249 relations: Abderrahmane Farès, Aden Abdullah Osman Daar, Afars and Issas independence referendum, 1977, African nationalism, African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde, Afroasiatic languages, Agostinho Neto, Ahmadou Ahidjo, Ahmed Abdallah, Ahmed Ben Bella, Ahmed Sékou Touré, Algerian War, Ali Mazrui, Aly Maher Pasha, American Colonization Society, American University in Cairo Press, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, Angolan War of Independence, Apartheid, Aristides Pereira, Asset, Atlantic Charter, Basutoland, Bechuanaland Protectorate, Belgium, Belgo-Congolese Round Table Conference, Berlin Conference, British Cameroons, British Mauritius, British Military Administration (Libya), British Somaliland, British Togoland, Cape Colony, Cape Juby, Capital accumulation, Colonial Nigeria, Colonialism, Colony of Natal, Commonwealth realm, Comorian independence referendum, 1974, Congo Crisis, Convention People's Party, Cyrenaica Emirate, David Dacko, Dawda Jawara, Decolonization, Dependency theory, Dominion of Ghana, East African Campaign (World War II), ..., Economic history of Africa, Egypt, Egyptian revolution of 1919, Egyptian revolution of 1952, El-Ouali Mustapha Sayed, Eritrean War of Independence, Ethiopia, Ethiopian Empire, External debt, Félix Houphouët-Boigny, Fezzan-Ghadames (French Administration), François Tombalbaye, Francisco Macías Nguema, Free Zone (region), French Algeria, French Cameroons, French Madagascar, French protectorate in Morocco, French protectorate of Tunisia, French Territory of the Afars and the Issas, French Third Republic, French Togoland, French West Africa, Fuad I of Egypt, Fulbert Youlou, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Gambia Colony and Protectorate, Gambian republic referendum, 1970, General History of Africa, German Empire, Ghana, Ghanaian constitutional referendum, 1960, Gold Coast (British colony), Gold Coast legislative election, 1956, Grégoire Kayibanda, Guinea-Bissau War of Independence, Guinean constitutional referendum, 1958, Habib Bourguiba, Haile Selassie, Hamani Diori, Hassan Gouled Aptidon, Hastings Banda, History of Portugal (1834–1910), Hubert Maga, Ian Smith, Idris of Libya, Ifni, Ifni War, Imperialism, Indépendance Cha Cha, Independence Day (Botswana), Isaias Afwerki, Ismail al-Azhari, Italian East Africa, Italian Eritrea, Italian Somaliland, Ivory Coast, James Mancham, Jamhuri Day, Jamshid bin Abdullah of Zanzibar, Jomo Kenyatta, Joseph Jenkins Roberts, Joseph Kasa-Vubu, Julius Nyerere, Kenneth Kaunda, Kenya, Kenya Colony, Khoisan languages, Kingdom of Burundi, Kingdom of Egypt, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Libya, Kingdom of Tunisia, Kordofanian languages, Kwame Nkrumah, Lancaster House Agreement, Léon M'ba, Léopold Sédar Senghor, Leabua Jonathan, League of Nations mandate, Liberia, Liberian Declaration of Independence, Louis Botha, Luís Cabral, Madrid Accords, Malagasy Republic, Malagasy Uprising, Malawi, Mali, Mali Federation, Manhasset negotiations, Manuel Pinto da Costa, Mau Mau Uprising, Maurice Yaméogo, Mauritania, Meta-analysis, Milton Margai, Milton Obote, Modernization theory, Modibo Keïta, Mohamed Abdelaziz (Sahrawi politician), Mohammed Naguib, Mohammed V of Morocco, Moktar Ould Daddah, Moroccan Western Sahara Wall, Morocco, Moshoeshoe II of Lesotho, Mozambican War of Independence, Muhammad VIII al-Amin, Mwambutsa IV of Burundi, National Liberation Front (Algeria), Natives Land Act, 1913, Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa, Nelson Mandela, Nigeria, Nnamdi Azikiwe, Orange River Colony, Pan-African Congress, Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Patrice Lumumba, Pedro Pires, People's Republic of Angola, People's Republic of Mozambique, Philibert Tsiranana, Portuguese Angola, Portuguese Cape Verde, Portuguese Guinea, Portuguese Mozambique, Portuguese São Tomé and Príncipe, President of the United States, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Republic of Dahomey, Republic of Maryland, Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville), Republic of Upper Volta, Restoration (Spain), Revolution Day (Egypt), Rhodesia's Unilateral Declaration of Independence, Rhodesian Bush War, Robert Mugabe, Ruanda-Urundi, Rwandan Revolution, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Samora Machel, Scramble for Africa, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Self-determination, Senegal, Seretse Khama, Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate, Sobhuza II, Somali Republic, South Africa, South Africa Act 1909, South African republic referendum, 1960, Southern Provinces, Spanish Guinea, Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Spanish Sahara, Spanish West Africa, State of Somaliland, States and Power in Africa, Statute of Westminster 1931, Stephen Allen Benson, Sub-Saharan Africa, Suez Crisis, Sultanate of Egypt, Sultanate of Zanzibar, Sylvanus Olympio, Tanganyika, Tanganyika (territory), Tangier International Zone, Tanzania, Transvaal Colony, Trust Territory of Somaliland, Tunisian independence, Uganda Protectorate, Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence, Union of South Africa, Union of the Peoples of Cameroon, United Kingdom, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories, United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara, United Nations trust territories, United States Senate, Veerasamy Ringadoo, Wars of national liberation, Western Sahara, Western Sahara conflict, Western Sahara War, Winston Churchill, World economy, World War II, Year of Africa, Zambia, Zanzibar Revolution, Zoning. 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Abderrahmane Farès (عبدالرحمن فارس; ALA-LC: ʿAbd ar-Raḥman Fāris; ⵄⴻⴱⴷⴻⵔⴰⵃⵎⴰⵏ ⴼⴰⵔⴻⵙ, 'Ɛebderaḥman Fares; January 30, 1911 – May 13, 1991) was the Chairman of the Provisional Executive of Algeria from 3 July 1962 to 20 September 1962.
