266 relations: Abbreviated mental test score, Aboulia, Acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, Activities of daily living, Adrenoleukodystrophy, Adult daycare center, Ageing, Alcohol-related dementia, Alexander disease, Alzheimer's disease, American Psychiatric Association, Ancient Greek philosophy, Anesthesia, Angina, Anomic aphasia, Anticonvulsant, Antiphospholipid syndrome, Antipsychotic, Anxiety, Apathy, Aristotle, Aromatherapy, Assisted feeding, Atrial fibrillation, Attention, Autopsy, Behçet's disease, Benzodiazepine, Binswanger's disease, Blood test, Blood–brain barrier, Bradycardia, Brain biopsy, C-reactive protein, CADASIL, Calcium in biology, Canavan disease, Cannabinoid, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Caregiver, Celsus, Cerebral atherosclerosis, Cerebral hypoxia, Cerebral vasculitis, Cerebrotendineous xanthomatosis, Chemical restraint, Choosing Wisely, Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, Cicero, Coeliac disease, ..., Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive deficit, Cognitive reframing, Cognitive test, Cognitive training, Complete blood count, Consciousness, Constantinople, Corticobasal degeneration, Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, Cryptococcosis, CT scan, Cure, David Cameron, Death, Delirium, Delusion, Dementia praecox, Dementia with Lewy bodies, Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy, Depression (mood), Diabetes mellitus, Diagnosis, Diazepam, Diffuse axonal injury, Disability, Disinhibition, Dominance (genetics), Donepezil, Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency, Driving, DSM-5, Dystonia, Early-onset Alzheimer's disease, Electrolyte, Encephalitis, Encephalopathy, Epilepsy, Epileptic seizure, Fatal insomnia, Feeding tube, Folate, Folate deficiency, Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome, Frontal lobe, Frontotemporal dementia, Frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Functional neuroimaging, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Galen, Gaucher's disease, General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition, Geriatric Depression Scale, Glioma, Glutaric aciduria type 1, Hallucination, Hamlet, Hashimoto's encephalopathy, Hepatic encephalopathy, Hippocampus, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, Home care, Homocystinuria, Human rights, Huntington's disease, Hydrocephalus, Hypercholesterolemia, Hypertension, Hypnotic, Hypothyroidism, Immunotherapy, Impulsivity, Infection, Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly, Irritability, Kidney failure, King Lear, Krabbe disease, Language, Life support, Limbic encephalitis, Liver function tests, London, Lyme disease, Magnetic resonance imaging, Major depressive disorder, Maple syrup urine disease, Massage, Medical imaging, MedlinePlus, MELAS syndrome, Melatonin, Memantine, Memory, Meningitis, Mental disorder, Mental Health Act 1983, Metachromatic leukodystrophy, Midbrain, Mild cognitive impairment, Mini–Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Motivation, Moyamoya disease, Multiple sclerosis, Music therapy, Myocardial infarction, Myoclonus, Neuroacanthocytosis, Neurodegeneration, Neuroimaging, Neurological disorder, Neurology, Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, Neurosurgery, Neurosyphilis, Niemann–Pick disease, Niemann–Pick disease, type C, NMDA receptor, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Normal pressure hydrocephalus, Obesity, Omega-3 fatty acid, Organic acidemia, Organic brain syndrome, Original sin, Palliative care, Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration, Paraphrenia, Parietal lobe, Parkinson's disease, Parkinson's disease dementia, Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease, Pellagra, Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, Periodontal disease, Person-centered care, Plato, Porphyria, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Positron emission tomography, Pressure ulcer, Prevotella intermedia, Primary central nervous system lymphoma, Prion, Problem solving, Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, Progressive supranuclear palsy, Psychiatry, Psychosis, Psychosocial, Psychotherapy, Purée, Pythagoras, Quality of life, Ramelteon, Reminiscence therapy, Renal function, Risk factor, Roger Bacon, Ronald Reagan, Sanfilippo syndrome, Sarcoidosis, Schizophrenia, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Sensitivity and specificity, Sex linkage, Shock (circulatory), Single-photon emission computed tomography, Sjögren syndrome, Smoking, Social stigma, Solon, Spatial visualization ability, Spinocerebellar ataxia, Spirochaete, Statin, Steroid, Stroke, Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, Subdural hematoma, Symptom, Syncope (medicine), Syphilis, Systemic lupus erythematosus, Tannerella forsythia, Tay–Sachs disease, Temporal lobe, The Guardian, Therapy, Thought, Thyroid-stimulating hormone, Tobacco smoking, Trail Making Test, Traumatic brain injury, Trazodone, Tremor, Trinity College Dublin, United States National Library of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, Urea cycle, Utilization behavior, Validation therapy, Vascular dementia, Vascular disease, Viral encephalitis, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B12 deficiency, Vitamin deficiency, Wernicke encephalopathy, Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome, Whipple's disease, William Shakespeare, Wilson's disease. 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The Abbreviated mental test score (AMTS) was introduced by Hodkinson in 1972 to rapidly assess elderly patients for the possibility of dementia.
