322 relations: 'Ain Ghazal, Absolute (philosophy), Achaemenid Empire, Agnosticism, Ahimsa, Ahura Mazda, Allah, Americas, Anat, Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek religion, Ancient Rome, Androgyny, Angels in Judaism, Angra Mainyu, Anshar, Anu, Anunnaki, Aphrodite, Apollo, Apotheosis, Arabic, Ares, Arihant (Jainism), Artemis, Asherah, Ashur (god), Astarte, Asura, Atheism, Athena, Augustine of Hippo, Aurora (mythology), Auseklis, Avatar, Avesta, Avestan, Aztecs, Æsir, Æsir–Vanir War, Çatalhöyük, Émile Durkheim, Ātman (Hinduism), Baal, Babylonian captivity, Black-figure pottery, Brahma, Brahman, Buddhism, ..., Buddhist cosmology, C. Scott Littleton, Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary, Canaan, Causality, Cave painting, Chac-Xib-Chac, Christian cross, Christian mission, Christianity, Church Fathers, City-state, Cognate, Consubstantiality, Council of Chalcedon, Creator deity, Culture of Asia, Cybele, Cylinder seal, Daeva, Deicide, Deism, Demeter, Democritus, Demon, Deus, Deva (Buddhism), Deva (Hinduism), Deva (Jainism), Devi, Dingir, Dionysus, Divinity, Dryad, Dumuzid, Dyaus (deity), Dyeus, Earth, East Asia, East Semitic languages, Egyptology, El (deity), Emanationism, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Philosophy, English language, Enki, Enlil, Eos, Equinox, Erinyes, Euhemerism, Euhemerus, Evil twin, Father, First Council of Nicaea, Freyja, Freyr, Ganesha, Gaut, Gender of God, Geshtinanna, God, God (male deity), God (word), God in Islam, God the Father, God the Son, Goddess, Gothic language, Grammatical gender, Greek hero cult, Greek language, Gugalanna, Hades, Heathenry (new religious movement), Heaven, Henotheism, Hephaestus, Hera, Heracles, Hermes, Hero, Hestia, Hindu cosmology, Hinduism, Holy Spirit, Hutchinson Encyclopedia, Ilah, Immanence, Immortality, Imperial cult, Inanna, Inca Empire, Incarnation, Indian religions, Indra, Inti, Io Matua Kore, Ioudaios, Iraq, Irish language, Ixchel, Jainism, James Peter Allen, Jīva (Jainism), Jesus, Josiah, Jupiter (mythology), Karma, Karma in Jainism, Kāne, Kū, Khuda, Kingdom of Israel (Samaria), Kingdom of Judah, Kishar, Kukulkan, Kylix, La'a Maomao, Laity, Lake Victoria, Lampsacus, Latin, Level of consciousness (Esotericism), Libation, List of fictional deities, List of lunar deities, List of natural phenomena, List of nature deities, Lists of deities, Mama Killa, Marduk, Maya calendar, Maya civilization, Maya religion, Māori people, McFarland & Company, Merriam-Webster, Mesoamerican pyramids, Mesopotamia, Minoan civilization, Monism, Monolatry, Monotheism, Morality, Mormon Doctrine (book), Mount Meru, Naiad, National god, Near East, Nereid, New Testament, New Zealand, Nigeria, Ninhursag, Nirvana, Non-physical entity, Nontheistic religion, Nordic countries, Norse mythology, Norsemen, Nymph, Odin, Ogun, Old Church Slavonic, Old English, Old French, Old Latin, Old Persian, Omnibenevolence, Omnipotence, Omnipresence, Omniscience, Origen, Orisha, Osun, Pachamama, Pacific Ocean, Paganism, Pan (god), Panentheism, Pantheism, Pantheon (religion), Persian language, Pharaoh, Polynesians, Polytheism, Poseidon, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European religion, Proto-Indo-European society, Pyramid Texts, Quetzalcoatl, Rangi and Papa, Reincarnation, Religion, Religion in ancient Rome, Religion in the Inca Empire, Ritual, Saṃsāra, Saṃsāra (Buddhism), Sacred, Sacred king, Sanskrit, Saraswati, Sargon of Akkad, Sasanian Empire, Satyr, Season, Shahada, Shastra, Sibling relationship, Sigmund Freud, Sin (mythology), Slave ship, Sociology of religion, Solar deity, Solar eclipse, Sons of God, Soul, Southeast Asia, Southern Africa, Spanish Empire, Ssangbongsa, Stater, Subordinationism, Sun, Supernatural, Supreme Being, Syncretism, Tangaroa, Týr, Tūmatauenga, Tengri, Theism, Theodicy, Theravada, Thor, Transcendence (religion), Trinity, Tu-metua, Turkic languages, Turkish language, Tutelary deity, Twelve Olympians, Upanishads, Upādāna, Urdu, Ushas, Utu, Vanir, Vedas, Veneration of the dead, Venus of Willendorf, Viracocha, Votive offering, Walter Burkert, West Africa, West Semitic languages, White ground technique, William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, Wisdom, Yahweh, Ynglinga saga, Yoruba religion, Zeus, Zimbabwe, Zoomorphism, Zoroaster, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (272 more) » « Shrink index
Ayn Ghazal (Ain Ghazal, ʿayn ġazāl عين غزال) is a neolithic archaeological site located in metropolitan Amman, Jordan, about 2 km north-west of Amman Civil Airport.
In philosophy, the concept of The Absolute, also known as The (Unconditioned) Ultimate, The Wholly Other, The Supreme Being, The Absolute/Ultimate Reality, and other names, is the thing, being, entity, power, force, reality, presence, law, principle, etc.