Aden Abdulle Osman Daar (Aadan Cabdulle Cismaan Daar, آدم عبد الله عثمان دار.) (December 9, 1908 – June 8, 2007), popularly known as Aden Adde, was a Somali politician.
An independence referendum was held in the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas on 8 May 1977 alongside an election for a Constituent Assembly.
African nationalism is an umbrella term which refers to a group of political ideologies, mainly within Sub-Saharan Africa, which are based on the idea of national self-determination and the creation of nation states.
The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde, PAIGC) is a political party in Guinea-Bissau.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
António Agostinho Neto (17 September 1922 – 10 September 1979) served as the 1st President of Angola (1975–1979), having led the Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) in the war for independence (1961–1974).
Ahmadou Babatoura Ahidjo (24 August 1924 – 30 November 1989) was the first President of Cameroon, holding the office from 1960 until 1982.
Ahmed Abdallah Abderemane (أحمد عبد الله عبد الرحمن,, 12 June 1919 – 26 November 1989) was a Comorian politician.
Ahmed Ben Bella (أحمد بن بلّة; 25 December 1916 – 11 April 2012) was an Algerian socialist soldier and revolutionary who was the first President of Algeria from 1963 to 1965.
Ahmed Sékou Touré (var. Ahmed Sheku Turay) (January 9, 1922 – March 26, 1984) was a Guinean political leader who was elected as the first President of Guinea, serving from 1958 until his death in 1984.
Ali Al'amin Mazrui (24 February 1933 – 12 October 2014), was an academic professor, and political writer on African and Islamic studies and North-South relations.
Aly Maher Pasha (علي ماهر باشا; 9 November 1882 – 25 August 1960) was an Egyptian political figure.
The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America, commonly known as the American Colonization Society (ACS), was a group established in 1816 by Robert Finley of New Jersey which supported the migration of free African Americans to the continent of Africa.
The American University in Cairo Press (AUCP, AUC Press) is the leading English-language publisher in the Middle East.
The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (السودان الإنجليزي المصري) was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt in the eastern Sudan region of northern Africa between 1899 and 1956, but in practice the structure of the condominium ensured full British control over the Sudan.
The Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936 (officially, The Treaty of Alliance Between His Majesty, in Respect of the United Kingdom, and His Majesty, the King of Egypt) was a treaty signed between the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Egypt.
The Angolan War of Independence (1961–1974) began as an uprising against forced cotton cultivation, and it became a multi-faction struggle for the control of Portugal's overseas province of Angola among three nationalist movements and a separatist movement.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
Aristides Maria Pereira (17 November 1923 – 22 September 2011) was a Cape Verdean politician.
In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource.
The Atlantic Charter was a pivotal policy statement issued during World War II on 14 August 1941, which defined the Allied goals for the post war world.
Basutoland was a British Crown colony established in 1884 due to the Cape Colony's inability to control the territory.
The Bechuanaland Protectorate was a protectorate established on 31 March 1885, by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in southern Africa.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Belgo-Congolese Round Table Conference (Table ronde belgo-congolaise) was a meeting organized in two partsJoseph Kamanda Kimona-Mbinga, 2004 in 1960 in Brussels (January 20 – February 20Réseau documentaire international sur la Région des Grands Lacs, and April 26 – May 16 Jules Gérard-Libois, Jean Heinen, 1993) between on the one side representatives of the Congolese political class and chiefs (chefs coutumiers) and on the other side Belgian political and business leaders.
The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
British Cameroons was a British Mandate territory in British West Africa.
British Mauritius was a British crown colony.
The British Military Administration of Libya was the control of the regions of Cyrenaica and Tripolitania of the former Italian Libya by the British from 1942 until Libyan independence in 1951.
British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka, translit) was a British protectorate in present-day northwestern Somalia.
British Togoland, officially the Mandate Territory of Togoland and later officially the Trust Territory of Togoland, was a territory in West Africa, under the administration of the United Kingdom.
