353 relations: Afforestation, African Conservation Foundation, Afromontane, Agent Orange, Agricultural expansion, Agriculture, Agrochemical, Allied plans for German industry after World War II, Allied-occupied Germany, Allies of World War II, Amazon basin, Amazon rainforest, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Anthropogenic hazard, Antwerp, Arbor Day Foundation, Archaeology, Argentina, Arid, Assarting, Atlantic Forest, Atmosphere of Earth, Autonomous building, Avoided Deforestation Partners, Baltic region, Bamboo, Bangladesh, Battle of Okinawa, Biochar, Biodiversity, Biodiversity loss, Biomass, Biosequestration, Black Death, Bog, Bolivia, Bombardment, Brazil, Bronze Age, Bruges, Cahokia, Illinois, California Floristic Province, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Capybara, Carbon, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carbon sequestration, ..., Carbon sink, Carboniferous rainforest collapse, Cartogram, Caucasian War, Center for Global Development, Central America, Central forest-grasslands transition, Charcoal, China, Claros, Clearcutting, Climate, Climate and Development Knowledge Network, Coastal forests of eastern Africa, Cold War, Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed, Colombia, Colonialism, Colonisation (biology), Colonization, Commerce, Community Forestry International, Comoros, Conservation International, Convention on Biological Diversity, Cool Earth, Crete, Defoliant, Deforestation and climate change, Deforestation by region, Deforestation during the Roman period, Deforestation in Borneo, Deforestation in Brazil, Deforestation in Cambodia, Deforestation in Haiti, Deforestation in Indonesia, Deforestation in Malaysia, Deforestation in Sri Lanka, Deforestation of the Amazon rainforest, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Desertification, E. O. Wilson, Early modern Europe, Easter Island, Ecoforestry, Economic impact analysis, Ecoregion, Ecosystem, Elm, Encephalitis, Endemism, Environmental impact of paper, Environmental philosophy, Ephesus, Erosion, Euro, European Union, Evapotranspiration, Extinction, Farm, FERN, Feudalism, Flash flood, Flexible Mechanisms, Flint, Flora, Food and Agriculture Organization, Football pitch, Forest, Forest cover, Forest gardening, Forest road, Forest Stewardship Council, Forest transition, Forestry, Fossil, Fossil fuel, Fraxinus, Fresh water, Genetics, Genghis Khan, Geography, Ghana, Glacial period, Global warming, Globalization, Great Plains, Greenhouse, Greenhouse effect, Greenpeace, Grime's Graves, Gross domestic product, Groundwater, Group on Earth Observations, Guinea, Habitat, Habitat destruction, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Hazel, Hectare, Henipavirus, History of slavery, HIV, Holocene extinction, Human impact on the environment, Human overpopulation, Humidity, Hunter-gatherer, Hybrid (biology), Hydroponics, Illegal logging, Illinois, Illinois Country, India, Indo-Burma, Indonesia, Infiltration (hydrology), Intact forest landscape, Intensive farming, Interception (water), Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, International inequality, International Year of Forests, Ivory Coast, Japan International Cooperation Agency, Jared Diamond, Java, JAXA, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Kaskaskia, Illinois, Kenya, Knossos, Korean War, Kuznets curve, Lake District, Land degradation, Land development, Land reform, Land use, land-use change, and forestry, Landslide, Langdale axe industry, Laos, Latin America, Liberia, Lissamphibia, Livestock, Logging, Lumber, Lumberjack, Macmillan Publishers, Macropore, Madagascar, Malaria, Malayan Emergency, Malaysia, Mauritius, Medicinal plants, Megabat, Mesolithic, Mexico, Michael Williams (geographer), Mid-Continental Canadian forests, Miletus, Military, Military operation, Military tactics, Minoan civilization, Mire, Mississippi River, Moisture recycling, Mongols, Montane grasslands and shrublands, Mountaintop removal mining, Mozambique, Myanmar, National Film Board of Canada, National park, Natural landscape, Neolithic, New Caledonia, New England, Nigeria, Norman Cantor, North Wales, Oak, Ohio River, Order of Saint Benedict, Overexploitation, Oxygen, Paclitaxel, Palynology, Paper, Paraguay, Pasture, Peninsular Malaysia, Penmaenmawr, Permaculture, Peru, Philippines, Photosynthesis, Piracy, Plague (disease), Plant litter, Plantation, Political corruption, Pollen, Population growth, Poverty, Precipitation, Priene, Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification, Progress trap, Provence, Purch Group, Rainforest, Ranch, Réunion, Red deer, Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, Reforestation, Reptile, Rettet den Regenwald, Richard St. Barbe Baker, Riez, Road, Roger A. Sedjo, Rondônia, Royal Navy, Sabotage, Satoyama, Saudi Arabia, Schistosomiasis, Scientific American, Seawater greenhouse, Secondary forest, Seychelles, Siltation, Silviculture, Slash-and-burn, Slash-and-char, Snagboat, Soil, Soil conditioner, Soil erosion, Soil retrogression and