192 relations: A Secular Age, Absolute (philosophy), Affirmative prayer, Age of Enlightenment, Alexander Hamilton, American Enlightenment, American Revolution, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, Anthony Collins, Antony Flew, Asia, Atheism, Baruch Spinoza, Basil Willey, Benjamin Franklin, Best of all possible worlds, Biblical criticism, Biblical inerrancy, C. S. Lewis, Calvinism, Catholic Church, Ceremonial deism, Charles Blount (deist), Charles Darwin, Charles Hartshorne, Charles Taylor (philosopher), Christian, Christian deism, Christianity, Christianity not Mysterious, Confucius, Constitutional Convention (United States), Conyers Middleton, Cornelius Harnett, Cosmological argument, Creation myth, Creator deity, Cult of the Supreme Being, David Hume, De Veritate, Deism, Deism in England and France in the 18th century, Deity, Demiurge, Determinism, Deus, Divine providence, Durango, Colorado, Edmund Burke, Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury, ..., Elihu Palmer, Elysium, Encyclopedia of Philosophy, English Civil War, Ephraim Chambers, Epistemology, Ethan Allen, First Amendment to the United States Constitution, Founding Fathers of the United States, François Noël (missionary), Free will, Freethought, French Revolution, Galileo Galilei, George Washington, Germans, God, Gouverneur Morris, Growth of religion, Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, Heraclitus, Heymann Steinthal, Hugh Williamson, Humanism, Ietsism, Immanuel Kant, Infinitism, Innatism, Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture, Interpersonal relationship, Irreligion, Isaac La Peyrère, Isaac Newton, James Madison, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jefferson Bible, Jesuit China missions, Johann Georg Hamann, Johannes Kepler, John Leland (Presbyterian), John Locke, John Toland, Joseph de Maistre, Julien Offray de La Mettrie, Latin, Latitudinarian, Leslie Stephen, Leviathan (Hobbes book), List of deists, List of national founders, Logos, Materialism, Matthew Tindal, Maximilien Robespierre, Metaphysical naturalism, Metempsychosis, Methodism, Michel de Montaigne, Michele Ruggieri, Miracle, Monotheism, Montesquieu, Moritz Lazarus, Natural History (Pliny), Natural law, Natural religion, Natural science, Natural theology, Naturalism (philosophy), Nature, Necessitarianism, New Testament, New Thought, Newtonianism, Nicolaus Copernicus, Noah, Non-physical entity, Observation, Ontic, Organized religion, Pandeism, Pantheism, Paul Hazard, Paul Russell (philosopher), Personal god, Peter Annet, Peter Gay, Philippe Couplet, Philosophical skepticism, Pierre Bayle, Pierre Viret, Pietism, Plato, Pliny the Elder, Polydeism, Principles of Nature, Rationalism, Reason, Reformation, Religious affiliations of Presidents of the United States, Religious skepticism, Religious war, Renaissance, René Descartes, Revelation, Richard Simon (priest), Robert Burton (scholar), Samuel Johnson, Scientific Revolution, Sectarianism, Skeptical Inquirer, Straw man, Supernatural, Supreme Being, Sydney E. Ahlstrom, Teleological argument, The Age of Reason, The Anatomy of Melancholy, Theistic evolution, Theistic rationalism, Theology, Thirty Years' War, Thomas Chubb, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Morgan (deist), Thomas Paine, Thomas Woolston, Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, Transcendentalism, Transpersonal, Trinity, Unitarian Universalism, Unitarianism, United States Declaration of Independence, Universe, Unmoved mover, Voltaire, Watchmaker analogy, William Stephens (minister), William Wollaston, Zeus. Expand index (142 more) » « Shrink index
A Secular Age is a book written by the philosopher Charles Taylor which was published in 2007 by Harvard University Press on the basis of Taylor's earlier Gifford Lectures (Edinburgh 1998–1999).
In philosophy, the concept of The Absolute, also known as The (Unconditioned) Ultimate, The Wholly Other, The Supreme Being, The Absolute/Ultimate Reality, and other names, is the thing, being, entity, power, force, reality, presence, law, principle, etc.
Affirmative prayer is a form of prayer or a metaphysical technique that is focused on a positive outcome rather than a negative situation.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The American Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in the thirteen American colonies in the 17th to 18th century, which led to the American Revolution, and the creation of the American Republic.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury Bt (26 February 1671 – 16 February 1713) was an English politician, philosopher and writer.