The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope.
Cape Juby (trans. Ra's Juby, Cabo Juby) is a cape on the coast of southern Morocco, near the border with Western Sahara, directly east of the Canary Islands.
Capital accumulation (also termed the accumulation of capital) is the dynamic that motivates the pursuit of profit, involving the investment of money or any financial asset with the goal of increasing the initial monetary value of said asset as a financial return whether in the form of profit, rent, interest, royalties or capital gains.
Colonial Nigeria was the area of West Africa that later evolved into modern-day Nigeria, during the time of British rule in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The Colony of Natal was a British colony in south-eastern Africa.
A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations and shares the same person, currently Queen Elizabeth II, as its head of state and reigning constitutional monarch, but retains a Crown legally distinct from the other realms.
An independence referendum was held in the Comoros on 22 December 1974.
The Congo Crisis (Crise congolaise) was a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Republic of the Congo (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo) between 1960 and 1965.
The Convention People's Party (CPP) (Apam Nkorɔfo Kuw) is a socialist political party in Ghana based on the ideas of the first President of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah.
The Emirate of Cyrenaica, or "Principality of Cyrenaica", came into existence when Sayyid Idris unilaterally proclaimed Cyrenaica an independent Senussi emirate on 1 March 1949, backed by the United Kingdom.
David Dacko (24 March 1930 – 20 November 2003) was the 1st President of the Central African Republic from 14 August 1960 to 1 January 1966, and 3rd President from 21 September 1979 to 1 September 1981.
Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara, GCMG (born 16 May 1924) is a Gambian politician who was a significant national leader of The Gambia, serving as its Prime Minister from 1962 to 1970, and then as its first President from 1970 to 1994.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.
Ghana was a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations between 6 March 1957 and 1 July 1960, before it became the Republic of Ghana.
The East African Campaign (also known as the Abyssinian Campaign) was fought in East Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly from the British Empire, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI), between June 1940 and November 1941.
The earliest humans were hunter gatherers who were living in small, family groupings.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
The Egyptian revolution of 1919 was a countrywide revolution against the British occupation of Egypt and Sudan.
The Egyptian coup d'etat of 1952 (ثورة 23 يوليو 1952), also known as the July 23 revolution, began on July 23, 1952, by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Mohammed Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser.
El-Ouali Mustapha Sayed (also known as El Uali, El-Wali, Luali or Lulei; الوالي مصطفى السيد; b. 1948 – 9 June 1976) was a Sahrawi nationalist leader, co-founder and second Secretary-General of the Polisario Front.
The Eritrean War of Independence was a conflict fought between the Ethiopian government and Eritrean separatists, both before and during the Ethiopian Civil War.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
External loan (or foreign debt) is the total debt a country owes to foreign creditors, complemented by internal debt owed to domestic lenders.
Félix Houphouët-Boigny (18 October 1905 – 7 December 1993), affectionately called Papa Houphouët or Le Vieux (The Old One), was the first President of Ivory Coast (1960 to 1993), serving for more than three decades until his death.
The Military Territory of Fezzan-Ghadames was a territory in the southern part of the former Italian colony of Libya controlled by the French from 1943 until Libyan independence in 1951.
François Tombalbaye (فرنسوا تومبالباي; June 15, 1918 – April 13, 1975), also called N'Garta Tombalbaye from 1973 until his death, was a teacher and a trade union activist who served as the first president of Chad.
Francisco Macías Nguema (born Mez-m Ngueme; Africanised to Masie Nguema Biyogo Ñegue Ndong) (1 January 1924 – 29 September 1979) was the first President of Equatorial Guinea, from 1968 until his overthrow and subsequent execution in 1979.
The Free Zone or Liberated Territories is a term used by the Polisario Front to describe the part of Western Sahara that lies to the east of the Moroccan Berm (the Moroccan border wall) and west and north of the borders with Algeria and Mauritania, respectively.
French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.
French Cameroons (Cameroun), or Cameroun, was a League of Nations Mandate territory in Central Africa.
The Colony of Madagascar and Dependencies (Colonie de Madagascar et dépendances) was a French colony off the coast of Southeast Africa between 1897 and 1958.
The French protectorate in Morocco (Protectorat français au Maroc; حماية فرنسا في المغرب Ḥimāyat Faransā fi-l-Maḡrib) was established by the Treaty of Fez.
The French protectorate of Tunisia (Protectorat français de Tunisie; الحماية الفرنسية في تونس) was established in 1881, during the French colonial Empire era, and lasted until Tunisian independence in 1956.
The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas (Territoire français des Afars et des Issas) was the name given to present-day Djibouti between 1967 and 1977, while it was still an overseas territory of France.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
French Togoland (French: Togo français) was a French colonial League of Nations mandate from 1916 to 1960 in French West Africa.
French West Africa (Afrique occidentale française, AOF) was a federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Mauritania, Senegal, French Sudan (now Mali), French Guinea, Ivory Coast, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Dahomey (now Benin) and Niger.