degradation, Somalia, South Asia, Southeast Asia, St. Louis, Standard of living, Steamboat, Strength of materials, Subsistence agriculture, Sumatra, Sundaland, Surface runoff, Syria, Tanzania, Temperate coniferous forest, Terra preta, Thailand, The American Economic Review, The Guardian, The Independent, The Nature Conservancy, The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, Thirty Years' War, Three-North Shelter Forest Program, Tokugawa shogunate, Tonga, Transmigration program, Transpiration, Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests, Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, Tropical forest, Tropical rainforest, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United States, United States dollar, Urban area, Urbanization, Uruguay, Vietnam, Vietnam War, Volcano, War, Water content, Water cycle, West Africa, Western Europe, Wild boar, Wilderness, Wildlife, William Cronon, Wood industry, World Forestry Congress, World War II, World Wide Fund for Nature, Worldwatch Institute, Yellow fever, Zimbabwe, Zoonosis, 1,000,000,000. 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Afforestation is the establishment of a forest or stand of trees (forestation) in an area where there was no previous tree cover.
The African Conservation Foundation, also known as ACF, is an international non-governmental organisation established in 1999 and registered in 2001.
The Afromontane regions are subregions of the Afrotropical realm, one of the Earth's eight biogeographic realms, covering the plant and animal species found in the mountains of Africa and the southern Arabian Peninsula.
Agent Orange is an herbicide and defoliant chemical, one of the tactical use Rainbow Herbicides.
Agricultural expansion describes the growth of agricultural land (arable land, pastures, etc.) in the 21st century as a direct consequence of human overpopulation with an estimated 10 to 11 billion humans by end of this century and the required food and energy security.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An agrochemical or agrichemical, a contraction of agricultural chemical, is a chemical product used in agriculture.
The industrial plans for Germany were designs the Allies considered imposing on Germany in the aftermath of World War II to reduce and manage Germany's industrial capacity.
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Amazon basin is the part of South America drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries.
The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Anthropogenic hazards are hazards caused by human action or inaction.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
The Arbor Day Foundation is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit conservation and education organization founded in 1972 in Nebraska, United States, by John Rosenow.
Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of humanactivity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
Assarting is the act of clearing forested lands for use in agriculture or other purposes.
The Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) is a South American forest that extends along the Atlantic coast of Brazil from Rio Grande do Norte state in the north to Rio Grande do Sul state in the south, and inland as far as Paraguay and the Misiones Province of Argentina, where the region is known as Selva Misionera.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
An autonomous building is a building designed to be operated independently from infrastructural support services such as the electric power grid, gas grid, municipal water systems, sewage treatment systems, storm drains, communication services, and in some cases, public roads.
Avoided Deforestation Partners, or AD Partners, is a non-profit organization under the auspices of the Center for International Policy in Washington, D.C. AD Partners is involved in the global effort to solve climate change by working to end deforestation in tropical rainforest countries.
The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.
The bamboos are evergreen perennial flowering plants in the subfamily Bambusoideae of the grass family Poaceae.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
The (Uchinaa ikusa), codenamed Operation Iceberg, was a major battle of the Pacific War fought on the island of Okinawa by United States Marine and Army forces against the Imperial Japanese Army.
Biochar is charcoal used as a soil amendment.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Loss of biodiversity or biodiversity loss is the extinction of species (human, plant or animal) worldwide, and also the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Biosequestration is the capture and storage of the atmospheric greenhouse gas carbon dioxide by biological processes.
The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
A bog is a wetland that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material—often mosses, and in a majority of cases, sphagnum moss.
Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.
