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Defensive wall

Index Defensive wall

A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors. [1]

193 relations: Afghanistan, Alsace, Anastasian Wall, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Ark of Bukhara, Association football, Assyria, Athens, Atlantic Wall, Augsburg, Aurelian Walls, Ávila, Spain, Babylon, Barbed wire, Barricade, Bastion, Bastion fort, Beijing, Beijing Legation Quarter, Belfast, Berlin Wall, Border barrier, Brașov, Bran Castle, Buhen, Burghausen, Altötting, Campeche City, Cannon, Carcassonne, Cartagena, Colombia, Castle, Celts, Chania, China, Chinese city wall, Citadel, City, City gate, City of San Marino, City-state, Colombia, Constantinople, Conwy, Crete, Croatia, Cyclopean masonry, Cyprus, Derawar Fort, Derbent, ..., Derry, Dinkelsbühl, Ditch (fortification), East Germany, Embrasure, Enclave and exclave, Estonia, Famagusta, Forbidden City, Fortification, Fortified tower, France, Franconia, Free imperial city, Galicia (Spain), Gate tower, Gela, Georgia (country), Germany, Glacis, Gonio Fortress, Great Wall of China, Hadrian's Wall, Hattusa, Heraklion, Hillfort, Hirschhorn (Neckar), History of German settlement in Central and Eastern Europe, Indus River, Indus Valley Civilisation, Intramuros, Ishtar Gate, Israel, Japan, Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98), Jericho, Königsberg, Korea, Kot Diji, Letzi, Lincoln, England, Lines of Communication (London), List of cities with defensive walls, List of town walls in England and Wales, List of walls, London, Long Walls, Ludwig I of Bavaria, Lugo, Manila, Marc-André Fleury, Masonry, Medieval fortification, Merlon, Mesopotamia, Metonymy, Metz, Mexico–United States barrier, Mexico–United States border, Middle Ages, Ming dynasty, Montenegro, Morocco, Mortar (masonry), Mural crown, Murus Dacicus, Murus Gallicus, Mycenae, Mycenaean Greece, Narikala, Nördlingen, Nebuchadnezzar II, Neuf-Brisach, New York City, Newport Arch, Nicosia, Northern Ireland, Nuremberg, Ohrid, Oppidum, Pakistan, Pappenheim, Parapet, Peace lines, Philippines, Pingyao, Piraeus, Porta Nigra, Proto-city, Provins, Qin dynasty, Rammed earth, Rampart (fortification), Ramparts of Quebec City, Republic of Macedonia, Ring road, Ringwork, Roman walls of Lugo, Rome, Rothenburg ob der Tauber, Russia–Ukraine barrier, San Marino, Sasanian Empire, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Shang dynasty, Siege, Siege of Ulsan, Slovakia, Spain, Sparta, Stone wall, Sumer, Svätý Jur, Talus (fortification), Tang dynasty, Taroudant, Tbilisi, Tel Megiddo, Topography, Tower, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Trier, Ulcinj Castle, UNESCO, United Kingdom, United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus, Upper Bavaria, Uruk, Vorstadt, Wall, Wall of Jericho, Wall Street, Walls of Benin, Walls of Constantinople, Walls of Dubrovnik, Walls of Tallinn, Warring States period, West Bank, West Berlin, World Heritage site, Yongle Emperor, York, Zons. Expand index (143 more) »


Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Alsace (Alsatian: ’s Elsass; German: Elsass; Alsatia) is a cultural and historical region in eastern France, on the west bank of the upper Rhine next to Germany and Switzerland.

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Anastasian Wall

The Anastasian Wall (Greek: Ἀναστάσειον Τεῖχος, Anastasius Suru) or the Long Walls of Thrace (Greek: Μακρὰ Τείχη τῆς Θράκης, Turkish: Uzun Duvar) is an ancient stone and turf fortification located west of Istanbul, Turkey built by the Byzantines during the late 5th century.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Ark of Bukhara

The Ark of Bukhara is a massive fortress located in the city of Bukhara, Uzbekistan that was initially built and occupied around the 5th century AD.

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Association football

Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.