Fuad I (فؤاد الأول Fu’ād al-Awwal, I.; 26 March 1868 – 28 April 1936) was the Sultan and later King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur.
Abbé Fulbert Youlou (29 June,In African Powder Keg: Revolt and Dissent in Six Emergent Nations, author Ronald Matthews lists Youlou's date of birth as 9 June 1917. This date is also listed in Annuaire parlementaire des États d'Afrique noire, Députés et conseillers économiques des républiques d'expression française (1962).; 17 JuneIn Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African-American Experience, Henry Louis Gates, Jr. and K. Anthony Appiah list Youlou's date of birth as 17 June 1917. or 19 July 1917The Encyclopedia of World Biography by Gale Research Company lists Youlou's date of birth as 19 July 1917. – 6 May 1972) was a laicized Brazzaville-Congolese Roman Catholic priest, nationalist leader and politician, who became the first President of Congo-Brazzaville on its independence.
Gamal Abdel Nasser Hussein (جمال عبد الناصر حسين,; 15 January 1918 – 28 September 1970) was the second President of Egypt, serving from 1956 until his death in 1970.
The Gambia Colony and Protectorate was the British colonial administration of the Gambia from 1821 to 1965, part of the British Empire in the New Imperialism era.
A referendum on becoming a republic was held in the Gambia in April 1970.
The is a two-phase project undertaken by UNESCO from 1964 to the present.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
A constitutional referendum was held in Ghana on 27 April 1960.
The Gold Coast was a British colony on the Gulf of Guinea in west Africa from 1867 to its independence as the nation of Ghana in 1957.
Elections for the Legislative Assembly were held in the Gold Coast (soon to become Ghana) on 17 July 1956.
Grégoire Kayibanda (May 1, 1924December 15, 1976) was the first elected and second President of Rwanda.
The Guinea-Bissau War of Independence was an armed independence conflict that took place in Portuguese Guinea between 1963 and 1974.
A constitutional referendum was held in Guinea on 28 September 1958 as part of a wider referendum across the French Union (and France itself) on whether to adopt the new French Constitution; if accepted, colonies would become part of the new French Community; if rejected, the territory would be granted independence.
Habib Ben Ali Bourguiba (الحبيب بورقيبة al-Ḥabīb Būrqībah; 3 August 1903 – 6 April 2000) was a Tunisian lawyer, nationalist leader and statesman who served as the country's leader from independence in 1956 to 1987.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
Hamani Diori (6 June 1916 – 23 April 1989) was the first President of the Republic of Niger.
Hassan Gouled Aptidon (Xasan Guuleed Abtidoon. حسن جوليد أبتيدون) (October 15, 1916 – November 21, 2006) was the first President of Djibouti from 1977 to 1999.
Hastings Kamuzu Banda (15 February 1898 – 25 November 1997) was the leader of Malawi from 1961 to 1994 (for the first three years of his rule, until it achieved independence in 1964, Malawi was the British protectorate of Nyasaland).
The Kingdom of Portugal under the House of Braganza was a constitutional monarchy from the end of the Liberal Civil War in 1834 to the Republican Revolution of 1910.
Coutoucou Hubert Maga (August 10, 1916 – May 8, 2000) was a politician from Dahomey (now known as Benin).
Ian Douglas Smith (8 April 1919 – 20 November 2007) was a politician, farmer and fighter pilot who served as Prime Minister of Rhodesia (or Southern Rhodesia; today Zimbabwe) from 1964 to 1979.
Idris, GBE (إدريس الأول; El Sayyid Prince Muhammad Idris bin Muhammad al-Mahdi as-Senussi; 12 March 1889 – 25 May 1983), was a Libyan political and religious leader who served as the Emir of Cyrenaica and then as the King of Libya from 1951 to 1969.
Ifni was a Spanish province on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, south of Agadir and across from the Canary Islands.
The Ifni War, sometimes called the Forgotten War in Spain (la Guerra Olvidada), was a series of armed incursions into Spanish West Africa by Moroccan insurgents that began in October 1957 and culminated with the abortive siege of Sidi Ifni.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
"Indépendance Cha Cha" (French; "Independence cha cha") was a song performed by Joseph Kabasele (best known by his stage name Le Grand Kallé) from the group L'African Jazz in the popular African Rumba style.
The Independence Day of Botswana, commonly called Boipuso, is a national holiday observed in Botswana on September 30 of every year.
Isaias Afwerki (ኢሳይያስ ኣፍወርቂ; born 2 February 1946) is the President of Eritrea, a position he has held since its independence in 1993.
Ismail al-Azhari (Saiyid) (October 20, 1900 – August 26, 1969) (إسماعيل الأزهري) was a Sudanese nationalist and political figure.
Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa.
Italian Eritrea was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in the territory of present-day Eritrea.
Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Sir James Richard Marie Mancham KBE (11 August 1939 – 8 January 2017) was a Seychellois politician who founded the Seychelles Democratic Party and was the first President of Seychelles from 1976 to 1977.