A bombardment is an attack by artillery fire or by dropping bombs from aircraft on fortifications, combatants, or towns and buildings.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Bruges (Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.
Cahokia is a village in St. Clair County, Illinois, United States which is in the Greater St. Louis metropolitan area.
The California Floristic Province (CFP) is a floristic province with a Mediterranean-type climate located on the Pacific Coast of North America with a distinctive flora similar to other regions with a winter rainfall and summer drought climate like the Mediterranean Basin.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The capybara (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) is a mammal native to South America.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
Carbon sequestration is the process involved in carbon capture and the long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide or other forms of carbon to mitigate or defer global warming.
A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.
The Carboniferous rainforest collapse (CRC) was a minor extinction event that occurred around 305 million years ago in the Carboniferous period.
A cartogram is a map in which some thematic mapping variable – such as travel time, population, or GNP – is substituted for land area or distance.
The Caucasian War (Кавказская война; Kavkazskaya vojna) of 1817–1864 was an invasion of the Caucasus by the Russian Empire which resulted in Russia's annexation of the areas of the North Caucasus, and the ethnic cleansing of Circassians.
The Center for Global Development (CGD) is a U.S. nonprofit think tank based in Washington, D.C. that focuses on international development.
Central America (América Central, Centroamérica) is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with the South American continent on the southeast.
The Central forest-grasslands transition is a prairie ecoregion of the central United States, an ecotone between eastern forests and the North American Great Plains.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Claros (Κλάρος, Klaros; Clarus) was an ancient Greek sanctuary on the coast of Ionia.
Clearcutting, clearfelling or clearcut logging is a forestry/logging practice in which most or all trees in an area are uniformly cut down.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
The Climate and Development Knowledge Network (CDKN) is a £72 million (US$100 million) initiative, formed in 2010, that links developing countries with experts on climate change.
The Coastal forests of eastern Africa is a tropical moist forest region along the east coast of Africa.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (titled Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Survive for the British edition) is a 2005 book by academic and popular science author Jared Diamond, in which Diamond first defines collapse: "a drastic decrease in human population size and/or political/economic/social complexity, over a considerable area, for an extended time." He then reviews the causes of historical and pre-historical instances of societal collapse — particularly those involving significant influences from environmental changes, the effects of climate change, hostile neighbors, trade partners, and the society's response to the foregoing four challenges— and considers the success or failure different societies have had in coping with such threats.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
Colonisation or colonization is the process in biology by which a species spreads to new areas.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
Community Forestry International, Inc. also known as CFI, is a non-profit organization that helps communities regenerate and preserve forests.
The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.
Conservation International (CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia.
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty.
Cool Earth is a UK-based international NGO that protects endangered rainforest in order to combat global warming, protect ecosystems and to provide employment for local people.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
A defoliant is any chemical sprayed or dusted on plants to cause their leaves to fall off.
Deforestation is one of the main contributors to climate change.
Rates and causes of deforestation vary from region to region around the world.
Deforestation during the Roman period was a result of the geographical expansion of the Roman Empire, with its increased population, large-scale agriculture, and unprecedented economic development.
Deforestation in Borneo has taken place on an industrial scale since the 1960s.
Brazil once had the highest deforestation rate in the world and in 2005 still had the largest area of forest removed annually.
Cambodia is one of the world's most forest endowed countries that has not yet been drastically deforested.
Deforestation in Haiti is commonly seen as a severe environmental problem.
Deforestation in Indonesia involves the long-term loss of forests and foliage across much of the country; it has had massive environmental and social impacts.
Between 1990 and 2010 Malaysia lost 8.6% of its forest cover, or around.
Deforestation is one of the most serious environmental issues in Sri Lanka.
The cattle sector of the Brazilian Amazon, incentivized by the international beef and leather trades,Lucy Siegle (August 9, 2015).
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
Edward Osborne Wilson (born June 10, 1929), usually cited as E. O. Wilson, is an American biologist, researcher, theorist, naturalist and author.
Early modern Europe is the period of European history between the end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, roughly the late 15th century to the late 18th century.
Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.
Ecoforestry has been defined as selection forestry or restoration forestry.