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Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Atlantic Wall

The Atlantic Wall (Atlantikwall) was an extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia as a defence against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from the United Kingdom during World War II.

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Augsburg (Augschburg) is a city in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany.

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Aurelian Walls

The Aurelian Walls (Mura aureliane) are a line of city walls built between 271 AD and 275 AD in Rome, Italy, during the reign of the Roman Emperors Aurelian and Probus.

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Ávila, Spain

Ávila (Latin: Abula) is a Spanish town located in the autonomous community of Castile and León, and is the capital of the Province of Ávila.

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Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.

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Barbed wire

Barbed wire, also known as barb wire, less often as bob wire or, in the southeastern United States, bobbed wire, is a type of steel fencing wire constructed with sharp edges or points arranged at intervals along the strand(s).

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Barricade, from the French barrique (barrel), is any object or structure that creates a barrier or obstacle to control, block passage or force the flow of traffic in the desired direction.

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A bastion or bulwark is a structure projecting outward from the curtain wall of a fortification, most commonly angular in shape and positioned at the corners.

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Bastion fort

A bastion fort, a type of trace Italienne (literally, Italian outline), is a fortification in a style that evolved during the early modern period of gunpowder when the cannon came to dominate the battlefield.

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Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

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Beijing Legation Quarter

The Beijing Legation Quarter was the area in Beijing, China where a number of foreign legations were located between 1861 and 1959.

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Belfast (is the capital city of Northern Ireland, located on the banks of the River Lagan on the east coast of Ireland.

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Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a guarded concrete barrier that physically and ideologically divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.

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Border barrier

A border barrier is a separation barrier that runs along an international border.

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Brașov (Corona, Kronstadt, Transylvanian Saxon: Kruhnen, Brassó) is a city in Romania and the administrative centre of Brașov County.

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Bran Castle

Bran Castle (Castelul Bran; Törzburg; Törcsvár), situated near Bran and in the immediate vicinity of Brașov, is a national monument and landmark in Romania.

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Buhen was an ancient Egyptian settlement situated on the West bank of the Nile below (to the North of) the Second Cataract in what is now Northern State, Sudan.

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Burghausen, Altötting

Burghausen (Central Bavarian: Burghausn) is the largest town in the Altötting district of Upper Bavaria in Germany.

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Campeche City

San Francisco de Campeche (Ahk'ìin Pech) is a city in Campeche Municipality in the state of Campeche—located at, on the shore of the Bay of Campeche of the Gulf of Mexico—and its municipal seat also serves as the state's capital city.

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A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.

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Carcassonne (Carcaso) is a French fortified city in the department of Aude, in the region of Occitanie.

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Cartagena, Colombia

The city of Cartagena, known in the colonial era as Cartagena de Indias (Cartagena de Indias), is a major port founded in 1533, located on the northern coast of Colombia in the Caribbean Coast Region.

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A castle (from castellum) is a type of fortified structure built during the Middle Ages by predominantly the nobility or royalty and by military orders.

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The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.

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Chania (Χανιά,, Venetian: Canea, Ottoman Turkish: Hanya) is the second largest city of Crete and the capital of the Chania regional unit.

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China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Chinese city wall

Chinese city walls refer to defensive systems used to protect towns and cities in China in pre-modern times.

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A citadel is the core fortified area of a town or city.

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A city is a large human settlement.

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City gate

A city gate is a gate which is, or was, set within a city wall.

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City of San Marino

The City of San Marino (Italian: Città di San Marino), also known simply as San Marino or locally as Città, is the capital city of the Republic of San Marino, Southern Europe.

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A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.

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Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.

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Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.

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Conwy ((south), (north); traditionally known in English as Conway) is a walled market town and community in Conwy County Borough on the north coast of Wales.

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Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.

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Cyclopean masonry

Cyclopean masonry is a type of stonework found in Mycenaean architecture, built with massive limestone boulders, roughly fitted together with minimal clearance between adjacent stones and no use of mortar.

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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.

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Derawar Fort

Derawar Fort (قِلعہ دراوڑ), is a large square fortress in Yazman Tehsil, Punjab, Pakistan.