Aboulia or abulia (from βουλή, meaning "will",Bailly, A. (2000). Dictionnaire Grec Français, Éditions Hachette. with the prefix -a), in neurology, refers to a lack of will or initiative and can be seen as a disorder of diminished motivation (DDM).
An acetylcholinesterase inhibitor (often abbreviated AChEI) or anti-cholinesterase is a chemical or a drug that inhibits the acetylcholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, thereby increasing both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
Activities of daily living (ADLs or ADL) is a term used in healthcare to refer to people's daily self care activities.
Adrenoleukodystrophy is a disease linked to the X chromosome.
An adult daycare center is typically a non-residential facility that supports the health, nutritional, social, and daily living needs of adults in a professionally staffed, group setting.
Ageing or aging (see spelling differences) is the process of becoming older.
Alcohol-related dementia (ARD) is a form of dementia caused by long-term, excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, resulting in neurological damage and impaired cognitive function.
Alexander disease is one of a group of neurological conditions known as the leukodystrophies. Leukodystrophies are ailments caused by anomalies in the myelin, which protects nerve fibers in the brain.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Angina, also known as angina pectoris, is chest pain or pressure, usually due to not enough blood flow to the heart muscle.
Anomic aphasia (also known as dysnomia, nominal aphasia, and amnesic aphasia) is a mild, fluent type of aphasia where an individual has word retrieval failures and cannot express the words they want to say (particularly nouns and verbs).
Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.
Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by antiphospholipid antibodies.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.
Apathy is a lack of feeling, emotion, interest, and concern.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Aromatherapy uses plant materials and aromatic plant oils, including essential oils, and other aroma compounds for improving psychological or physical well-being.
Assisted feeding, also called hand feeding or oral feeding, is the action of a person feeding another person who cannot otherwise feed themselves.
Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.
Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
Behçet's disease (BD) is a type of inflammatory disorder which affects multiple parts of the body.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
Binswanger's disease, also known as subcortical leukoencephalopathy, is a form of small vessel vascular dementia caused by damage to the white brain matter.
A blood test is a laboratory analysis performed on a blood sample that is usually extracted from a vein in the arm using a hypodermic needle, or via fingerprick.
The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable membrane barrier that separates the circulating blood from the brain and extracellular fluid in the central nervous system (CNS).
Bradycardia is a condition wherein an individual has a very slow heart rate, typically defined as a resting heart rate of under 60 beats per minute (BPM) in adults.
Brain biopsy is the removal of a small piece of brain tissue for the diagnosis of abnormalities of the brain.
C-reactive protein (CRP) is an annular (ring-shaped), pentameric protein found in blood plasma, whose levels rise in response to inflammation.
CADASIL or CADASIL syndrome, involving cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, is the most common form of hereditary stroke disorder, and is thought to be caused by mutations of the Notch 3 gene on chromosome 19.