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Agnosticism is the view that the existence of God, of the divine or the supernatural is unknown or unknowable.
Ahimsa (IAST:, Pāli) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.
Ahura Mazda (also known as Ohrmazd, Ahuramazda, Hourmazd, Hormazd, Harzoo and Hurmuz) is the Avestan name for the creator and sole God of Zoroastrianism, the old Iranian religion that spread across the Middle East, before ultimately being relegated to small minorities after the Muslim conquest of Iran.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Anat, classically Anath (עֲנָת ʿĂnāth; 𐤏𐤍𐤕 ʿAnōt; 𐎓𐎐𐎚 ʿnt; Αναθ Anath; Egyptian Antit, Anit, Anti, or Anant) is a major northwest Semitic goddess.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Androgyny is the combination of masculine and feminine characteristics.
In Judaism, angels (מַלְאָךְ mal’akh, plural: מלאכים mal’akhim) are supernatural beings that appear throughout the Tanakh (Hebrew Bible), rabbinic literature, apocrypha and pseudepigrapha, and traditional Jewish liturgy.
Angra Mainyu (Avestan: Aŋra Mainiiu) is the Avestan-language name of Zoroastrianism's hypostasis of the "destructive spirit".
In the Babylonian creation myth Enuma Elish, Anshar (also spelled Anšar), which means "whole heaven", is a primordial god.
Anu (𒀭𒀭, Anu‹m› or Ilu) or An (𒀭, from 𒀭 an "Sky, Heaven") is the divine personification of the sky, supreme God, and ancestor of all the deities in ancient Mesopotamian religion.
The Anunnaki (also transcribed as Anunaki, Anunna, Ananaki, and other variations) are a group of deities that appear in the mythological traditions of the ancient Sumerians, Akkadians, Assyrians, and Babylonians.
Aphrodite is the ancient Greek goddess of love, beauty, pleasure, and procreation.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Apotheosis (from Greek ἀποθέωσις from ἀποθεοῦν, apotheoun "to deify"; in Latin deificatio "making divine"; also called divinization and deification) is the glorification of a subject to divine level.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Ares (Ἄρης, Áres) is the Greek god of war.
Arihant (italic, italic "conqueror"), is a soul who has conquered inner passions such as attachment, anger, pride and greed.
Artemis (Ἄρτεμις Artemis) was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities.
Asherah in ancient Semitic religion, is a mother goddess who appears in a number of ancient sources.
Ashur (also, Assur, Aššur; cuneiform: dAš-šur) is an East Semitic god, and the head of the Assyrian pantheon in Mesopotamian religion, worshipped mainly in the northern half of Mesopotamia, and parts of north-east Syria and south east Asia Minor which constituted old Assyria.
Astarte (Ἀστάρτη, Astártē) is the Hellenized form of the Middle Eastern goddess Astoreth (Northwest Semitic), a form of Ishtar (East Semitic), worshipped from the Bronze Age through classical antiquity.
Asuras (असुर) are a class of divine beings or power-seeking deities related to the more benevolent Devas (also known as Suras) in Hindu mythology.
Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
Athena; Attic Greek: Ἀθηνᾶ, Athēnā, or Ἀθηναία, Athēnaia; Epic: Ἀθηναίη, Athēnaiē; Doric: Ἀθάνα, Athānā or Athene,; Ionic: Ἀθήνη, Athēnē often given the epithet Pallas,; Παλλὰς is the ancient Greek goddess of wisdom, handicraft, and warfare, who was later syncretized with the Roman goddess Minerva.
Saint Augustine of Hippo (13 November 354 – 28 August 430) was a Roman African, early Christian theologian and philosopher from Numidia whose writings influenced the development of Western Christianity and Western philosophy.
Aurora is the Latin word for dawn, and the goddess of dawn in Roman mythology and Latin poetry.
Auseklis (derived from root aus- - "dawn") was a Latvian god, and the personification of the celestial body of Venus - the first "star" (how Latvians call it) to appear in the mornings on the east side of the sky.
An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent", refers to the material appearance or incarnation of a deity on earth.
The Avesta is the primary collection of religious texts of Zoroastrianism, composed in the otherwise unrecorded Avestan language.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
The Aztecs were a Mesoamerican culture that flourished in central Mexico in the post-classic period from 1300 to 1521.
In Old Norse, ǫ́ss (or áss, ás, plural æsir; feminine ásynja, plural ásynjur) is a member of the principal pantheon in Norse religion.
In Norse mythology, the Æsir–Vanir War was a conflict between two groups of deities that ultimately resulted in the unification of the Æsir and the Vanir into a single pantheon.
Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük; from Turkish çatal "fork" + höyük "mound") was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000 BC.
David Émile Durkheim (or; April 15, 1858 – November 15, 1917) was a French sociologist.
Ātma is a Sanskrit word that means inner self or soul.
Baal,Oxford English Dictionary (1885), "" properly Baʿal, was a title and honorific meaning "lord" in the Northwest Semitic languages spoken in the Levant during antiquity. From its use among people, it came to be applied to gods. Scholars previously associated the theonym with solar cults and with a variety of unrelated patron deities, but inscriptions have shown that the name Baʿal was particularly associated with the storm and fertility god Hadad and his local manifestations. The Hebrew Bible, compiled and curated over a span of centuries, includes early use of the term in reference to God (known to them as Yahweh), generic use in reference to various Levantine deities, and finally pointed application towards Hadad, who was decried as a false god. That use was taken over into Christianity and Islam, sometimes under the opprobrious form Beelzebub in demonology.
The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
Black-figure pottery painting, also known as the black-figure style or black-figure ceramic (Greek, μελανόμορφα, melanomorpha) is one of the styles of painting on antique Greek vases.