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Derbent (Дербе́нт; دربند; Dərbənd; Кьвевар; Дербенд), formerly romanized as Derbend, is a city in the Republic of Dagestan, Russia, located on the Caspian Sea, north of the Azerbaijani border.

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Derry, officially Londonderry, is the second-largest city in Northern Ireland and the fourth-largest city on the island of Ireland.

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Dinkelsbühl is a historic town in Central Franconia, a region of Germany that is now part of the state of Bavaria, in southern Germany.

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Ditch (fortification)

A ditch in military engineering is an obstacle, designed to slow down or break up an attacking force, while a trench is intended to provide cover to the defenders.

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East Germany

East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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In military architecture, an embrasure is the opening in a crenellation or battlement between the two raised solid portions or merlons, sometimes called a crenel or crenelle.

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Enclave and exclave

An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.

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Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.

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Famagusta (Αμμόχωστος; Mağusa, or Gazimağusa) is a city on the east coast of Cyprus.

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Forbidden City

The Forbidden City is a palace complex in central Beijing, China.

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A fortification is a military construction or building designed for the defense of territories in warfare; and is also used to solidify rule in a region during peacetime.

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Fortified tower

A fortified tower (also defensive tower or castle tower or, in context, just tower) is one of the defensive structures used in fortifications, such as castles, along with curtain walls.

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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.

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Franconia (Franken, also called Frankenland) is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the East Franconian dialect group, locally referred to as fränkisch, is spoken.

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Free imperial city

In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.

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Galicia (Spain)

Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.

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Gate tower

A gate tower (Torturm) is a tower built over or next to a major gateway.

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Gela (Γέλα), is a city and comune in the Autonomous Region of Sicily, the largest for area and population in the island's southern coast.

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Georgia (country)

Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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A glacis in military engineering is an artificial slope as part of a medieval castle or in early modern fortresses.

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Gonio Fortress

Gonio fortress (previously called Apsaros, or Apsaruntos), is a Roman fortification in Adjara, Georgia, on the Black Sea, 15 km south of Batumi, at the mouth of the Chorokhi river.

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Great Wall of China

The Great Wall of China is a series of fortifications made of stone, brick, tamped earth, wood, and other materials, generally built along an east-to-west line across the historical northern borders of China to protect the Chinese states and empires against the raids and invasions of the various nomadic groups of the Eurasian Steppe with an eye to expansion.

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Hadrian's Wall

Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian.

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Hattusa (also Ḫattuša or Hattusas; Hittite: URUḪa-at-tu-ša) was the capital of the Hittite Empire in the late Bronze Age.

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Heraklion (Ηράκλειο, Irákleio) is the largest city and the administrative capital of the island of Crete.

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A hillfort is a type of earthworks used as a fortified refuge or defended settlement, located to exploit a rise in elevation for defensive advantage.

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Hirschhorn (Neckar)

Hirschhorn (Neckar) is a small town in the Bergstraße district of Hesse, Germany, and is known as "The Pearl of the Neckar valley”.

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History of German settlement in Central and Eastern Europe

The presence of German-speaking populations in Central and Eastern Europe is rooted in centuries of history, with the settling in northeastern Europe of Germanic peoples predating even the founding of the Roman Empire.

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Indus River

The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.

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Indus Valley Civilisation

The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.

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Intramuros (Latin for "within the walls") is the historic walled area within the modern city of Manila, the capital of the Philippines.

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Ishtar Gate

The Ishtar Gate (بوابة عشتار) was the eighth gate to the inner city of Babylon.

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Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.

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Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.

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Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98)

The Japanese invasions of Korea comprised two separate yet linked operations: an initial invasion in 1592, a brief truce in 1596, and a second invasion in 1597.

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Jericho (יְרִיחוֹ; أريحا) is a city in the Palestinian Territories and is located near the Jordan River in the West Bank.

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Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.

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Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.

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Kot Diji

The ancient site at Kot Diji (کوٹ ڈیجی) was the forerunner of the Indus Civilization.

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A Letzi (plural:Letzinen, also known in German as a Talsperre in the sense of a fortification, not a dam) or Letzimauer refers to defensive barriers whose purpose is to protect the entrance into a valley.