An economic impact analysis (EIA) examines the effect of an event on the economy in a specified area, ranging from a single neighborhood to the entire globe.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Elms are deciduous and semi-deciduous trees comprising the flowering plant genus Ulmus in the plant family Ulmaceae.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
The environmental impact of paper is significant, which has led to changes in industry and behaviour at both business and personal levels.
Environmental philosophy is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the natural environment and humans' place within it.
Ephesus (Ἔφεσος Ephesos; Efes; may ultimately derive from Hittite Apasa) was an ancient Greek city on the coast of Ionia, three kilometres southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
A farm is an area of land that is devoted primarily to agricultural processes with the primary objective of producing food and other crops; it is the basic facility in food production.
Fern (also Stichting Fern) is a Dutch foundation created in 1995.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas: washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins.
Flexible mechanisms, also sometimes known as Flexibility Mechanisms or Kyoto Mechanisms), refers to Emissions Trading, the Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation. These are mechanisms defined under the Kyoto Protocol intended to lower the overall costs of achieving its emissions targets. These mechanisms enable Parties to achieve emission reductions or to remove carbon from the atmosphere cost-effectively in other countries. While the cost of limiting emissions varies considerably from region to region, the benefit for the atmosphere is in principle the same, wherever the action is taken. Much of the negotiations on the mechanisms has been concerned with ensuring their integrity. There was concern that the mechanisms do not confer a "right to emit" on Annex 1 Parties or lead to exchanges of fictitious credits which would undermine the Protocol’s environmental goals. The negotiators of the Protocol and the Marrakesh Accords therefore sought to design a system that fulfilled the cost-effectiveness promise of the mechanisms, while addressing concerns about environmental integrity and equity. To participate in the mechanisms, Annex 1 Parties must meet the following eligibility requirements.
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
A football pitch (also known as a football field or soccer field) is the playing surface for the game of association football.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
Forest cover in general refers to the relative (in percent) or absolute (in square kilometers/square miles) land area that is covered by forests or the forest canopy or open woodland.
Forest gardening is a low-maintenance sustainable plant-based food production and agroforestry system based on woodland ecosystems, incorporating fruit and nut trees, shrubs, herbs, vines and perennial vegetables which have yields directly useful to humans.
Forest roads or forest tracks are roads or tracks intended to carry motorised vehicles or horse-drawn wagons being used mainly or exclusively for forestry purposes, such as conservation or logging.
The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international non-profit, multi-stakeholder organization established in 1993 to promote responsible management of the world’s forests.
Forest transition refers to a geographic theory describing a reversal or turnaround in land-use trends for a given territory from a period of net forest area loss (i.e., deforestation) to a period of net forest area gain.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Fraxinus, English name ash, is a genus of flowering plants in the olive and lilac family, Oleaceae.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Genghis Khan or Temüjin Borjigin (Чингис хаан, Çingis hán) (also transliterated as Chinggis Khaan; born Temüjin, c. 1162 August 18, 1227) was the founder and first Great Khan of the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous empire in history after his death.
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
Ghana, officially the Republic of Ghana, is a unitary presidential constitutional democracy, located along the Gulf of Guinea and Atlantic Ocean, in the subregion of West Africa.
A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
The Great Plains (sometimes simply "the Plains") is the broad expanse of flat land (a plain), much of it covered in prairie, steppe, and grassland, that lies west of the Mississippi River tallgrass prairie in the United States and east of the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and Canada.
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
The greenhouse effect is the process by which radiation from a planet's atmosphere warms the planet's surface to a temperature above what it would be without its atmosphere.
Greenpeace is a non-governmental environmental organization with offices in over 39 countries and with an international coordinating body in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
Grime's Graves is a large Neolithic flint mining complex in Norfolk, England.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
The Group on Earth Observations (or GEO) coordinates international efforts to build a Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).
Guinea, officially the Republic of Guinea (République de Guinée), is a country on the western coast of Africa.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
The Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health (formerly Harvard School of Public Health) is the public health graduate school of Harvard University, located in the Longwood Medical Area of Boston, Massachusetts adjacent Harvard Medical School.
The hazel (Corylus) is a genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere.
The hectare (SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100 meter sides, or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land.
Henipavirus is a genus of RNA viruses in the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing five established species.
The history of slavery spans many cultures, nationalities, and religions from ancient times to the present day.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
The Holocene extinction, otherwise referred to as the Sixth extinction or Anthropocene extinction, is the ongoing extinction event of species during the present Holocene epoch, mainly as a result of human activity.