Brahma (Sanskrit: ब्रह्मा, IAST: Brahmā) is a creator god in Hinduism.
In Hinduism, Brahman connotes the highest Universal Principle, the Ultimate Reality in the universe.P. T. Raju (2006), Idealistic Thought of India, Routledge,, page 426 and Conclusion chapter part XII In major schools of Hindu philosophy, it is the material, efficient, formal and final cause of all that exists.For dualism school of Hinduism, see: Francis X. Clooney (2010), Hindu God, Christian God: How Reason Helps Break Down the Boundaries between Religions, Oxford University Press,, pages 51–58, 111–115;For monist school of Hinduism, see: B. Martinez-Bedard (2006), Types of Causes in Aristotle and Sankara, Thesis – Department of Religious Studies (Advisors: Kathryn McClymond and Sandra Dwyer), Georgia State University, pages 18–35 It is the pervasive, genderless, infinite, eternal truth and bliss which does not change, yet is the cause of all changes. Brahman as a metaphysical concept is the single binding unity behind diversity in all that exists in the universe. Brahman is a Vedic Sanskrit word, and it is conceptualized in Hinduism, states Paul Deussen, as the "creative principle which lies realized in the whole world". Brahman is a key concept found in the Vedas, and it is extensively discussed in the early Upanishads.Stephen Philips (1998), Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Brahman to Derrida (Editor; Edward Craig), Routledge,, pages 1–4 The Vedas conceptualize Brahman as the Cosmic Principle. In the Upanishads, it has been variously described as Sat-cit-ānanda (truth-consciousness-bliss) and as the unchanging, permanent, highest reality. Brahman is discussed in Hindu texts with the concept of Atman (Soul, Self), personal, impersonal or Para Brahman, or in various combinations of these qualities depending on the philosophical school. In dualistic schools of Hinduism such as the theistic Dvaita Vedanta, Brahman is different from Atman (soul) in each being.Michael Myers (2000), Brahman: A Comparative Theology, Routledge,, pages 124–127 In non-dual schools such as the Advaita Vedanta, Brahman is identical to the Atman, is everywhere and inside each living being, and there is connected spiritual oneness in all existence.Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass,, pages 19–40, 53–58, 79–86.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the Universe according to the Buddhist scriptures and commentaries.
Covington Scott Littleton (1 July 1933 – 25 November 2010) was an American anthropologist and academic.
Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (unofficially Cambridge English Dictionary or Cambridge Dictionary, abbreviated CALD) was first published in 1995 under the name Cambridge International Dictionary of English, by the Cambridge University Press.
Canaan (Northwest Semitic:; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Cave paintings, also known as parietal art, are painted drawings on cave walls or ceilings, mainly of prehistoric origin, beginning roughly 40,000 years ago (around 38,000 BCE) in Eurasia.
Chac-Xib-Chac (Maya Glyphs) is a figure in Maya mythology.
The Christian cross, seen as a representation of the instrument of the crucifixion of Jesus, is the best-known symbol of Christianity.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church are ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Consubstantial (Latin: consubstantialis) is an adjective used in Latin Christian christology, coined by Tertullian in Against Hermogenes 44, used to translate the Greek term homoousios.
The Council of Chalcedon was a church council held from October 8 to November 1, AD 451, at Chalcedon.
A creator deity or creator god (often called the Creator) is a deity or god responsible for the creation of the Earth, world, and universe in human mythology.
The culture of Asia encompasses the collective and diverse customs and traditions of art, architecture, music, literature, lifestyle, philosophy, politics and religion that have been practiced and maintained by the numerous ethnic groups of the continent of Asia since prehistory.
Cybele (Phrygian: Matar Kubileya/Kubeleya "Kubileya/Kubeleya Mother", perhaps "Mountain Mother"; Lydian Kuvava; Κυβέλη Kybele, Κυβήβη Kybebe, Κύβελις Kybelis) is an Anatolian mother goddess; she may have a possible precursor in the earliest neolithic at Çatalhöyük, where statues of plump women, sometimes sitting, have been found in excavations.
A cylinder seal is a small round cylinder, typically about one inch in length, engraved with written characters or figurative scenes or both, used in ancient times to roll an impression onto a two-dimensional surface, generally wet clay.
Daeva (daēuua, daāua, daēva) is an Avestan language term for a particular sort of supernatural entity with disagreeable characteristics.
Deicide is the killing (or the killer) of a god.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter (Attic: Δημήτηρ Dēmḗtēr,; Doric: Δαμάτηρ Dāmā́tēr) is the goddess of the grain, agriculture, harvest, growth, and nourishment, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
A demon (from Koine Greek δαιμόνιον daimónion) is a supernatural and often malevolent being prevalent in religion, occultism, literature, fiction, mythology and folklore.
Deus is Latin for "god" or "deity".
A deva (देव Sanskrit and Pāli, Mongolian tenger (тэнгэр)) in Buddhism is one of many different types of non-human beings who share the godlike characteristics of being more powerful, longer-lived, and, in general, much happier than humans, although the same level of veneration is not paid to them as to buddhas.
Deva (Sanskrit: देव) means "heavenly, divine, anything of excellence", and is also one of the terms for a deity in Hinduism.
The sanskrit word Deva has multiple meanings in Jainism.
Devī (Sanskrit: देवी) is the Sanskrit word for "goddess"; the masculine form is Deva.
Dingir (usually transliterated DIĜIR) is a Sumerian word for "god." Its cuneiform sign is most commonly employed as the determinative for religious names and related concepts, in which case it is not pronounced and is conventionally transliterated as a superscript "D" as in e.g. DInanna.