Anthony Collins (21 June 1676 O.S.13 December 1729 O.S.) was an English philosopher, and a proponent of deism.
Antony Garrard Newton Flew (11 February 1923 – 8 April 2010) was an English philosopher.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Basil Willey (July 25, 1897 – September 3, 1978) was a professor of English literature at Cambridge and author of well-written and scholarly works on English literature and intellectual history.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The phrase "the best of all possible worlds" (le meilleur des mondes possibles; Die beste aller möglichen Welten) was coined by the German polymath Gottfried Leibniz in his 1710 work Essais de Théodicée sur la bonté de Dieu, la liberté de l'homme et l'origine du mal (Essays on the Goodness of God, the Freedom of Man and the Origin of Evil).
Biblical criticism is a philosophical and methodological approach to studying the Bible, using neutral non-sectarian judgment, that grew out of the scientific thinking of the Age of Reason (1700–1789).
Biblical inerrancy, as formulated in the "Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy", is the doctrine that the Protestant Bible "is without error or fault in all its teaching"; or, at least, that "Scripture in the original manuscripts does not affirm anything that is contrary to fact".
Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963) was a British novelist, poet, academic, medievalist, literary critic, essayist, lay theologian, broadcaster, lecturer, and Christian apologist.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Ceremonial deism is a legal term used in the United States for nominally religious statements and practices deemed to be merely ritual and non-religious through long customary usage.
Charles Blount (27 April 1654 – August 1693) was an English deist and philosopher who published several anonymous essays critical of the existing English order.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles Hartshorne (June 5, 1897 – October 9, 2000) was an American philosopher who concentrated primarily on the philosophy of religion and metaphysics.
Charles Margrave Taylor (born 1931) is a Canadian philosopher from Montreal, Quebec, and professor emeritus at McGill University best known for his contributions to political philosophy, the philosophy of social science, the history of philosophy, and intellectual history.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
Christian deism is a standpoint in the philosophy of religion, which branches from Christianity.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity not Mysterious is a 1696 book by the radical thinker John Toland.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (later known as Independence Hall because of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence there eleven years before) in Philadelphia.
Conyers Middleton (27 December 1683 – 28 July 1750) was an English clergyman.
Cornelius Harnett (April 10, 1723 – April 28, 1781) was an American merchant, farmer, and statesman from Wilmington, North Carolina.
In natural theology and philosophy, a cosmological argument is an argument in which the existence of a unique being, generally seen as some kind of god, is deduced or inferred from facts or alleged facts concerning causation, change, motion, contingency, or finitude in respect of the universe as a whole or processes within it.
A creation myth (or cosmogonic myth) is a symbolic narrative of how the world began and how people first came to inhabit it.
A creator deity or creator god (often called the Creator) is a deity or god responsible for the creation of the Earth, world, and universe in human mythology.
The Cult of the Supreme Being (Culte de l'Être suprême) was a form of deism established in France by Maximilien Robespierre during the French Revolution.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
De Veritate, prout distinguitur a revelatione, a verisimili, a possibili, et a falso is the major work of Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
Deism, the religious attitude typical of the Enlightenment, especially in France and England, holds that the only way the existence of God can be proven is to combine the application of reason with observation of the world.
A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred.
In the Platonic, Neopythagorean, Middle Platonic, and Neoplatonic schools of philosophy, the demiurge is an artisan-like figure responsible for fashioning and maintaining the physical universe.
Determinism is the philosophical theory that all events, including moral choices, are completely determined by previously existing causes.
Deus is Latin for "god" or "deity".
In theology, divine providence, or just providence, is God's intervention in the universe.
The City of Durango is the county seat and the most populous municipality of La Plata County, Colorado, United States.
Edmund Burke (12 January 17309 July 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman born in Dublin, as well as an author, orator, political theorist and philosopher, who after moving to London in 1750 served as a member of parliament (MP) between 1766 and 1794 in the House of Commons with the Whig Party.
Edward Herbert, 1st Baron Herbert of Cherbury (or Chirbury) KB (3 March 1582 – 20 August 1648) was an Anglo-Welsh soldier, diplomat, historian, poet and religious philosopher of the Kingdom of England.
Elihu Palmer (1764 – April 7, 1806) was an author and advocate of deism in the early days of the United States.
Elysium or the Elysian Fields (Ἠλύσιον πεδίον., Ēlýsion pedíon) is a conception of the afterlife that developed over time and was maintained by some Greek religious and philosophical sects and cults.
The Encyclopedia of Philosophy is one of the major English encyclopedias of philosophy.