Human impact on the environment or anthropogenic impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused directly or indirectly by humans, including global warming, environmental degradation (such as ocean acidification), mass extinction and biodiversity loss, ecological crises, and ecological collapse.
Human overpopulation (or population overshoot) occurs when the ecological footprint of a human population in a specific geographical location exceeds the carrying capacity of the place occupied by that group.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor present in the air.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
In biology, a hybrid, or crossbreed, is the result of combining the qualities of two organisms of different breeds, varieties, species or genera through sexual reproduction.
Hydroponics is a subset of hydroculture, the method of growing plants without soil, using mineral nutrient solutions in a water solvent.
Illegal logging is the harvest, transportation, purchase or sale of timber in violation of laws.
Illinois is a state in the Midwestern region of the United States.
The Illinois Country (Pays des Illinois, lit. "land of the Illinois (plural)", i.e. the Illinois people) — sometimes referred to as Upper Louisiana (la Haute-Louisiane; Alta Luisiana) — was a vast region of New France in what is now the Midwestern United States.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indo-Burma is a biodiversity hotspot designated by Conservation International.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Infiltration is the process by which water on the ground surface enters the soil.
An intact forest landscape (IFL) is an unbroken natural landscape of a forest ecosystem and its habitat–plant community components, in an extant forest zone.
Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.
Interception refers to precipitation that does not reach the soil, but is instead intercepted by the leaves, branches of plants and the forest floor.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
International inequality refers to the idea of inequality between countries. This can be compared to global inequality which is inequality between people across countries.
The year 2011 was declared the International Year of Forests by the United Nations to raise awareness and strengthen the sustainable management, conservation and sustainable development of all types of forests for the benefit of current and future generations.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
The is a governmental agency that coordinates official development assistance (ODA) for the government of Japan.
Jared Mason Diamond (born September 10, 1937) is an American ecologist, geographer, biologist, anthropologist and author best known for his popular science books The Third Chimpanzee (1991); Guns, Germs, and Steel (1997, awarded a Pulitzer Prize); Collapse (2005); and The World Until Yesterday (2012).
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.
Kaskaskia is a historically important village in Randolph County, Illinois, United States.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Knossos (also Cnossos, both pronounced; Κνωσός, Knōsós) is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete and has been called Europe's oldest city.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
In economics, a Kuznets curve graphs the hypothesis that as an economy develops, market forces first increase and then decrease economic inequality.
The Lake District, also known as the Lakes or Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England.
Land degradation is a process in which the value of the biophysical environment is affected by a combination of human-induced processes acting upon the land.
Land development is altering the landscape in any number of ways such as.
Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.
Land use, land-use change, and forestry (LULUCF) is defined by the United Nations Climate Change Secretariat as a "greenhouse gas inventory sector that covers emissions and removals of greenhouse gases resulting from direct human-induced land use such as settlements and commercial uses, land-use change, and forestry activities." LULUCF has impacts on the global carbon cycle and as such, these activities can add or remove carbon dioxide (or, more generally, carbon) from the atmosphere, influencing climate.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
The Langdale axe industry is the name given by archaeologists to specialised stone tool manufacturing centred at Great Langdale in England's Lake District during the Neolithic period (beginning about 4000 BC in Britain).
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the West African coast.
The Lissamphibia are a group of tetrapods that includes all modern amphibians.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
Logging is the cutting, skidding, on-site processing, and loading of trees or logs onto trucks or skeleton cars.
Lumber (American English; used only in North America) or timber (used in the rest of the English speaking world) is a type of wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production.
Lumberjacks are North American workers in the logging industry who perform the initial harvesting and transport of trees for ultimate processing into forest products.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
In soil, macropores are defined as cavities that are larger than 75 μm.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
The Malayan Emergency (Darurat Malaya) was a guerrilla war fought in pre- and post-independence Federation of Malaya, from 1948 until 1960.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Medicinal plants, also called medicinal herbs, have been discovered and used in traditional medicine practices since prehistoric times.
Megabats constitute the suborder Megachiroptera, and its only family Pteropodidae of the order Chiroptera (bats).
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michael Williams (1935–2009) was a Welsh historical geographer, known particularly for his work on deforestation.
The Mid-Continental Canadian forests are a taiga ecoregion of northern Canada.