Dionysus (Διόνυσος Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in ancient Greek religion and myth.
In religion, divinity or godhead is the state of things that are believed to come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god, supreme being, creator deity, or spirits, and are therefore regarded as sacred and holy.
A dryad (Δρυάδες, sing.: Δρυάς) is a tree nymph or tree spirit in Greek mythology.
Dumuzid, later known by the alternate form Tammuz, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of shepherds, who was also the primary consort of the goddess Inanna (later known as Ishtar).
(द्यौष्पितृ /, literally "Sky Father") is the "Father Heaven" deity of the Vedic pantheon, who appears in hymns with Prithvi Mata "Mother Earth" in the ancient scriptures of Hinduism.
Dyēus (also *Dyḗus Ph2tḗr, alternatively spelled dyēws) is believed to have been the chief deity in the religious traditions of the prehistoric Proto-Indo-European societies.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The East Semitic languages are one of six current divisions of the Semitic languages, the others being Northwest Semitic, Arabian, Old South Arabian (also known as Sayhadic), Modern South Arabian, and Ethio-Semitic.
Egyptology (from Egypt and Greek -λογία, -logia. علم المصريات) is the study of ancient Egyptian history, language, literature, religion, architecture and art from the 5th millennium BC until the end of its native religious practices in the 4th century AD.
(or ’Il, written aleph-lamed, e.g. 𐎛𐎍; 𐤀𐤋; אל; ܐܠ; إل or rtl; cognate to ilu) is a Northwest Semitic word meaning "god" or "deity", or referring (as a proper name) to any one of multiple major Ancient Near East deities.
Emanationism is an idea in the cosmology or cosmogony of certain religious or philosophical systems.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Encyclopedia of Philosophy is one of the major English encyclopedias of philosophy.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Enki (Sumerian: dEN.KI(G)) is the Sumerian god of water, knowledge (gestú), mischief, crafts (gašam), and creation (nudimmud).
Enlil, later known as Elil, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of wind, air, earth, and storms.
In Greek mythology, Eos (Ionic and Homeric Greek Ἠώς Ēōs, Attic Ἕως Éōs, "dawn", or; Aeolic Αὔως Aúōs, Doric Ἀώς Āṓs) is a Titaness and the goddess of the dawn, who rose each morning from her home at the edge of the Oceanus.
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
In Greek mythology the Erinyes (sing. Erinys; Ἐρῑνύες, pl. of Ἐρῑνύς, Erinys), also known as the Furies, were female chthonic deities of vengeance; they were sometimes referred to as "infernal goddesses" (χθόνιαι θεαί).
Euhemerism is an approach to the interpretation of mythology in which mythological accounts are presumed to have originated from real historical events or personages.
Euhemerus (also spelled Euemeros or Evemerus; Εὐήμερος Euhēmeros, "happy; prosperous"; late fourth century BC), was a Greek mythographer at the court of Cassander, the king of Macedon.
The evil twin is an antagonist found in many different fictional genres.
A father is the male parent of a child.
The First Council of Nicaea (Νίκαια) was a council of Christian bishops convened in the Bithynian city of Nicaea (now İznik, Bursa province, Turkey) by the Roman Emperor Constantine I in AD 325.
In Norse mythology, Freyja (Old Norse for "(the) Lady") is a goddess associated with love, sex, beauty, fertility, gold, seiðr, war, and death.
Freyr (Old Norse: Lord), sometimes anglicized as Frey, is a widely attested god associated with sacral kingship, virility and prosperity, with sunshine and fair weather, and pictured as a phallic fertility god in Norse mythology.
Ganesha (गणेश), also known as Ganapati, Vinayaka, Pillaiyar and Binayak, is one of the best-known and most worshipped deities in the Hindu pantheon.
Gaut is an early Germanic name, from a Proto-Germanic gautaz, which represents a mythical ancestor or national god in the origin myth of the Geats.
The gender of God can be viewed as a literal or as an allegorical aspect of a deity.
Geshtinanna (also known as Geštinanna or Ngeshtin-ana) is the ancient Sumerian goddess of agriculture, fertility, and dream interpretation, the so-called "heavenly grape-vine".
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
A god is a male deity, in contrast with a goddess, a female deity.
The English word god continues the Old English god (guþ, gudis in Gothic, guð in Old Norse, god in Frisian and Dutch, and Gott in modern German), which is derived from Proto-Germanic ǥuđán.
In Islam, God (Allāh, contraction of الْإِلٰه al-ilāh, lit. "the god") is indivisible, the God, the absolute one, the all-powerful and all-knowing ruler of the universe, and the creator of everything in existence within the universe.
God the Father is a title given to God in various religions, most prominently in Christianity.
God the Son (Θεός ὁ υἱός) is the second person of the Trinity in Christian theology.
A goddess is a female deity.
Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.
In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, pronouns, or verbs.
Hero cults were one of the most distinctive features of ancient Greek religion.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
In Sumerian religion, Gugalanna is the first husband of Ereshkigal, the queen of the Underworld.
Hades (ᾍδης Háidēs) was the ancient Greek chthonic god of the underworld, which eventually took his name.
Heathenry, also termed Heathenism or Germanic Neopaganism, is a modern Pagan religion.
Heaven, or the heavens, is a common religious, cosmological, or transcendent place where beings such as gods, angels, spirits, saints, or venerated ancestors are said to originate, be enthroned, or live.
Henotheism is the worship of a single god while not denying the existence or possible existence of other deities.
Hephaestus (eight spellings; Ἥφαιστος Hēphaistos) is the Greek god of blacksmiths, metalworking, carpenters, craftsmen, artisans, sculptors, metallurgy, fire, and volcanoes.