Jamhuri Day is a national holiday in Kenya, celebrated on 12 December each year.
Sayyid Jamshid bin Abdullah Al Said GCMG, (جمشيد بن عبد الله; born 16 September 1929 in Unguja) was the last reigning Sultan of Zanzibar.
Jomo Kenyatta (– 22 August 1978) was a Kenyan anti-colonial activist and politician who governed Kenya as its Prime Minister from 1963 to 1964 and then as its first President from 1964 to his death in 1978.
Joseph Jenkins Roberts (March 15, 1809 – February 24, 1876) was the first (1848–1856) and seventh (1872–1876) President of Liberia.
Joseph Kasa-Vubu, alternatively Joseph Kasavubu, (c. 1915 – 24 March 1969) was the first President of the Republic of the Congo (1960–65), today the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Julius Kambarage Nyerere (13 April 1922 – 14 October 1999) was a Tanzanian anti-colonial activist, politician, and political theorist.
Kenneth David Buchizya Kaunda (born 28 April 1924), also known as KK, is a Zambian former politician who served as the first President of Zambia from 1964 to 1991.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
The Colony and Protectorate of Kenya was part of the British Empire in Africa from 1920 until 1963.
The Khoisan languages (also Khoesan or Khoesaan) are a group of African languages originally classified together by Joseph Greenberg.
The Kingdom of Burundi (Royaume du Burundi) or Kingdom of Urundi (Royaume d'Urundi) was a polity ruled by a traditional monarch in modern-day Republic of Burundi in the Great Lakes region of East Africa.
The Kingdom of Egypt (المملكة المصرية; المملكه المصريه, "the Egyptian Kingdom") was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Libya (المملكة الليبية; Libyan Kingdom; Regno di Libia), originally called the United Kingdom of Libya, came into existence upon independence on 24 December 1951 and lasted until a coup d'état led by Muammar Gaddafi on 1 September 1969 overthrew King Idris and established the Libyan Arab Republic.
The Kingdom of Tunisia (المملكة التونسية) was a short-lived kingdom established on 20 March 1956 after the Tunisian independence and lasted until the declaration of the republic on 25 July 1957.
The Kordofanian languages are a geographic grouping of five language groups spoken in the Nuba Mountains of the Kurdufan, Sudan: Talodi–Heiban languages, Lafofa languages, Rashad languages, Katla languages and Kadu languages.
Kwame Nkrumah PC (21 September 1909 – 27 April 1972) was a Ghanaian politician and revolutionary.
The Lancaster House Agreement, signed on the 21st December 1979, allowed for the creation and recognition of the Republic of Zimbabwe, replacing the unrecognised state of Rhodesia created by Ian Smith's Unilateral Declaration of Independence in 1965.
Gabriel Léon M'ba (9 February 1902 – 28 November 1967) was the first Prime Minister (1959–1961) and President (1961–1967) of Gabon.
Léopold Sédar Senghor (9 October 1906 – 20 December 2001) was a Senegalese poet, politician, and cultural theorist who for two decades served as the first president of Senegal (1960–80).
Joseph Leabua Jonathan (30 October 1914 – 5 April 1987) was the second Prime Minister of Lesotho.
A League of Nations mandate was a legal status for certain territories transferred from the control of one country to another following World War I, or the legal instruments that contained the internationally agreed-upon terms for administering the territory on behalf of the League of Nations.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
The Liberian Declaration of Independence is a document adopted by the Liberian Constitutional Convention on July 16, 1847 to announce that the Commonwealth of Liberia, a colony founded and controlled by the private American Colonization Society, was now an independent state known as the Republic of Liberia.
Louis Botha (27 September 1862 – 27 August 1919) was a South African politician who was the first Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa—the forerunner of the modern South African state.
Luís Severino de Almeida Cabral (11 April 1931 – 30 May 2009) was the first President of Guinea-Bissau.
The Madrid Accords, also called Madrid Agreement or Madrid Pact, was a treaty between Spain, Morocco, and Mauritania to end the Spanish presence in the territory of Spanish Sahara, which was until the Madrid Accords' inception a Spanish province and former colony.
The Malagasy Republic (Repoblika Malagasy, République malgache) was a state situated in Southeast Africa.
The Malagasy Uprising (Insurrection malgache) was a Malagasy nationalist rebellion against French colonial rule in Madagascar, lasting from March 1947 to December 1948.
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali), is a landlocked country in West Africa, a region geologically identified with the West African Craton.
The Mali Federation (Fédération du Mali) was a federation in West Africa linking the French colonies of Senegal and the Sudanese Republic (or French Sudan) for a period of only two months in 1960.
The Manhasset negotiations (also known as Manhasset I, II, III and IV) were a series of talks that took place in four rounds in 2007-2008 at Manhasset, New York between the Moroccan government and the representatives of the Saharawi liberation movement, the Polisario Front to resolve the Western Sahara conflict.