Miletus (Milētos; Hittite transcription Millawanda or Milawata (exonyms); Miletus; Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
A military operation is the coordinated military actions of a state, or a non-state actor, in response to a developing situation.
Military tactics encompasses the art of organising and employing fighting forces on or near the battlefield.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
A mire is a wetland type, dominated by living, peat-forming plants.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
In hydrology, moisture recycling or precipitation recycling refer to the process by which a portion of the precipitated water that evapotranspired from a given area contributes to the precipitation over the same area.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
Montane grasslands and shrublands is a biome defined by the World Wildlife Fund.
Mountaintop removal mining (MTR), also known as mountaintop mining (MTM), is a form of surface mining at the summit or summit ridge of a mountain.
Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The National Film Board of Canada (or simply National Film Board or NFB) (French: Office national du film du Canada, or ONF) is Canada's public film and digital media producer and distributor.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
A natural landscape is the original landscape that exists before it is acted upon by human culture.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Norman Frank Cantor (November 19, 1929 – September 18, 2004) was a Canadian-American historian who specialized in the medieval period.
North Wales (Gogledd Cymru) is an unofficial region of Wales.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
The Ohio River, which streams westward from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Cairo, Illinois, is the largest tributary, by volume, of the Mississippi River in the United States.
The Order of Saint Benedict (OSB; Latin: Ordo Sancti Benedicti), also known as the Black Monksin reference to the colour of its members' habitsis a Catholic religious order of independent monastic communities that observe the Rule of Saint Benedict.
Overexploitation, also called overharvesting, refers to harvesting a renewable resource to the point of diminishing returns.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Paclitaxel (PTX), sold under the brand name Taxol among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of types of cancer.
Palynology is the "study of dust" (from palunō, "strew, sprinkle" and -logy) or "particles that are strewn".
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets.
Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.
Pasture (from the Latin pastus, past participle of pascere, "to feed") is land used for grazing.
Peninsular Malaysia also known as Malaya or West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands.
Penmaenmawr is a town and community in Conwy County Borough, Wales, which was formerly in the parish of Dwygyfylchi.
Permaculture is a system of agricultural and social design principles centered around simulating or directly utilizing the patterns and features observed in natural ecosystems.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
Litterfall, plant litter, leaf litter, tree litter, soil litter, or duff, is dead plant material (such as leaves, bark, needles, twigs, and cladodes) that have fallen to the ground.
A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Priene (Priēnē; Prien) was an ancient Greek city of Ionia (and member of the Ionian League) at the base of an escarpment of Mycale, about north of the then course of the Maeander (now called the Büyük Menderes or "Big Maeander") River, from ancient Anthea, from ancient Aneon and from ancient Miletus.
The Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC) is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization which promotes sustainable forest management through independent third party certification.
A progress trap is the condition human societies experience when, in pursuing progress through human ingenuity, they inadvertently introduce problems they do not have the resources or political will to solve, for fear of short-term losses in status, stability or quality of life.
Provence (Provençal: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) is a geographical region and historical province of southeastern France, which extends from the left bank of the lower Rhône River to the west to the Italian border to the east, and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the south.
Purch Group, Inc. formerly known as TechMediaNetworks, Inc.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
A ranch is an area of land, including various structures, given primarily to the practice of ranching, the practice of raising grazing livestock such as cattle or sheep for meat or wool.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
The red deer (Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest deer species.
Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries (REDD+) was first negotiated under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in 2005, with the objective of mitigating climate change through reducing net emissions of greenhouse gases through enhanced forest management in developing countries.
Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Rainforest Rescue (German: Rettet den Regenwald) is a non-governmental environmental organization with head office in Germany which advocates the preservation of rainforests at global level.
Riez is a commune in the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department in southeastern France.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Roger A. Sedjo (born 1939) is an economist and senior fellow and director of Resources for the Future.
Rondônia is a state in Brazil, located in the north part of the country.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Sabotage is a deliberate action aimed at weakening a polity, effort or organization through subversion, obstruction, disruption or destruction.
is a Japanese term applied to the border zone or area between mountain foothills and arable flat land.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever and bilharzia, is a disease caused by parasitic flatworms called schistosomes.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
A seawater greenhouse is a greenhouse structure that enables the growth of crops in arid regions, using seawater and solar energy.