Hera (Ἥρᾱ, Hērā; Ἥρη, Hērē in Ionic and Homeric Greek) is the goddess of women, marriage, family, and childbirth in Ancient Greek religion and myth, one of the Twelve Olympians and the sister-wife of Zeus.
Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.
Hermes (Ἑρμῆς) is an Olympian god in Greek religion and mythology, the son of Zeus and the Pleiad Maia, and the second youngest of the Olympian gods (Dionysus being the youngest).
A hero (masculine) or heroine (feminine) is a real person or a main character of a literary work who, in the face of danger, combats adversity through feats of ingenuity, bravery or strength; the original hero type of classical epics did such things for the sake of glory and honor.
In Ancient Greek religion, Hestia (Ἑστία, "hearth" or "fireside") is a virgin goddess of the hearth, architecture, and the right ordering of domesticity, the family, the home, and the state.
In Hindu cosmology, the universe is cyclically created and destroyed.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Holy Spirit (also called Holy Ghost) is a term found in English translations of the Bible that is understood differently among the Abrahamic religions.
The Hutchinson Encyclopedia is an English-language general encyclopedia.
(إله; plural: آلهة) is an Arabic term meaning "deity" or "god".
The doctrine or theory of immanence holds that the divine encompasses or is manifested in the material world.
Immortality is eternal life, being exempt from death, unending existence.
An imperial cult is a form of state religion in which an emperor or a dynasty of emperors (or rulers of another title) are worshipped as demigods or deities.
Inanna was the ancient Sumerian goddess of love, beauty, sex, desire, fertility, war, combat, justice, and political power.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
Incarnation literally means embodied in flesh or taking on flesh.
Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.
Inti is the ancient Incan sun god.
Io Matua Kore is often understood as the supreme being in Polynesian narrative of the Māori people of New Zealand.
Ioudaios (Ἰουδαῖος; pl. Ἰουδαῖοι Ioudaioi). is an Ancient Greek ethnonym used in classical and biblical literature which commonly translates to "Jew" or "Judean". The choice of translation is the subject of frequent scholarly debate, given its central importance to passages in the Bible (both the Hebrew Bible and the New Testament) as well as works of other writers such as Josephus and Philo. Translating it as Jews is seen to imply connotations as to the religious beliefs of the people, whereas translating it as Judeans confines the identity within the geopolitical boundaries of Judea.James D. G. Dunn Jesus, Paul, and the Gospels 2011 Page 124 "6.6 and 9.17, where for the first time Ioudaios can properly be translated 'Jew'; and in Greco-Roman writers, the first use of Ioudaios as a religious term appears at the end of the first century ce (90- 96, 127, 133-36). 12." A related translation debate refers to the terms ἰουδαΐζειν (verb), literally translated as "Judaizing" (compare Judaizers), and Ἰουδαϊσμός (noun), controversially translated as Judaism or Judeanism.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Ixchel or Ix Chel is the 16th-century name of the aged jaguar goddess of midwifery and medicine in ancient Maya culture.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
James Peter Allen (born 1945) is an American Egyptologist, specializing in language and religion.
The Jīva or Atman (आत्मन्) is a philosophical term used within Jainism to identify the soul.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
Josiah or Yoshiyahu was a seventh-century BCE king of Judah (c. 649–609) who, according to the Hebrew Bible, instituted major religious reforms.
Jupiter (from Iūpiter or Iuppiter, *djous “day, sky” + *patēr “father," thus "heavenly father"), also known as Jove gen.
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
Karma is the basic principle within an overarching psycho-cosmology in Jainism.
In Hawaiian mythology, Kāne is considered the highest of the four major Hawaiian deities, along with Kanaloa, Kū, and Lono, though he is most closely associated with Kanaloa.
In Hawaiian history Kū or Kūkailimoku is one of the four great gods.
Khuda or Khoda (خدا) is the Iranian word for "Lord" or "God".
According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah.
The Kingdom of Judah (מַמְלֶכֶת יְהוּדָה, Mamlekhet Yehudāh) was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant.
In the Akkadian epic Enuma Elish, Kishar is the daughter of Lahmu and Lahamu, the first children of Tiamat and Abzu.
Kukulkan ("Plumed Serpent", "Feathered Serpent") is the name of a Maya snake deity that also serves to designate historical persons.
In the pottery of ancient Greece, a kylix (κύλιξ, pl.; also spelled cylix; pl.: kylikes) is the most common type of wine-drinking cup.
In Hawaiian mythology, Laʻa Maomao is the god of the wind.
A layperson (also layman or laywoman) is a person who is not qualified in a given profession and/or does not have specific knowledge of a certain subject.
Lake Victoria (Nam Lolwe in Luo; Nalubaale in Luganda; Nyanza in Kinyarwanda and some Bantu languages) is one of the African Great Lakes.
Lampsacus (translit) was an ancient Greek city strategically located on the eastern side of the Hellespont in the northern Troad.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Consciousness is a loosely defined concept that addresses the human awareness of both internal and external stimuli.
A libation is a ritual pouring of a liquid (ex: milk or other fluids such as corn flour mixed with water), or grains such as rice, as an offering to a god or spirit, or in memory of those who have "passed on".
This compilation of lists is organized primarily by media type then by title of the fiction work, series, franchise or author.
In mythology, a lunar deity is a god or goddess associated with, or symbolic of the moon.
Types of natural phenomena include, but are not limited to, the following: Weather, fog, thunder, tornadoes; biological processes, decomposition, germination; physical processes, wave propagation, erosion; tidal flow, and natural disasters such as electromagnetic pulses, volcanic eruptions, and earthquakes.