Manuel Pinto da Costa (born 5 August 1937) is a Santoméan economist and politician who served as the first President of São Tomé and Príncipe from 1975 to 1991.
The Mau Mau Uprising (1952–1964), also known as the Mau Mau Rebellion, the Kenya Emergency, and the Mau Mau Revolt, was a war in the British Kenya Colony (1920–63).
Maurice Yaméogo (31 December 1921 – 15 September 1993) was the first President of the Republic of Upper Volta, now called Burkina Faso, from 1959 until 1966.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies.
Sir Milton Augustus Strieby Margai (7 December 1895 – 28 April 1964) was a Sierra Leonean doctor and politician who served as the country's head of government from 1954 until his death.
Apollo Milton Obote (28 December 1925 – 10 October 2005) was a Ugandan political leader who led Uganda to independence in 1962 from British colonial administration.
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.
Modibo Keïta (4 June 1915 – 16 May 1977) was the first President of Mali (1960–1968) and the Prime Minister of the Mali Federation.
Mohamed Abdelaziz (محمد عبد العزيز; 17 August 1946 – 31 May 2016) was the 3rd Secretary General of the Polisario Front, from 1976, and the 1st President of the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic from 1982, In: Emmanuel Kwaku Akyeampong, Henry Louis Gates (eds.) Dictionary of African Biography, Volume 6, Oxford University Press, 2012.
Mohamed Naguib (محمد نجيب,; 19 February 1901 – 28 August 1984) was the first President of Egypt, serving from the declaration of the Republic on 18 June 1953 to 14 November 1954.
Mohammed V (10 August 1909 – 26 February 1961) (محمد الخامس) was Sultan of Morocco from 1927 to 1953; he was recognized as Sultan again upon his return from exile in 1955, and as King from 1957 to 1961.
Moktar Ould Daddah (مختار ولد داداه Mukhtār Wald Dāddāh; December 25, 1924 – October 14, 2003) was the President of Mauritania from 1960, when his country gained its independence from France, to 1978, when he was deposed in a military coup d'etat.
The Moroccan Western Sahara Wall is an approximately long structure, mostly a sand wall (or "berm"), running through Western Sahara and the southwestern portion of Morocco.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Moshoeshoe II (May 2, 1938 – January 15, 1996), previously known as Constantine Bereng Seeiso, was the paramount chief of Lesotho, succeeding paramount chief Seeiso from 1960 until the country gained full independence from Britain in 1966.
The Mozambican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the guerrilla forces of the Mozambique Liberation Front or FRELIMO (Frente de Libertação de Moçambique), and Portugal.
Muhammad VIII al-Amin known as Lamine Bey (الأمين باي بن محمد الحبيب; 4 September 1881 – 30 September 1962), was the last Bey of Tunisia (15 May 1943 – 20 March 1956),Werner Ruf, Introduction à l'Afrique du Nord contemporaine, éd.
Mwambutsa IV Bangiricenge (6 May 1912 – 26 March 1977) was king (mwami) of Burundi who ruled between 1915 and 1966.
The National Liberation Front (جبهة التحرير الوطني Jabhatu l-Taḥrīru l-Waṭanī; Front de libération nationale, FLN) is a socialist political party in Algeria.
The Natives Land Act, 1913 (subsequently renamed Bantu Land Act, 1913 and Black Land Act, 1913; Act No. 27 of 1913) was an Act of the Parliament of South Africa that was aimed at regulating the acquisition of land.
The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993 and through unilateral steps by the de Klerk government.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Chief Benjamin Nnamdi Azikiwe, PC, PhD (16 November 1904 – 11 May 1996), usually referred to as Nnamdi Azikiwe or Zik, was a Nigerian statesman who served as the first President of Nigeria from 1963 to 1966, holding the presidency throughout the Nigerian First Republic.
The Orange River Colony was the British colony created after Britain first occupied (1900) and then annexed (1902) the independent Orange Free State in the Second Boer War.
The Pan-African Congress — following on from the first Pan-African Conference of 1900 in London — was a series of seven meetings, held in 1919 in Paris (1st Pan-African Congress), 1921 in London (2nd Pan-African Congress), 1923 in London (3rd Pan-African Congress), 1927 New York City (4th Pan-African Congress), 1945 Manchester (5th Pan-African Congress), 1974 Dar es Salaam (6th Pan-African Congress), 1994 Kampala (7th Pan-African Congress), and 2014 Accra that were intended to address the issues facing Africa as a result of European colonization of most of the continent.
The Paris Peace Treaties (Traité de Paris) was signed on 10 February 1947, as the outcome of the Paris Peace Conference, held from 29 July to 15 October 1946.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Patrice Émery Lumumba (alternatively styled Patrice Hemery Lumumba; 2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was a Congolese politician and independence leader who served as the first Prime Minister of the independent Democratic Republic of the Congo (then Republic of the Congo) from June until September 1960.
Pedro de Verona Rodrigues Pires (born 29 April 1934) was the President of Cape Verde from March 2001 to September 2011.