Calcium ions (Ca2+) play a vital role in the physiology and biochemistry of organisms and the cell.
Canavan disease, also called Canavan–van Bogaert–Bertrand disease, is an autosomal recessive degenerative disorder that causes progressive damage to nerve cells in the brain, and is one of the most common degenerative cerebral diseases of infancy.
A cannabinoid is one of a class of diverse chemical compounds that acts on cannabinoid receptors in cells that alter neurotransmitter release in the brain.
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an emergency procedure that combines chest compressions often with artificial ventilation in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person who is in cardiac arrest.
A caregiver or carer is an unpaid or paid member of a person's social network who helps them with activities of daily living.
Celsus (Κέλσος. Kélsos) was a 2nd-century Greek philosopher and opponent of early Christianity.
Cerebral atherosclerosis is a type of atherosclerosis where build-up of plaque in the blood vessels of the brain occurs.
Cerebral hypoxia is a form of hypoxia (reduced supply of oxygen), specifically involving the brain; when the brain is completely deprived of oxygen, it is called cerebral anoxia.
Cerebral vasculitis or central nervous system vasculitis (sometimes the word angiitis is used instead of "vasculitis") is vasculitis (inflammation of the blood vessel wall) involving the brain and occasionally the spinal cord.
Cerebrotendineous xanthomatosis or cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX), also called cerebral cholesterosis, is an autosomal recessive form of xanthomatosis.
A chemical restraint is a form of medical restraint in which a drug is used to restrict the freedom or movement of a patient or in some cases to sedate a patient.
Choosing Wisely is a United States-based health educational campaign, led by the American Board of Internal Medicine (ABIM).
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease found in people who have had multiple head injuries.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.
Cognitive reframing is a psychological technique that consists of identifying and then disputing irrational or maladaptive thoughts.
Cognitive tests are assessments of the cognitive capabilities of humans and other animals.
The term cognitive training (also called brain training or neurobics) reflects a hypothesis that cognitive abilities can be maintained or improved by exercising the brain, in an analogy to the way physical fitness is improved by exercising the body.
A complete blood count (CBC), also known as a complete blood cell count, full blood count (FBC), or full blood exam (FBE), is a blood panel requested by a doctor or other medical professional that gives information about the cells in a patient's blood, such as the cell count for each cell type and the concentrations of various proteins and minerals.
Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.
Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis; Constantinopolis) was the capital city of the Roman/Byzantine Empire (330–1204 and 1261–1453), and also of the brief Latin (1204–1261), and the later Ottoman (1453–1923) empires.
Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) or corticobasal ganglionic degeneration (CBGD) is a rare, progressive neurodegenerative disease involving the cerebral cortex and the basal ganglia.
Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD) is a universally fatal brain disorder.
Cryptococcosis, also known as cryptococcal disease, is a potentially fatal fungal disease.
A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.
A cure is a substance or procedure that ends a medical condition, such as a medication, a surgical operation, a change in lifestyle or even a philosophical mindset that helps end a person's sufferings; or the state of being healed, or cured.
David William Donald Cameron (born 9 October 1966) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2010 to 2016 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 2005 to 2016.
Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.
Dementia praecox (a "premature dementia" or "precocious madness") is a disused psychiatric diagnosis that originally designated a chronic, deteriorating psychotic disorder characterized by rapid cognitive disintegration, usually beginning in the late teens or early adulthood.
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is a type of dementia accompanied by changes in behavior, cognition and movement.
Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA) is an autosomal dominant spinocerebellar degeneration caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat encoding a polyglutamine tract in the atrophin-1 protein.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a brain injury in which extensive lesions in white matter tracts occur over a widespread area.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
In psychology, disinhibition is a lack of restraint manifested in disregard for social conventions, impulsivity, and poor risk assessment.
Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.
Donepezil, marketed under the trade name Aricept, is a medication used in the palliative treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
The Driver and Vehicle Licensing Agency (DVLA; Asiantaeth Trwyddedu Gyrwyr a Cherbydau) is the organisation of the UK government responsible for maintaining a database of drivers in Great Britain and a database of vehicles for the entire United Kingdom.