In nature worship, a nature deity is a deity in charge of forces of nature such as water deity, vegetation deity, sky deity, solar deity, fire deity or any other naturally occurring phenomena such as mountains, trees, or volcanoes.
This is an index to deities of the different religions, cultures and mythologies of the world, listed by type and by region.
Mama Killa (Quechua mama mother, killa moon, "Mother Moon", hispanicized spelling Mama Quilla), in Inca mythology and religion, was the third power and goddess of the moon.
Marduk (cuneiform: dAMAR.UTU; Sumerian: amar utu.k "calf of the sun; solar calf"; Greek Μαρδοχαῖος, Mardochaios) was a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon.
The Maya calendar is a system of calendars used in pre-Columbian Mesoamerica and in many modern communities in the Guatemalan highlands, Veracruz, Oaxaca and Chiapas, Mexico.
The Maya civilization was a Mesoamerican civilization developed by the Maya peoples, and noted for its hieroglyphic script—the only known fully developed writing system of the pre-Columbian Americas—as well as for its art, architecture, mathematics, calendar, and astronomical system.
The traditional Maya religion of Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and the Tabasco, Chiapas, and Yucatán regions of Mexico is a southeastern variant of Mesoamerican religion.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
McFarland & Company, Inc. is an independent book publisher based in Jefferson, North Carolina that specializes in academic and reference works, as well as general interest adult nonfiction.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Mesoamerican pyramids or pyramid-shaped structures form a prominent part of ancient Mesoamerican architecture.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
Monism attributes oneness or singleness (Greek: μόνος) to a concept e.g., existence.
Monolatry (Greek: μόνος (monos).
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
:"Mormon Doctrine" redirects here.
Mount Meru (Sanskrit: मेरु, Tibetan: ཪི་རྒྱལ་པོ་རི་རབ་, Sumeru, Sineru or Mahameru) is the sacred five-peaked mountain of Hindu, Jain, and Buddhist cosmology and is considered to be the center of all the physical, metaphysical and spiritual universes.
In Greek mythology, the Naiads (Greek: Ναϊάδες) are a type of female spirit, or nymph, presiding over fountains, wells, springs, streams, brooks and other bodies of fresh water.
National gods are a class of guardian divinities or deities whose special concern is the safety and well-being of an ethnic group (nation), and of that group's leaders.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
In Greek mythology, the Nereids (Νηρηΐδες Nereides, sg. Νηρηΐς Nereis) are sea nymphs (female spirits of sea waters), the 50 daughters of Nereus and Doris, sisters to Nerites.
The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
Nigeria, officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria is a federal republic in West Africa, bordering Benin in the west, Chad and Cameroon in the east, and Niger in the north.
Ninḫursaĝ, also known as Damgalnuna or Ninmah, was the ancient Sumerian mother goddess of the mountains, and one of the seven great deities of Sumer.
(निर्वाण nirvāṇa; निब्बान nibbāna; णिव्वाण ṇivvāṇa) literally means "blown out", as in an oil lamp.
In ontology and the philosophy of mind, a non-physical entity is a spirit or being that exists outside physical reality.
Nontheistic religions are traditions of thought within a religious context—some otherwise aligned with theism, others not—in which nontheism informs religious beliefs or practices.
The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
A nymph (νύμφη, nýmphē) in Greek and Latin mythology is a minor female nature deity typically associated with a particular location or landform.
In Germanic mythology, Odin (from Óðinn /ˈoːðinː/) is a widely revered god.
Ogun or Ogoun (Yoruba: Ògún, Portuguese: Ogum, Gu; also spelled Oggun or Ogou; known as Ogún in Latin America) is an Orisha, Loa, and Vodun.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Old Latin, also known as Early Latin or Archaic Latin, refers to the Latin language in the period before 75 BC: before the age of Classical Latin.
Old Persian is one of the two directly attested Old Iranian languages (the other being Avestan).
Omnibenevolence (from Latin omni- meaning "all", bene- meaning "good" and volens meaning "willing") is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "unlimited or infinite benevolence".
Omnipotence is the quality of having unlimited power.
Omnipresence or ubiquity is the property of being present everywhere.
Omniscience, mainly in religion, is the capacity to know everything that there is to know.
Origen of Alexandria (184 – 253), also known as Origen Adamantius, was a Hellenistic scholar, ascetic, and early Christian theologian who was born and spent the first half of his career in Alexandria.
An orisha (spelled òrìṣà in the Yoruba language, and orichá or orixá in Latin America) is a spirit who reflects one of the subordinate manifestations of the supreme divinity (Olodumare, Olorun, Olofi) in Yoruba religion.
Osun (Ozun) is a major Orichá (manifestation of a god) in the Santería religion of the Caribbean(Cuba and Trinidad) brought over by West African slaves during the transatlantic slave trade.
Pachamama is a goddess revered by the indigenous people of the Andes.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Pan (Πάν, Pan) is the god of the wild, shepherds and flocks, nature of mountain wilds, rustic music and impromptus, and companion of the nymphs.
Panentheism (meaning "all-in-God", from the Ancient Greek πᾶν pân, "all", ἐν en, "in" and Θεός Theós, "God") is the belief that the divine pervades and interpenetrates every part of the universe and also extends beyond time and space.
Pantheism is the belief that reality is identical with divinity, or that all-things compose an all-encompassing, immanent god.
A pantheon (from Greek πάνθεον pantheon, literally "(a temple) of all gods", "of or common to all gods" from πᾶν pan- "all" and θεός theos "god") is the particular set of all gods of any polytheistic religion, mythology, or tradition.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
The Polynesians are a subset of Austronesians native to the islands of Polynesia that speak the Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic subfamily of the Austronesian language family.