The People's Republic of Angola (Portuguese: República Popular de Angola) covers the period of Angolan history as a self-declared socialist state established in 1975 after it was granted independence from Portugal, akin to the situation in Mozambique.
The People's Republic of Mozambique (Portuguese: República Popular de Moçambique) was a self-declared communist state that lasted from 25 June 1975 to 1 December 1990, when the country became the present-day Republic of Mozambique.
Philibert Tsiranana (18 October 1912 – 16 April 1978) was a Malagasy politician and leader, who served as the first President of Madagascar from 1959 to 1972.
Portuguese Angola refers to Angola during the historic period when it was a territory under Portuguese rule in southwestern Africa.
Cape Verde was a colony of the Portuguese Empire from the initial settlement of the Cape Verde Islands in 1462 until the independence of Cape Verde in 1975.
Portuguese Guinea (Guiné), called the Overseas Province of Guinea from 1951, was a West African colony of Portugal from the late 15th century until 10 September 1974, when it gained independence as Guinea-Bissau.
Portuguese Mozambique (Moçambique) or Portuguese East Africa (África Oriental Portuguesa) are the common terms by which Mozambique is designated when referring to the historic period when it was a Portuguese overseas territory.
São Tomé and Príncipe islands were a colony of the Portuguese Empire from its discovery in 1470 until 1975, when independence was granted by Portugal.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom is the head of the United Kingdom government.
The Republic of Dahomey (République du Dahomey) was established on December 11, 1958, as a self-governing colony within the French Community.
The Republic of Maryland (also known variously as the Independent State of Maryland, Maryland-in-Africa, and Maryland in Liberia) was a small country that existed from 1834 to 1857, when it was merged into what is now Liberia.
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo) was a sovereign state in Central Africa that was created with the independence of the Belgian Congo in 1960.
The Republic of Upper Volta (République de Haute-Volta), now Burkina Faso, was a landlocked West African country established on December 11, 1958, as a self-governing colony within the French Community.
The Restoration (Restauración), or Bourbon Restoration (Restauración borbónica), is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez-Campos ended the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.
Revolution Day refers to the public holiday in Egypt on 23 July, the anniversary of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 which led to the deceleration of the modern republic of Egypt, ending the period of the Kingdom of Egypt.
The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) was a statement adopted by the Cabinet of Rhodesia on 11 November 1965, announcing that Rhodesia, a British territory in southern Africa that had governed itself since 1923, now regarded itself as an independent sovereign state.
The Rhodesian Bush War—also known as the Second Chimurenga or the Zimbabwe War of Liberation—was a civil war that took place from July 1964 to December 1979 in the unrecognised country of Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe-Rhodesia).
Robert Gabriel Mugabe (born 21 February 1924) is a former Zimbabwean politician and revolutionary who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017.
Ruanda-Urundi (in Dutch also Roeanda-Oeroendi) was a territory in the African Great Lakes region, once part of German East Africa, which was ruled by Belgium between 1916 and 1962.
The Rwandan Revolution, also known as the Social Revolution or Wind of Destruction (muyaga), was a period of ethnic violence in Rwanda from 1959 to 1961 between the Hutu and the Tutsi, two of the three ethnic groups in Rwanda.
The Sahrawi Republic, officially the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR; also romanized with Saharawi; República Árabe Saharaui Democrática; الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية), is a partially recognized state that controls a thin strip of area in the Western Sahara region and claims sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony and later province.
Samora Moisés Machel (29 September 1933 – 19 October 1986) was a Mozambican military commander, politician and revolutionary.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Sir Seretse Goitsebeng Maphiri Khama, GCB, KBE (1 July 1921 – 13 July 1980) was the first President of Botswana, in office from 1966 to 1980.
The Sierra Leone Colony and Protectorate was the British colonial administration in Sierra Leone from 1808 to 1961, part of the British Empire in the New Imperialism era.
Sobhuza II, (also known as Nkhotfotjeni, Mona) (22 July 1899 – 21 August 1982) was the Paramount Chief and later King of Swaziland for 82 years and 254 days, the longest verifiable reign of any monarch in recorded history.
The Somali Republic (Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliyeed, Repubblica Somala, جمهورية الصومال) was the official name of Somalia after independence on July 1, 1960, following the unification of the Trust Territory of Somaliland (the former Italian Somaliland) and the State of Somaliland (the former British Somaliland).
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
The South Africa Act 1909 was an Act of the British Parliament which created the Union of South Africa from the British colonies of the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, Orange River Colony, and Transvaal.
A referendum on becoming a republic was held in South Africa on 5 October 1960.
The Southern Provinces or Moroccan Sahara are the terms used by the Moroccan government for Western Sahara.
Spanish Guinea (Spanish: Guinea Española) was a set of insular and continental territories controlled by Spain since 1778 in the Gulf of Guinea and on the Bight of Bonny, in Central Africa.
The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.
Spanish Sahara (Sahara Español; الصحراء الإسبانية As-Sahrā'a Al-Isbānīyah), officially the Overseas Province of the Spanish Sahara, was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled as a territory by Spain between 1884 and 1975.