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Lincoln, England

Lincoln is a cathedral city and the county town of Lincolnshire in the East Midlands of England.

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Lines of Communication (London)

The Lines of Communication were English Civil War fortifications commissioned by Parliament (see the Order for intrenching and fortifying the City of London, 7 March 1643) and built around London between 1642 and 1643 to protect the capital from attack by the Royalist armies of Charles I., http://www.spitalfields.co.uk/, Retrieved 2008-11-23 See the section "1.

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List of cities with defensive walls

The following cities have or historically had defensive walls.

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List of town walls in England and Wales

This list of town walls in England and Wales describes the fortified walls built and maintained around these towns and cities from the 1st century AD onwards.

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List of walls

See List of fortifications for a list of notable fortified structures.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Long Walls

Although long walls were built at several locations in ancient Greece, notably Corinth and Megara, the term Long Walls (Μακρὰ Τείχη) generally refers to the walls that connected Athens to its ports at Piraeus and Phalerum.

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Ludwig I of Bavaria

Ludwig I (also rendered in English as Louis I; 25 August 1786 – 29 February 1868) was king of Bavaria from 1825 until the 1848 revolutions in the German states.

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Lugo is a city in northwestern Spain in the autonomous community of Galicia.

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Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.

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Marc-André Fleury

Marc-André Fleury (born November 28, 1984) is a Canadian professional ice hockey goaltender playing for the Vegas Golden Knights of the National Hockey League (NHL).

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Masonry is the building of structures from individual units, which are often laid in and bound together by mortar; the term masonry can also refer to the units themselves.

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Medieval fortification

Medieval fortification refers to medieval military methods that cover the development of fortification construction and use in Europe, roughly from the fall of the Western Roman Empire to the Renaissance.

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A merlon is the solid upright section of a battlement (a crenellated parapet) in medieval architecture or fortifications.

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Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.

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Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.

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Metz (Lorraine Franconian pronunciation) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.

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Mexico–United States barrier

The Mexico–United States barrier is a series of walls and fences along the Mexico–United States border aimed at preventing illegal crossings from Mexico into the United States.

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Mexico–United States border

The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean to the west and Gulf of Mexico to the east.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Ming dynasty

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.

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Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.

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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Mortar (masonry)

Mortar is a workable paste used to bind building blocks such as stones, bricks, and concrete masonry units together, fill and seal the irregular gaps between them, and sometimes add decorative colors or patterns in masonry walls.

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Mural crown

A mural crown (corona muralis) is a crown or headpiece representing city walls or towers.

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Murus Dacicus

Murus Dacicus (Latin for Dacian Wall) is a construction method for defensive walls and fortifications developed in ancient Dacia sometime before the Roman conquest.

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Murus Gallicus

Murus Gallicus or Gallic Wall is a method of construction of defensive walls used to protect Iron Age hillforts and oppida of the La Tene period in Western Europe.

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Mycenae (Greek: Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece.

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Mycenaean Greece

Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.

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Narikala (ნარიყალა) is an ancient fortress overlooking Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia, and the Kura River.

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Nördlingen is a town in the Donau-Ries district, in Swabia, Bavaria, Germany, with a population of approximately 19,190.

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Nebuchadnezzar II

Nebuchadnezzar II (from Akkadian dNabû-kudurri-uṣur), meaning "O god Nabu, preserve/defend my firstborn son") was king of Babylon c. 605 BC – c. 562 BC, the longest and most powerful reign of any monarch in the Neo-Babylonian empire.

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Neuf-Brisach is a fortified town and commune of the department of Haut-Rhin in the French region of Alsace.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Newport Arch

Newport Arch is the name given to the remains of a 3rd-century Roman gate in the city of Lincoln, Lincolnshire.

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Nicosia (Λευκωσία; Lefkoşa) is the largest city on the island of Cyprus.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Nuremberg (Nürnberg) is a city on the river Pegnitz and on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia, about north of Munich.

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Ohrid (Охрид) is a city in the Republic of Macedonia and the seat of Ohrid Municipality.

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An oppidum (plural oppida) is a large fortified Iron Age settlement.