Polytheism (from Greek πολυθεϊσμός, polytheismos) is the worship of or belief in multiple deities, which are usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own religions and rituals.
Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was one of the Twelve Olympians in ancient Greek religion and myth.
Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
Proto-Indo-European religion is the belief system adhered to by the Proto-Indo-Europeans.
Proto-Indo-European society is the hypothesized culture of the ancient speakers of Proto-Indo-European, ancestors of all modern Indo–European ethnic groups who are speakers of Indo-European languages.
The Pyramid Texts are a collection of ancient Egyptian religious texts from the time of the Old Kingdom.
Quetzalcoatl (ket͡saɬˈkowaːt͡ɬ, in honorific form: Quetzalcohuātzin) forms part of Mesoamerican literature and is a deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and means "feathered serpent" or "Quetzal-feathered Serpent".
In Māori mythology the primal couple Rangi and Papa (or Ranginui and Papatūānuku) appear in a creation myth explaining the origin of the world (though there are many different versions).
Reincarnation is the philosophical or religious concept that an aspect of a living being starts a new life in a different physical body or form after each biological death.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
Religion in Ancient Rome includes the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule, in so far as they became widely followed in Rome and Italy.
In the heterogeneous Inca Empire, polytheistic religions were practiced.
A ritual "is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, and objects, performed in a sequestered place, and performed according to set sequence".
Saṃsāra is a Sanskrit word that means "wandering" or "world", with the connotation of cyclic, circuitous change.
Saṃsāra (Sanskrit, Pali; also samsara) in Buddhism is the beginning-less cycle of repeated birth, mundane existence and dying again.
Sacred means revered due to sanctity and is generally the state of being perceived by religious individuals as associated with divinity and considered worthy of spiritual respect or devotion; or inspiring awe or reverence among believers.
In many historical societies, the position of kingship carries a sacral meaning, that is, it is identical with that of a high priest and of judge.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Saraswati (सरस्वती) is the Hindu goddess of knowledge, music, art, wisdom and learning worshipped throughout Nepal and India.
Sargon of Akkad (Akkadian Šarru-ukīn or Šarru-kēn, also known as Sargon the Great) was the first ruler of the Semitic-speaking Akkadian Empire, known for his conquests of the Sumerian city-states in the 24th to 23rd centuries BC.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
In Greek mythology, a satyr (σάτυρος satyros) is the member of a troop of ithyphallic male companions of Dionysus; they usually have horse-like ears and tails, as well as permanent, exaggerated erections.
A season is a division of the year marked by changes in weather, ecology, and amount of daylight.
The Shahada (الشهادة,"the testimony").
Shastra (शास्त्र, IAST) is a Sanskrit word that means "precept, rules, manual, compendium, book or treatise" in a general sense.
Siblings play a unique role in one another’s lives that simulates the companionship of parents as well as the influence and assistance of friends.
Sigmund Freud (born Sigismund Schlomo Freud; 6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology through dialogue between a patient and a psychoanalyst.
Sin (Akkadian: 𒂗𒍪 Su'en, Sîn) or Nanna (Sumerian: 𒀭𒋀𒆠 DŠEŠ.KI, DNANNA) was the god of the moon in the Mesopotamian mythology of Akkad, Assyria and Babylonia.
Slave ships were large cargo ships specially converted for the purpose of transporting slaves.
Sociology of religion is the study of the beliefs, practices and organizational forms of religion using the tools and methods of the discipline of sociology.
A solar deity (also sun god or sun goddess) is a sky deity who represents the Sun, or an aspect of it, usually by its perceived power and strength.
A solar eclipse (as seen from the planet Earth) is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and when the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.
Sons of the God (Heb: bənê hāʼĕlōhîm, בני האלהים, literally: "Sons of the gods") is a phrase used in the Hebrew Bible and apocrypha.
In many religious, philosophical, and mythological traditions, there is a belief in the incorporeal essence of a living being called the soul. Soul or psyche (Greek: "psychē", of "psychein", "to breathe") are the mental abilities of a living being: reason, character, feeling, consciousness, memory, perception, thinking, etc.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Ssangbongsa, or Ssangbong Temple, is part of the Jogye Order of Korean Buddhism located in rural Jeung Village, Iyang Township, Hwasun County, South Jeolla Province, South Korea.
The stater (or; στατήρ, literally "weight") was an ancient coin used in various regions of Greece.
Subordinationism is a belief within early Christianity that asserts that the Son and the Holy Spirit are subordinate to God the Father in nature and being.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.
Supreme Being is a term used by theologians and philosophers of many religions, including Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Judaism, Sikhism, Jainism, Deism and Zoroastrianism, often as an alternative to the term God.
Syncretism is the combining of different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought.
In Māori mythology, Tangaroa (also Takaroa) is one of the great gods, the god of the sea.
Týr (Old Norse: Týr short.
In Māori mythology, Tū or Tūmatauenga (Māori: 'Tū of the angry face') is the god of war, hunting, food cultivation, fishing and cooking.
Tengri (𐱅𐰭𐰼𐰃; Тангра; Modern Turkish: Tanrı; Proto-Turkic *teŋri / *taŋrɨ; Mongolian script:, Tngri; Modern Mongolian: Тэнгэр, Tenger), is one of the names for the primary chief deity used by the early Turkic (Xiongnu, Hunnic, Bulgar) and Mongolic (Xianbei) peoples.
Theism is broadly defined as the belief in the existence of the Supreme Being or deities.
Theodicy, in its most common form, is an attempt to answer the question of why a good God permits the manifestation of evil, thus resolving the issue of the problem of evil.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
In Norse mythology, Thor (from Þórr) is the hammer-wielding god of thunder, lightning, storms, oak trees, strength, the protection of mankind, in addition to hallowing, and fertility.