A secondary forest (or second-growth forest) is a forest or woodland area which has re-grown after a timber harvest, until a long enough period has passed so that the effects of the disturbance are no longer evident.
Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.
Siltation or siltification is the pollution of water by particulate terrestrial clastic material, with a particle size dominated by silt or clay.
Silviculture is the practice of controlling the establishment, growth, composition, health, and quality of forests to meet diverse needs and values.
Slash-and-burn agriculture, or fire–fallow cultivation, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden.
Slash-and-char is an alternative to slash-and-burn that has a lesser effect on the environment.
A snagboat is a river boat, resembling a barge with superstructure for crew accommodations, and deck-mounted cranes and hoists for removing snags and other obstructions from rivers and other shallow waterways.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
A soil conditioner is a product which is added to soil to improve the soil’s physical qualities, usually its fertility (ability to provide nutrition for plants) and sometimes its mechanics.
Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, one form of soil degradation.
Soil retrogression and degradation are two regressive evolution processes associated with the loss of equilibrium of a stable soil.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.
A steamboat is a boat that is propelled primarily by steam power, typically driving propellers or paddlewheels.
Strength of materials, also called mechanics of materials, is a subject which deals with the behavior of solid objects subject to stresses and strains.
Subsistence agriculture is a self-sufficiency farming system in which the farmers focus on growing enough food to feed themselves and their entire families.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
Sundaland (also called the Sundaic region) is a biogeographical region of Southeastern Asia corresponding to a larger landmass that was exposed throughout the last 2.6 million years during periods when sea levels were lower.
Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Temperate coniferous forest is a terrestrial biome found in temperate regions of the world with warm summers and cool winters and adequate rainfall to sustain a forest.
Terra preta (locally, literally "black soil" in Portuguese) is a type of very dark, fertile artificial (anthropogenic) soil found in the Amazon Basin.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The American Economic Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal of economics.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Nature Conservancy is a charitable environmental organization, headquartered in Arlington, Virginia, United States.
The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006, is a key piece of forest legislation passed in India on 18 December 2006.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
The Three-North Shelter Forest Program, also known as the Three-North Shelterbelt Program or the Green Great Wall, is a series of human-planted windbreaking forest strips (shelterbelts) in China, designed to hold back the expansion of the Gobi Desert.
The Tokugawa shogunate, also known as the and the, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1868.
Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited.
The transmigration program (Transmigrasi, from Dutch, transmigratie) was an initiative of the Dutch colonial government, and later continued by the Indonesian government to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the country.
Transpiration is the process of water movement through a plant and its evaporation from aerial parts, such as leaves, stems and flowers.
The tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forest biome, also known as tropical dry forest, monsoon forest, vine thicket, vine scrub and dry rainforest is located at tropical and subtropical latitudes.
Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests (TSMF), also known as tropical moist forests, are a tropical and subtropical forest biome, sometimes referred to as jungle.
Tropical forests are forested landscapes in tropical regions: i.e. land areas approximately bounded by the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, but possibly affected by other factors such as prevailing winds.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty adopted on 9 May 1992 and opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro from 3 to 14 June 1992.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
Water content or moisture content is the quantity of water contained in a material, such as soil (called soil moisture), rock, ceramics, crops, or wood.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
Wilderness or wildland is a natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by human activity.
Wildlife traditionally refers to undomesticated animal species, but has come to include all plants, fungi, and other organisms that grow or live wild in an area without being introduced by humans.
William "Bill" Cronon, FBA (born September 11, 1954 in New Haven, Connecticut) is a noted environmental historian and the Frederick Jackson Turner and Vilas Research Professor of History, Geography, and Environmental Studies at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
The wood industry or lumber industry is a - usually private - economic sector concerned with forestry, logging, timber trade, and the production of forest products, timber/lumber, primary forest and wood products (e.g. furniture) and secondary products like wood pulp for the pulp and paper industry.
The World Forestry Congress (WFC) is the largest and most significant gathering of the world's forestry sector and it has been held every six years since 1926 under the auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), organized by the government of the host country.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
The Worldwatch Institute is a globally focused environmental research organization based in Washington, D.C. Worldwatch was named as one of the top ten sustainable development research organizations by Globescan Survey of Sustainability Experts.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans.
1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard, long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001.
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