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Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.

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Pappenheim is a town in the Weißenburg-Gunzenhausen district, in Bavaria, Germany.

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A parapet is a barrier which is an extension of the wall at the edge of a roof, terrace, balcony, walkway or other structure.

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Peace lines

The peace lines or peace walls are a series of separation barriers in Northern Ireland that separate predominantly Republican and Nationalist Catholic neighbourhoods from predominantly Loyalist and Unionist Protestant neighbourhoods.

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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Pingyao, officially Pingyao Ancient City, is a settlement in central Shanxi, China, famed for its importance in Chinese economic history and for its well-preserved Ming and Qing urban planning and architecture.

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Piraeus (Πειραιάς Pireás, Πειραιεύς, Peiraieús) is a port city in the region of Attica, Greece.

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Porta Nigra

The Porta Nigra (Latin for black gate) is a large Roman city gate in Trier, Germany.

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A proto-city is a large village or town of the Neolithic such as Jericho and Çatalhöyük, "On the Konya plain in central Anatolia lies the extraordinary settlement of Catal Huyuk, which was nothing less than a proto-city (perhaps, indeed, the proto-city), founded in the mid-seventh millennium BC." and also any prehistoric settlement which has both rural and urban features.

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Provins is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.

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Qin dynasty

The Qin dynasty was the first dynasty of Imperial China, lasting from 221 to 206 BC.

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Rammed earth

Rammed earth, also known as taipa in Portuguese, tapial or tapia in Spanish, pisé (de terre) in French, and hangtu, is a technique for constructing foundations, floors, and walls using natural raw materials such as earth, chalk, lime, or gravel.

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Rampart (fortification)

In fortification architecture, a rampart is a length of bank or wall forming part of the defensive boundary of a castle, hillfort, settlement or other fortified site.

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Ramparts of Quebec City

Located in Canada, the Ramparts of Quebec City are the only remaining fortified city walls in North America north of Mexico.

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Republic of Macedonia

Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Ring road

A ring road (also known as beltline, beltway, circumferential (high)way, loop or orbital) is a road or a series of connected roads encircling a town, city, or country.

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A ringwork is a form of fortified defensive structure, usually circular or oval in shape.

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Roman walls of Lugo

The Roman walls of Lugo (Spanish, Galician: Muralla Romana de Lugo) were constructed in the 3rd century and are still largely intact, stretching over 2 kilometers around the historic centre of Lugo in Galicia (Spain).

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Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

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Rothenburg ob der Tauber

Rothenburg ob der Tauber is a town in the district of Ansbach of Mittelfranken (Middle Franconia), the Franconia region of Bavaria, Germany.

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Russia–Ukraine barrier

Russia–Ukraine barrier, also known as Ukrainian Wall or European Wall, or as Project Wall in Ukraine is a fortified border barrier currently under construction by Ukraine on the Russia–Ukraine border.

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San Marino

San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.

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Sasanian Empire

The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.

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Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban

Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, Seigneur de Vauban and later Marquis de Vauban (1 May 163330 March 1707), commonly referred to as Vauban, was a French military engineer who rose in the service to the king and was commissioned as a Marshal of France.

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Shang dynasty

The Shang dynasty or Yin dynasty, according to traditional historiography, ruled in the Yellow River valley in the second millennium BC, succeeding the Xia dynasty and followed by the Zhou dynasty.

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A siege is a military blockade of a city, or fortress, with the intent of conquering by attrition, or a well-prepared assault.

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Siege of Ulsan

The Siege of Ulsan was an unsuccessful Ming-Joseon attempt to capture Ulsan from the Japanese.

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Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Sparta (Doric Greek: Σπάρτα, Spártā; Attic Greek: Σπάρτη, Spártē) was a prominent city-state in ancient Greece.

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Stone wall

Stone walls are a kind of masonry construction that has been used for thousands of years.

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SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".

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Svätý Jur

Svätý Jur (Sankt Georgen, Szentgyörgy, Saint George) is a small town northeast of Bratislava, the capital of Slovakia.

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Talus (fortification)

The talus is an architectural feature of some late medieval castles, especially prevalent in crusader constructions.