Driving is the controlled operation and movement of a motor vehicle, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, and buses.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures.
Early-onset Alzheimer's disease, also called early-onset Alzheimer's, or early-onset AD, is Alzheimer's disease diagnosed before the age of 65.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Encephalitis is inflammation of the brain.
Encephalopathy (from ἐγκέφαλος "brain" + πάθος "suffering") means any disorder or disease of the brain, especially chronic degenerative conditions.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Fatal insomnia is an extremely rare sleep disorder which is typically inherited and results in death within a few months to a few years after onset.
A feeding tube is a medical device used to provide nutrition to people who cannot obtain nutrition by mouth, are unable to swallow safely, or need nutritional supplementation.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Folate deficiency is a low level of folic acid and derivatives in the body.
Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset neurodegenerative disorder associated with male premutation carriers of Fragile X syndrome (FXS) over the age of 50.
The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.
The frontotemporal dementias (FTD) encompass six types of dementia involving the frontal or temporal lobes.
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a pathological process that occurs in frontotemporal dementia.
Functional neuroimaging is the use of neuroimaging technology to measure an aspect of brain function, often with a view to understanding the relationship between activity in certain brain areas and specific mental functions.
Fusobacterium nucleatum is an oral bacterium, indigenous to the human oral cavity, that plays a role in periodontal disease.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Gaucher's disease or Gaucher disease (GD) is a genetic disorder in which glucocerebroside (a sphingolipid, also known as glucosylceramide) accumulates in cells and certain organs.
The General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (GPCOG) is a brief screening test for cognitive impairment introduced by Brodaty et al. in 2002.
The Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) is a 30-item self-report assessment used to identify depression in the elderly.
A glioma is a type of tumor that starts in the glial cells of the brain or the spine.
Glutaric acidemia type 1 (or "glutaric aciduria", "GA1", or "GAT1") is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to completely break down the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine and tryptophan.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet, is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare at an uncertain date between 1599 and 1602.
Hashimoto's encephalopathy, also known as steroid responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), is a neurological condition characterized by encephalopathy, thyroid autoimmunity, and good clinical response to steroids.
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an altered level of consciousness as a result of liver failure.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are neurological disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS.
Home care (also referred to as domiciliary care, social care, or in-home care) is supportive care provided in the home.
Classical homocystinuria, also known as cystathionine beta synthase deficiency or CBS deficiency, is an inherited disorder of the metabolism of the amino acid methionine due to a deficiency of cystathionine beta synthase.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within the brain.
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hypnotic (from Greek Hypnos, sleep) or soporific drugs, commonly known as sleeping pills, are a class of psychoactive drugs whose primary function is to induce sleep and to be used in the treatment of insomnia (sleeplessness), or surgical anesthesia.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
Immunotherapy is the "treatment of disease by inducing, enhancing, or suppressing an immune response".
In psychology, impulsivity (or impulsiveness) is a tendency to act on a whim, displaying behavior characterized by little or no forethought, reflection, or consideration of the consequences.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
The Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) is a questionnaire that can be filled out by a relative or other supporter of an older person to determine whether that person has declined in cognitive functioning.
Irritability is the excitatory ability that living organisms have to respond to changes in their environment.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
King Lear is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare.
Krabbe disease (KD) (also known as globoid cell leukodystrophy or galactosylceramide lipidosis) is a rare and often fatal lysosomal storage disease that results in progressive damage to the nervous system.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Life support refers to the treatments and techniques performed in an emergency in order to support life after the failure of one or more vital organs.
Limbic encephalitis is a form of encephalitis, a disease characterized by inflammation of the brain.
Liver function tests (LFTs or LFs) are groups of blood tests that give information about the state of a patient's liver.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Lyme disease, also known as Lyme borreliosis, is an infectious disease caused by bacteria of the Borrelia type which is spread by ticks.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body in both health and disease.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), also called branched-chain ketoaciduria, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting branched-chain amino acids.
