatic marker hypothesis, formulated by Antonio Damasio, proposes that emotional processes guide (or bias) behavior, particularly decision-making.

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Southern Illinois University Press

Southern Illinois University Press or SIU Press, founded in 1956, is a university press located in Carbondale, Illinois, owned and operated by Southern Illinois University.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Subjective expected utility

In decision theory, subjective expected utility is the attractiveness of an economic opportunity as perceived by a decision-maker in the presence of risk.

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Sunk cost

In economics and business decision-making, a sunk cost is a cost that has already been incurred and cannot be recovered (also known as retrospective cost).

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Superior orders

Superior orders, often known as the Nuremberg defense, lawful orders or by the German phrase Befehl ist Befehl ("an order is an order"), is a plea in a court of law that a person—whether a member of the military, law enforcement, a firefighting force, or the civilian population—not be held guilty for actions ordered by a superior officer or an official.

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Swansea (Abertawe), is a coastal city and county, officially known as the City and County of Swansea (Dinas a Sir Abertawe) in Wales, UK.

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System dynamics

System dynamics (SD) is an approach to understanding the nonlinear behaviour of complex systems over time using stocks, flows, internal feedback loops, table functions and time delays.

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Systems neuroscience

Systems neuroscience is a subdiscipline of neuroscience and systems biology that studies the function of neural circuits and systems.

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Tacit knowledge

Tacit knowledge (as opposed to formal, codified or explicit knowledge) is the kind of knowledge that is difficult to transfer to another person by means of writing it down or verbalizing it.

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The tarot (first known as trionfi and later as tarocchi, tarock, and others) is a pack of playing cards, used from the mid-15th century in various parts of Europe to play games such as Italian tarocchini and French tarot.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.

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Temple University Press

Temple University Press is a university press founded in 1969 that is part of Temple University (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).

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Two-alternative forced choice

Two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) is a method for measuring the subjective experience of a person or animal through their pattern of choices and response times.

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U.S. News & World Report

U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.

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Uncertainty has been called "an unintelligible expression without a straightforward description".

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University of Arkansas

The University of Arkansas (U of A, UARK, or UA) is a public land-grant, doctoral research university located in Fayetteville, Arkansas.

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University of Colorado

The University of Colorado system is a system of public universities in Colorado consisting of four campuses: University of Colorado Boulder, University of Colorado Colorado Springs, University of Colorado Denver in downtown Denver and at the Anschutz Medical Campus in Aurora.

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University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign

The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.

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Within economics the concept of utility is used to model worth or value, but its usage has evolved significantly over time.

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Value (ethics)

In ethics, value denotes the degree of importance of some thing or action, with the aim of determining what actions are best to do or what way is best to live (normative ethics), or to describe the significance of different actions.

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Ventromedial prefrontal cortex

The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is a part of the prefrontal cortex in the mammalian brain.

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Volition (psychology)

Volition or will is the cognitive process by which an individual decides on and commits to a particular course of action.

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Voting is a method for a group, such as, a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion, usually following discussions, debates or election campaigns.

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Wales (Cymru) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain.

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Wishful thinking

Wishful thinking is the formation of beliefs and making decisions according to what might be pleasing to imagine instead of by appealing to evidence, rationality, or reality.

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Yale University Press

Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decision-making

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