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
Ephraim Chambers (c.1680 – 15 May 1740) was an English writer and encyclopaedist, who is primarily known for producing the Cyclopaedia, or a Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
Ethan Allen (Allen's date of birth is made confusing by calendrical differences caused by the conversion between the Julian and Gregorian calendars. The first change offsets the date by 11 days. The second is that, at the time of Allen's birth, the New Year began on March 25. As a result, while his birth is officially recorded as happening on January 10, 1737, conversions due to these changes make the date in the modern calendar January 21, 1738. Adjusting for the movement of the New Year to January changes the year to 1738; adjusting for the Gregorian calendar changes the date from January 10 to 21. See Jellison, p. 2 and Hall (1895), p. 5. – February 12, 1789) was a farmer, businessman, land speculator, philosopher, writer, lay theologian, and American Revolutionary War patriot, and politician.
The First Amendment (Amendment I) to the United States Constitution prevents Congress from making any law respecting an establishment of religion, prohibiting the free exercise of religion, or abridging the freedom of speech, the freedom of the press, the right to peaceably assemble, or to petition for a governmental redress of grievances.
The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.
François Noël (18 August 1651– 17 September 1729) was a Flemish Jesuit poet, dramatist, and missionary to the Qing Empire.
Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.
Freethought (or "free thought") is a philosophical viewpoint which holds that positions regarding truth should be formed on the basis of logic, reason, and empiricism, rather than authority, tradition, revelation, or dogma.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Gouverneur Morris I (30 January 1752 – 6 November 1816) was an American statesman, a Founding Father of the United States, and a signatory to the Articles of Confederation and the United States Constitution.
Growth of religion is the spread of religions and the increase of religious adherents around the world.
Henry St John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke (16 September 1678 – 12 December 1751) was an English politician, government official and political philosopher.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
Heymann or Hermann Steinthal (16 May 1823 – 14 March 1899) was a German philologist and philosopher.
Hugh Williamson (December 5, 1735 – May 22, 1819) was an American physician and politician.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
Ietsism (ietsisme – "somethingism") is an unspecified belief in an undetermined transcendent reality.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Infinitism is the view that knowledge may be justified by an infinite chain of reasons.
Innatism is a philosophical and epistemological doctrine that holds that the mind is born with ideas/knowledge, and that therefore the mind is not a "blank slate" at birth, as early empiricists such as John Locke claimed.
The Institute for the Study of Secularism in Society and Culture (ISSSC) is located at Trinity College in Hartford, Connecticut.
An interpersonal relationship is a strong, deep, or close association or acquaintance between two or more people that may range in duration from brief to enduring.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
Isaac La Peyrère, also known as Isaac de La Peyrère or Pererius (1596–1676), was a Marrano French Millenarian theologian and formulator of the Pre-Adamite hypothesis.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
The Life and Morals of Jesus of Nazareth, commonly referred to as the Jefferson Bible, refers to one of two religious works constructed by Thomas Jefferson.
The history of the missions of the Jesuits in China is part of the history of relations between China and the Western world.
Johann Georg Hamann (27 August 1730 – 21 June 1788) was a German philosopher, whose work was used by his student J. G. Herder as a main support of the Sturm und Drang movement, and associated by historian of ideas Isaiah Berlin with the Counter-Enlightenment.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
John Leland (1691–1766) was an English Presbyterian minister and author of theological works.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Toland (30 November 1670 – 11 March 1722) was an Irish rationalist philosopher and freethinker, and occasional satirist, who wrote numerous books and pamphlets on political philosophy and philosophy of religion, which are early expressions of the philosophy of the Age of Enlightenment.
Joseph-Marie, Comte de Maistre (1 April 1753 – 26 February 1821) was a French-speaking Savoyard philosopher, writer, lawyer, and diplomat, who advocated social hierarchy and monarchy in the period immediately following the French Revolution.
Julien Offray de La Mettrie (November 23, 1709 – November 11, 1751) was a French physician and philosopher, and one of the earliest of the French materialists of the Enlightenment.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latitudinarians, or latitude men were initially a group of 17th-century English theologiansclerics and academicsfrom the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England, who were moderate Anglicans (members of the Church of England, which was Protestant).
Sir Leslie Stephen (28 November 1832 – 22 February 1904) was an English author, critic, historian, biographer, and mountaineer, and father of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell.