Massage is to work and act on the body with pressure.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
MedlinePlus is an online information service produced by the United States National Library of Medicine.
Mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is one of the family of mitochondrial cytopathies, which also include MERRF, and Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Memantine is used to treat moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease. It acts on the glutamatergic system by blocking NMDA receptors. It was first synthesized by Eli Lilly and Company in 1968 as a potential agent to treat diabetes; the NMDA activity was discovered in the 1980s.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
Meningitis is an acute inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
The Mental Health Act 1983 (c.20) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which applies to people in England and Wales.
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD, also called arylsulfatase A deficiency) is a lysosomal storage disease which is commonly listed in the family of leukodystrophies as well as among the sphingolipidoses as it affects the metabolism of sphingolipids.
The midbrain or mesencephalon (from Greek mesos 'middle', and enkephalos 'brain') is a portion of the central nervous system associated with vision, hearing, motor control, sleep/wake, arousal (alertness), and temperature regulation.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI), also known as incipient dementia and isolated memory impairment, is a neurological disorder that occurs in older adults which involves cognitive impairments with minimal impairment in instrumental activities of daily living.
The Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) or Folstein test is a 30-point questionnaire that is used extensively in clinical and research settings to measure cognitive impairment.
The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a widely used screening assessment for detecting cognitive impairment.
Motivation is the reason for people's actions, desires, and needs.
Moyamoya disease is a disease in which certain arteries in the brain are constricted.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Music therapy is the clinical and evidence-based use of music interventions to accomplish individualized goals within a therapeutic relationship by a credentialed professional who has completed an approved music therapy program.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.
Neuroacanthocytosis is a label applied to several neurological conditions in which the blood contains misshapen, spiculated red blood cells called acanthocytes.
Neurodegeneration is the progressive loss of structure or function of neurons, including death of neurons.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.
A neurological disorder is any disorder of the nervous system.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) is the general name for a family of at least eight genetically separate neurodegenerative disorders that result from excessive accumulation of lipopigments (lipofuscin) in the body's tissues.
Neuropsychiatry is a branch of medicine that deals with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system.
Neuropsychology is the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to specific psychological processes and behaviours.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
Neurosyphilis is an infection of the brain or spinal cord caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Niemann–Pick disease is a group of inherited, severe metabolic disorders in which sphingomyelin accumulates in lysosomes in cells.
Niemann–Pick type C is a lysosomal storage disease associated with mutations in NPC1 and NPC2 genes.
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), also termed Hakim's syndrome and symptomatic hydrocephalus, is a type of brain malfunction caused by expansion of the lateral cerebral ventricles and distortion of the fibers in the corona radiata.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
Organic acidemia, also called organic aciduria, is a term used to classify a group of metabolic disorders which disrupt normal amino acid metabolism, particularly branched-chain amino acids, causing a buildup of acids which are usually not present.
An organic brain syndrome (OBS), also known as an organic brain disease/disorder (OBD), an organic mental syndrome (OMS), or an organic mental disorder (OMD), is a syndrome or disorder of mental function whose cause is alleged to be known as organic (physiologic) rather than purely of the mind.
Original sin, also called "ancestral sin", is a Christian belief of the state of sin in which humanity exists since the fall of man, stemming from Adam and Eve's rebellion in Eden, namely the sin of disobedience in consuming the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
Pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN), also known as neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation 1 (NBIA1), also called Hallervorden–Spatz syndrome, is a degenerative disease of the brain that can lead to parkinsonism, dystonia, dementia, and ultimately death.
Paraphrenia (from παρά – beside, near + φρήν – intellect, mind) is a mental disorder characterized by an organized system of paranoid delusions with or without hallucinations (the positive symptoms of schizophrenia) and without deterioration of intellect or personality (its negative symptom).