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Tang dynasty

The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.

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Taroudant (تارودانت) is a city in the Sous Valley in southern Morocco.

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Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.

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Tel Megiddo

Tel Megiddo (מגידו; مجیدو, Tell al-Mutesellim, "The Tell of the Governor") is an ancient city whose remains form a tell (archaeological mound), situated in northern Israel near Kibbutz Megiddo, about 30 km south-east of Haifa.

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Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.

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A tower is a tall structure, taller than it is wide, often by a significant margin.

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Toyotomi Hideyoshi

was a preeminent daimyō, warrior, general, samurai, and politician of the Sengoku period who is regarded as Japan's second "great unifier".

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Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.

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Ulcinj Castle

Ulcinj Old Town (Montenegrin Cyrillic: Стари град Улцињ / Stari grad Ulcinj, Qyteti i vjetër i Ulqinit) or Ulcinj Castle (Kalaja e Ulqinit), is an ancient castle and neighborhood in Ulcinj, Montenegro.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus

The United Nations Buffer Zone in Cyprus is a demilitarized zone, patrolled by the United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus (UNFICYP), that was established in 1964 and extended in 1974 after the cease fire of, following the Turkish invasion of Cyprus, and de facto partition of the island into the area controlled by the Republic of Cyprus (southern Cyprus save for the British Sovereign Base Areas) and the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in the North.

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Upper Bavaria

Upper Bavaria (Oberbayern) is one of the seven administrative districts of Bavaria, Germany.

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Uruk (Cuneiform: URUUNUG; Sumerian: Unug; Akkadian: Uruk; وركاء,; Aramaic/Hebrew:; Orḥoē, Ὀρέχ Oreḥ, Ὠρύγεια Ōrugeia) was an ancient city of Sumer (and later of Babylonia), situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates river, on the dried-up, ancient channel of the Euphrates, some 30 km east of modern Samawah, Al-Muthannā, Iraq.

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In German, a Vorstadt is an area of a city, outside the Altstadt or the city centre, but tightly connected to it and densely populated, thus distinguished from Vororte.

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A wall is a structure that defines an area, carries a load, or provides shelter or security.

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Wall of Jericho

The Wall of Jericho was a Pre-Pottery Neolithic A (PPNA) defensive or flood protection wall suggested to date to approximately 8000 BCE.

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Wall Street

Wall Street is an eight-block-long street running roughly northwest to southeast from Broadway to South Street, at the East River, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City.

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Walls of Benin

The Walls of Benin were a combination of ramparts and moats, called ya in the local language, used as a defense of the ancient Kingdom of Benin, which is present-day Benin City, the capital of present-day Edo, Nigeria.

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Walls of Constantinople

The Walls of Constantinople are a series of defensive stone walls that have surrounded and protected the city of Constantinople (today Istanbul in Turkey) since its founding as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Constantine the Great.

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Walls of Dubrovnik

The Walls of Dubrovnik (Dubrovačke gradske zidine) are a series of defensive stone walls surrounding the city of Dubrovnik in southern Croatia.

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Walls of Tallinn

The Walls of Tallinn are the medieval defensive walls constructed around the city of Tallinn in Estonia.

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Warring States period

The Warring States period was an era in ancient Chinese history of warfare, as well as bureaucratic and military reforms and consolidation, following the Spring and Autumn period and concluding with the Qin wars of conquest that saw the annexation of all other contender states, which ultimately led to the Qin state's victory in 221 BC as the first unified Chinese empire known as the Qin dynasty.

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West Bank

The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.

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West Berlin

West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.

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World Heritage site

A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.

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Yongle Emperor

The Yongle Emperor (Yung-lo in Wade–Giles; 2 May 1360 – 12 August 1424) — personal name Zhu Di (WG: Chu Ti) — was the third emperor of the Ming dynasty in China, reigning from 1402 to 1424.

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York is a historic walled city at the confluence of the rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England.

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Zons, formerly known as Feste Zons (Fortress Zons), today officially called Stadt Zons (Zons Town) is an old town in Germany on the west bank of the Lower Rhine between Cologne and Düsseldorf.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Defensive_wall

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