In religion, transcendence refers to the aspect of a god's nature and power which is wholly independent of the material universe, beyond all known physical laws.
The Christian doctrine of the Trinity (from Greek τριάς and τριάδα, from "threefold") holds that God is one but three coeternal consubstantial persons or hypostases—the Father, the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit—as "one God in three Divine Persons".
In Cook Islands mythology, Tu-metua was the sixth child and most beloved daughter of the mother goddess, Vari.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
A tutelary (also tutelar) is a deity or spirit who is a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, person, lineage, nation, culture, or occupation.
relief (1st century BCendash1st century AD) depicting the twelve Olympians carrying their attributes in procession; from left to right, Hestia (scepter), Hermes (winged cap and staff), Aphrodite (veiled), Ares (helmet and spear), Demeter (scepter and wheat sheaf), Hephaestus (staff), Hera (scepter), Poseidon (trident), Athena (owl and helmet), Zeus (thunderbolt and staff), Artemis (bow and quiver), Apollo (lyre), from the Walters Art Museum.Walters Art Museum, http://art.thewalters.org/detail/38764 accession number 23.40. In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the twelve Olympians are the major deities of the Greek pantheon, commonly considered to be Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus.
The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.
Upādāna is a Vedic Sanskrit and Pali word that means "fuel, material cause, substrate that is the source and means for keeping an active process energized".
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Ushas (उषस्) is a Vedic goddess of dawn in Hinduism.
Utu later worshipped by East Semitic peoples as Shamash, was the ancient Mesopotamian god of the sun, justice, morality, and truth, and the twin brother of the goddess Inanna, the Queen of Heaven.
In Norse mythology, the Vanir (singular Vanr) are a group of gods associated with fertility, wisdom, and the ability to see the future.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
The Venus of Willendorf is an Venus figurine estimated to have been made 30,000 BCE.
Viracocha is the great creator deity in the pre-Inca and Inca mythology in the Andes region of South America.
A votive deposit or votive offering is one or more objects displayed or deposited, without the intention of recovery or use, in a sacred place for broadly religious purposes.
Walter Burkert (born 2 February 1931, Neuendettelsau; died 11 March 2015, Zurich) was a German scholar of Greek mythology and cult.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The West Semitic languages are a proposed major sub-grouping of ancient Semitic languages.
White-ground technique is a style of white ancient Greek pottery and the painting in which figures appear on a white background.
Wisdom or sapience is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight, especially in a mature or utilitarian manner.
Yahweh (or often in English; יַהְוֶה) was the national god of the Iron Age kingdoms of Israel (Samaria) and Judah.
Ynglinga saga is a legendary saga, originally written in Old Norse by the Icelandic poet and historian Snorri Sturluson about 1225.
The Yoruba religion comprises the traditional religious and spiritual concepts and practices of the Yoruba people.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
Zimbabwe, officially the Republic of Zimbabwe, is a landlocked country located in southern Africa, between the Zambezi and Limpopo Rivers, bordered by South Africa, Botswana, Zambia and Mozambique. The capital and largest city is Harare. A country of roughly million people, Zimbabwe has 16 official languages, with English, Shona, and Ndebele the most commonly used. Since the 11th century, present-day Zimbabwe has been the site of several organised states and kingdoms as well as a major route for migration and trade. The British South Africa Company of Cecil Rhodes first demarcated the present territory during the 1890s; it became the self-governing British colony of Southern Rhodesia in 1923. In 1965, the conservative white minority government unilaterally declared independence as Rhodesia. The state endured international isolation and a 15-year guerrilla war with black nationalist forces; this culminated in a peace agreement that established universal enfranchisement and de jure sovereignty as Zimbabwe in April 1980. Zimbabwe then joined the Commonwealth of Nations, from which it was suspended in 2002 for breaches of international law by its then government and from which it withdrew from in December 2003. It is a member of the United Nations, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). It was once known as the "Jewel of Africa" for its prosperity. Robert Mugabe became Prime Minister of Zimbabwe in 1980, when his ZANU-PF party won the elections following the end of white minority rule; he was the President of Zimbabwe from 1987 until his resignation in 2017. Under Mugabe's authoritarian regime, the state security apparatus dominated the country and was responsible for widespread human rights violations. Mugabe maintained the revolutionary socialist rhetoric of the Cold War era, blaming Zimbabwe's economic woes on conspiring Western capitalist countries. Contemporary African political leaders were reluctant to criticise Mugabe, who was burnished by his anti-imperialist credentials, though Archbishop Desmond Tutu called him "a cartoon figure of an archetypal African dictator". The country has been in economic decline since the 1990s, experiencing several crashes and hyperinflation along the way. On 15 November 2017, in the wake of over a year of protests against his government as well as Zimbabwe's rapidly declining economy, Mugabe was placed under house arrest by the country's national army in a coup d'état. On 19 November 2017, ZANU-PF sacked Robert Mugabe as party leader and appointed former Vice President Emmerson Mnangagwa in his place. On 21 November 2017, Mugabe tendered his resignation prior to impeachment proceedings being completed.
The word zoomorphism derives from the Greek ζωον (zōon), meaning "animal", and μορφη (morphē), meaning "shape" or "form".
Zoroaster (from Greek Ζωροάστρης Zōroastrēs), also known as Zarathustra (𐬰𐬀𐬭𐬀𐬚𐬎𐬱𐬙𐬭𐬀 Zaraθuštra), Zarathushtra Spitama or Ashu Zarathushtra, was an ancient Iranian-speaking prophet whose teachings and innovations on the religious traditions of ancient Iranian-speaking peoples developed into the religion of Zoroastrianism.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.