Leviathan or The Matter, Forme and Power of a Common-Wealth Ecclesiasticall and Civil—commonly referred to as Leviathan—is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651 (revised Latin edition 1668). Its name derives from the biblical Leviathan. The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory. Leviathan ranks as a classic western work on statecraft comparable to Machiavelli's The Prince. Written during the English Civil War (1642–1651), Leviathan argues for a social contract and rule by an absolute sovereign. Hobbes wrote that civil war and the brute situation of a state of nature ("the war of all against all") could only be avoided by strong, undivided government.
This is a partial list of people who have been categorized as deists, the belief in a deity based on natural religion only, or belief in religious truths discovered by people through a process of reasoning, independent of any revelation through scripture or prophets.
The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were credited with establishing their nation.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Matthew Tindal (1657 – 16 August 1733) was an eminent English deist author.
Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.
Metaphysical naturalism, also called ontological naturalism, philosophical naturalism, and scientific materialism is a philosophical worldview, which holds that there is nothing but natural elements, principles, and relations of the kind studied by the natural sciences.
Metempsychosis (μετεμψύχωσις) is a philosophical term in the Greek language referring to transmigration of the soul, especially its reincarnation after death.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne (28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.
Michele or Michael Ruggieri (1543– 11 May 1607), born Pompilio Ruggieri and known in China as Luo Mingjian, was an Italian Jesuit priest and missionary.
A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
Moritz Lazarus (15 September 1824 – 13 April 1903), born at Filehne, in the Grand Duchy of Posen, was a German philosopher, psychologist, and a vocal opponent of the antisemitism of his time.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
Natural law (ius naturale, lex naturalis) is a philosophy asserting that certain rights are inherent by virtue of human nature, endowed by nature—traditionally by God or a transcendent source—and that these can be understood universally through human reason.
Natural religion most frequently means the "religion of nature", in which God, the soul, spirits, and all objects of the supernatural are considered as part of nature and not separate from it.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.
Natural theology, once also termed physico-theology, is a type of theology that provides arguments for the existence of God based on reason and ordinary experience of nature.
In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.
Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.
Necessitarianism is a metaphysical principle that denies all mere possibility; there is exactly one way for the world to be.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
The New Thought movement (also "Higher Thought") is a religious movement which developed in the United States in the 19th century, considered by many to have been derived from the unpublished writings of Phineas Quimby.
Newtonianism is a philosophical and scientific doctrine inspired by the beliefs and methods of natural philosopher Isaac Newton.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
In Abrahamic religions, Noah was the tenth and last of the pre-Flood Patriarchs.
In ontology and the philosophy of mind, a non-physical entity is a spirit or being that exists outside physical reality.
Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.
In philosophy, ontic (from the Greek ὄν, genitive ὄντος: "of that which is") is physical, real, or factual existence.
Organized religion (or organised religion—see spelling differences), also known as institutional religion, is religion in which belief systems and rituals are systematically arranged and formally established.
Pandeism (or pan-deism) is a theological doctrine first delineated in the 18th century which combines aspects of pantheism with aspects of deism.
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
Paul Gustave Marie Camille Hazard (30 April 1878, Noordpeene, Nord – 13 April 1944, Paris), was a French scholar, professor and historian of ideas.
Paul Russell (born 1955) is a professor in philosophy at the University of British Columbia, where he has been teaching since 1987.
A personal god is a deity who can be related to as a person instead of as an impersonal force, such as the Absolute, "the All", or the "Ground of Being".
Peter Annet (169318 January 1769) was an English deist and early freethinker.
Peter Gay (born Peter Joachim Fröhlich; June 20, 1923 – May 12, 2015) was a German-American historian, educator and author.
Philippe or Philip Couplet (1623–1693), known in China as Bai Yingli, was a Flemish Jesuit missionary to the Qing Empire.
Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.
Pierre Bayle (18 November 1647 – 28 December 1706) was a French philosopher and writer best known for his seminal work the Historical and Critical Dictionary, published beginning in 1697.
Pierre Viret (1511 – 4 May 1571) was a Swiss Reformed theologian and Protestant reformer.
Pietism (from the word piety) was an influential movement in Lutheranism that combined its emphasis on Biblical doctrine with the Reformed emphasis on individual piety and living a vigorous Christian life.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Polydeism (from Greek πολλοί ('poloi'), meaning 'many', and Latin deus meaning god) is a polytheistic form of deism encompassing the belief that the universe was the collective creation of multiple gods, each of whom created a piece of the universe or multiverse and then ceased to intervene in its evolution.