Spanish West Africa is a former possession in the western Sahara Desert that Spain ruled after giving much of its former northwestern African possessions to Morocco.
The State of Somaliland was a short-lived independent state in the territory of present-day northwestern Somalia, which is also known as the self-declared Republic of Somaliland.
States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control is a book on African state-building by Jeffrey Herbst, former Professor of Politics and International Affairs at Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs.
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and modified versions of it are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.
Stephen Allen Benson (May 21, 1816 – January 24, 1865) served as the 2nd President of Liberia from 1856 to 1864.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The Suez Crisis, or the Second Arab–Israeli War, also named the Tripartite Aggression (in the Arab world) and Operation Kadesh or Sinai War (in Israel),Also named: Suez Canal Crisis, Suez War, Suez–Sinai war, Suez Campaign, Sinai Campaign, Operation Musketeer (أزمة السويس /‎ العدوان الثلاثي, "Suez Crisis"/ "the Tripartite Aggression"; Crise du canal de Suez; מבצע קדש "Operation Kadesh", or מלחמת סיני, "Sinai War") was an invasion of Egypt in late 1956 by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France.
The Sultanate of Egypt is the name of the short-lived protectorate that the United Kingdom imposed over Egypt between 1914 and 1922.
The Sultanate of Zanzibar (Usultani wa Zanzibar, translit), also known as the Zanzibar Sultanate, comprised the territories over which the Sultan of Zanzibar is the sovereign.
Sylvanus Epiphanio Olympio (6 September 1902 – 13 January 1963) was a Togolese politician who served as Prime Minister, and then President, of Togo from 1958 until his assassination in 1963.
Tanganyika was a sovereign state, comprising the mainland part of present-day Tanzania, that existed from 1961 until 1964.
Tanganyika was a territory administered by the United Kingdom (UK) from 1916 until 1961.
The Tangier International Zone (Minṭaqat Ṭanja ad-Dawliyya,, Zona Internacional de Tánger) was a international zone centered on the city of Tangier, Morocco, then under French and Spanish protectorate, under the joint administration of France, Spain, and the United Kingdom (later Portugal, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States), that existed from 1924 until its reintegration into independent Morocco in 1956.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
The Transvaal Colony was the name used to refer to the Transvaal region during the period of direct British rule and military occupation between the end of the Anglo-Boer War in 1902 when the South African Republic was dissolved, and the establishment of the Union of South Africa in 1910.
The Trust Territory of Somaliland (officially, the "Trust Territory of Somaliland under Italian administration") was a United Nations Trust Territory situated in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
The process of Tunisian Independence occurred from 1952 to 1956 between France and a separatist movement led by Habib Bourguiba.
The British Protectorate of Uganda was a protectorate of the British Empire from 1894 to 1962.
The Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence was issued by the government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland on 28 February 1922.
The Union of South Africa (Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Unie van Suid-Afrika) is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa.
The Union of the Peoples of Cameroon (- UPC) is a political party in Cameroon.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Nations list of Non-Self-Governing Territories is a list of places that the United Nations General Assembly deems to be "non-self-governing" and subject to the decolonization process.
The United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (بعثة الأمم المتحدة لتنظيم استفتاء في الصحراء الغربية; Mission des Nations Unies pour l'Organisation d'un Référendum au Sahara Occidental; Misión de las Naciones Unidas para la Organización de un Referéndum en el Sáhara Occidental; MINURSO) is the United Nations peacekeeping mission in Western Sahara, established in 1991 under United Nations Security Council Resolution 690 as part of the Settlement Plan, which had paved way for a cease-fire in the conflict between Morocco and the Polisario Front (representing the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic) over the contested territory of Western Sahara (formerly Spanish Sahara).
United Nations trust territories were the successors of the remaining League of Nations mandates, and came into being when the League of Nations ceased to exist in 1946.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
Sir Veerasamy Ringadoo, GCMG, GCSK, QC, (born வீரசாமி ரிங்காடு; 20 October 1920 – 9 September 2000) was the Governor-General of Mauritius from 17 January 1986 to 12 March 1992, when it became a republic.
Wars of national liberation or national liberation revolutions are conflicts fought by nations to gain independence.
Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
The Western Sahara War (حرب الصحراء الغربية, Guerre du Sahara occidental, Guerra del Sahara Occidental) was an armed struggle between the Sahrawi indigenous Polisario Front and Morocco between 1975 and 1991, being the most significant phase of the Western Sahara conflict.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
The world economy or global economy is the economy of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account (money).
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
is referred to as the Year of Africa because of a series of events that took place during the year—mainly the independence of seventeen African nations—that highlighted the growing Pan-African sentiments in the continent.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
The Zanzibar Revolution occurred in 1964 and led to the overthrow of the Sultan of Zanzibar and his mainly Arab government by local African revolutionaries.
Zoning is the process of dividing land in a municipality into zones (e.g. residential, industrial) in which certain land uses are permitted or prohibited.