The parietal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The parietal lobe is positioned above the temporal lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. The parietal lobe integrates sensory information among various modalities, including spatial sense and navigation (proprioception), the main sensory receptive area for the sense of touch (mechanoreception) in the somatosensory cortex which is just posterior to the central sulcus in the postcentral gyrus, and the dorsal stream of the visual system. The major sensory inputs from the skin (touch, temperature, and pain receptors), relay through the thalamus to the parietal lobe. Several areas of the parietal lobe are important in language processing. The somatosensory cortex can be illustrated as a distorted figure – the homunculus (Latin: "little man"), in which the body parts are rendered according to how much of the somatosensory cortex is devoted to them.Schacter, D. L., Gilbert, D. L. & Wegner, D. M. (2009). Psychology. (2nd ed.). New York (NY): Worth Publishers. The superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule are the primary areas of body or spacial awareness. A lesion commonly in the right superior or inferior parietal lobule leads to hemineglect. The name comes from the parietal bone, which is named from the Latin paries-, meaning "wall".
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) is dementia that is associated with Parkinson's disease (PD).
Pelizaeus–Merzbacher disease is a rare central nervous system disorder in which coordination, motor abilities, and intellectual function are delayed to variable extents.
Pellagra is a disease caused by a lack of the vitamin niacin (vitamin B3).
Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is an endoscopic medical procedure in which a tube (PEG tube) is passed into a patient's stomach through the abdominal wall, most commonly to provide a means of feeding when oral intake is not adequate (for example, because of dysphagia or sedation).
Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth.
In health care, person-centred care is where the patients actively participate in their own medical treatment in close cooperation with the health professionals.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Porphyria is a group of diseases in which substances called porphyrins build up, negatively affecting the skin or nervous system.
Porphyromonas gingivalis belongs to the phylum Bacteroidetes and is a nonmotile, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, anaerobic, pathogenic bacterium.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Pressure ulcers, also known as pressure sores, pressure injuries, bedsores, and decubitus ulcers, are localized damage to the skin and/or underlying tissue that usually occur over a bony prominence as a result of pressure or pressure in combination with shear and/or friction.
Prevotella intermedia (formerly Bacteroides intermedius) is a gram-negative, obligate anaerobic pathogenic bacterium involved in periodontal infections, including gingivitis and periodontitis, and often found in acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis.
A primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), also known as microglioma and primary brain lymphoma, is a primary intracranial tumor appearing mostly in patients with severe immunodeficiency (typically patients with AIDS).
Prions are misfolded proteins that are associated with several fatal neurodegenerative diseases in animals and humans.
Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, to find solutions to problems.
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare and usually fatal viral disease characterized by progressive damage (-pathy) or inflammation of the white matter (leuko-) of the brain (-encephalo-) at multiple locations (multifocal).
Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP; or the Steele–Richardson–Olszewski syndrome, after the doctors who described it in 1963) is a degenerative disease involving the gradual deterioration and death of specific volumes of the brain.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
The psychosocial approach looks at individuals in the context of the combined influence that psychological factors and the surrounding social environment have on their physical and mental wellness and their ability to function.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
A purée (or mash) is cooked food, usually vegetables, fruits or legumes, that has been ground, pressed, blended or sieved to the consistency of a creamy paste or liquid.
Pythagoras of Samos was an Ionian Greek philosopher and the eponymous founder of the Pythagoreanism movement.
Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
Ramelteon, marketed as Rozerem among others, is a sleep agent that selectively binds to the MT1 and MT2 receptors in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), instead of binding to GABAA receptors, such as with drugs like zolpidem.
Reminiscence therapy is defined by the American Psychological Association (APA) as "the use of life histories – written, oral, or both – to improve psychological well-being.
Renal function, in nephrology, is an indication of the kidney's condition and its role in renal physiology.
In epidemiology, a risk factor is a variable associated with an increased risk of disease or infection.
Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Sanfilippo syndrome, or mucopolysaccharidosis III (MPS-III) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease.
Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas.