Principles of Nature, also known as The Principles of Nature, or A Development of the Moral Causes of Happiness and Misery among the Human Species, was a work written in 1801 by Elihu Palmer.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
The religious affiliations of Presidents of the United States can affect their electability, shape their stances on policy matters and their visions of society and also how they want to lead it.
Religious skepticism is a type of skepticism relating to religion.
A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.
Richard Simon CO (13 May 1638 – 11 April 1712), was a French priest, a member of the Oratorians, who was an influential biblical critic, orientalist and controversialist.
Robert Burton (8 February 1577 – 25 January 1640) was an English scholar at Oxford University, best known for the classic The Anatomy of Melancholy.
Samuel Johnson LL.D. (18 September 1709 – 13 December 1784), often referred to as Dr.
The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.
Sectarianism is a form of bigotry, discrimination, or hatred arising from attaching relations of inferiority and superiority to differences between subdivisions within a group.
Skeptical Inquirer is a bimonthly American magazine published by the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry (CSI) with the subtitle: The Magazine for Science and Reason.
A straw man is a common form of argument and is an informal fallacy based on giving the impression of refuting an opponent's argument, while actually refuting an argument that was not presented by that opponent.
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
Supreme Being is a term used by theologians and philosophers of many religions, including Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism, Sikhism, Jainism, Deism and Zoroastrianism, often as an alternative to the term God.
Sydney Eckman Ahlstrom (December 16, 1919 – July 3, 1984) was an American educator and historian.
The teleological or physico-theological argument, also known as the argument from design, or intelligent design argument is an argument for the existence of God or, more generally, for an intelligent creator based on perceived evidence of deliberate design in the natural world.
The Age of Reason; Being an Investigation of True and Fabulous Theology is a work by English and American political activist Thomas Paine, arguing for the philosophical position of Deism.
The Anatomy of Melancholy (full title: The Anatomy of Melancholy, What it is: With all the Kinds, Causes, Symptomes, Prognostickes, and Several Cures of it. In Three Maine Partitions with their several Sections, Members, and Subsections. Philosophically, Medicinally, Historically, Opened and Cut Up) is a book by Robert Burton, first published in 1621, but republished four more times over the next seventeen years with massive alterations and expansions.
Theistic evolution, theistic evolutionism, evolutionary creationism or God-guided evolution are views that regard religious teachings about God as compatible with modern scientific understanding about biological evolution.
Theistic rationalism is a hybrid of natural religion, Christianity, and rationalism, in which rationalism is the predominant element.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
Thomas Chubb (September 29, 1679 – February 8, 1747) was an English lay Deist writer, born near Salisbury.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.
Thomas Morgan (died 1743) was an English deist.
Thomas Paine (born Thomas Pain; – In the contemporary record as noted by Conway, Paine's birth date is given as January 29, 1736–37. Common practice was to use a dash or a slash to separate the old-style year from the new-style year. In the old calendar, the new year began on March 25, not January 1. Paine's birth date, therefore, would have been before New Year, 1737. In the new style, his birth date advances by eleven days and his year increases by one to February 9, 1737. The O.S. link gives more detail if needed. – June 8, 1809) was an English-born American political activist, philosopher, political theorist and revolutionary.
Thomas Woolston (baptised November 1668 – 27 January 1733) was an English theologian.
Written by the Dutch philosopher Baruch Spinoza, the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (TTP) or Theologico-Political Treatise was one of the most controversial texts of the early modern period.
Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States.
The transpersonal is a term used by different schools of philosophy and psychology in order to describe experiences and worldviews that extend beyond the personal level of the psyche, and beyond mundane worldly events.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
Unitarian Universalism (UU) is a liberal religion characterized by a "free and responsible search for truth and meaning".
Unitarianism (from Latin unitas "unity, oneness", from unus "one") is historically a Christian theological movement named for its belief that the God in Christianity is one entity, as opposed to the Trinity (tri- from Latin tres "three") which defines God as three persons in one being; the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.
The unmoved mover (that which moves without being moved) or prime mover (primum movens) is a concept advanced by Aristotle as a primary cause or "mover" of all the motion in the universe.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
The watchmaker analogy or watchmaker argument is a teleological argument which states, by way of an analogy, that a design implies a designer.
William Stephens (c. 1647–1718) was an English cleric and radical Whig.
William Wollaston (26 March 1659 – 29 October 1724) was a school teacher, Church of England priest, scholar of Latin, Greek and Hebrew, theologian, and a major Enlightenment era English philosopher.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.