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal social behavior and failure to understand reality.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are a class of drugs that are typically used as antidepressants in the treatment of major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
Sex linkage is the phenotypic expression of an allele related to the allosome (sex chromosome) of the individual.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays.
Sjögren syndrome (SjS, SS) is a long-term autoimmune disease in which the moisture-producing glands of the body are affected.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Social stigma is disapproval of (or discontent with) a person based on socially characteristic grounds that are perceived.
Solon (Σόλων Sólōn; BC) was an Athenian statesman, lawmaker and poet.
Spatial visualization ability or visual-spatial ability is the ability to mentally manipulate 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional figures.
Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), also known as spinocerebellar atrophy or spinocerebellar degeneration, is a progressive, degenerative, genetic disease with multiple types, each of which could be considered a disease in its own right.
A spirochaete or spirochete is a member of the phylum Spirochaetes, which contains distinctive diderm (double-membrane) bacteria, most of which have long, helically coiled (corkscrew-shaped or spiraled, hence the name) cells.
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a rare and chronic form of progressive brain inflammation caused by a persistent infection with measles virus (which can be a result of a mutation of the virus itself).
A subdural hematoma (SDH), is a type of hematoma, usually associated with traumatic brain injury.
A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.
Syncope, also known as fainting, is a loss of consciousness and muscle strength characterized by a fast onset, short duration, and spontaneous recovery.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), also known simply as lupus, is an autoimmune disease in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue in many parts of the body.
Tannerella forsythia is an anaerobic, Gram-negative bacterial species of the Cytophaga-Bacteroidetes family.
Tay–Sachs disease is a genetic disorder that results in the destruction of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
Therapy (often abbreviated tx, Tx, or Tx) is the attempted remediation of a health problem, usually following a diagnosis.
Thought encompasses a “goal oriented flow of ideas and associations that leads to reality-oriented conclusion.” Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as thyrotropin, thyrotropic hormone, TSH, or hTSH for human TSH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroxine (T4), and then triiodothyronine (T3) which stimulates the metabolism of almost every tissue in the body.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
The Trail Making Test is a neuropsychological test of visual attention and task switching.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), also known as intracranial injury, occurs when an external force injures the brain.
Trazodone, sold under many brand names worldwide, Page accessed Feb 10, 2016 is an antidepressant medication.
A tremor is an involuntary, somewhat rhythmic, muscle contraction and relaxation involving oscillations or twitching movements of one or more body parts.
Trinity College (Coláiste na Tríonóide), officially the College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin, is the sole constituent college of the University of Dublin, a research university located in Dublin, Ireland.
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
The University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), is a research university located in San Francisco, California and part of the University of California system.
The urea cycle (also known as the ornithine cycle) is a cycle of biochemical reactions that produces urea ((NH2)2CO) from ammonia (NH3).
Utilization behavior (UB) is a type of neurobehavioral disorder that involves patients grabbing objects in view and starting the 'appropriate' behavior associated with it at an 'inappropriate' time.
Validation therapy was developed by Naomi Feil for older people with cognitive impairments and dementia.
Vascular dementia, also known as multi-infarct dementia (MID) and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), is dementia caused by problems in the supply of blood to the brain, typically a series of minor strokes, leading to worsening cognitive decline that occurs step by step.
Vascular disease is a class of diseases of the blood vessels – the arteries and veins of the circulatory system of the body.
Viral encephalitis is a type of encephalitis caused by a virus.
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
Vitamin B12 deficiency, also known as cobalamin deficiency, is the medical condition of low blood levels of vitamin B12.
A vitamin deficiency can cause a disease or syndrome known as an avitaminosis or hypovitaminosis.
Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) also Wernicke's encephalopathy is the presence of neurological symptoms caused by biochemical lesions of the central nervous system after exhaustion of B-vitamin reserves, in particular thiamine (vitamin B1).
Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is the combined presence of Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) and alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome.
Whipple's disease is a rare, systemic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Tropheryma whipplei.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Wilson's disease is a genetic disorder in which copper builds up in the body.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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