304 relations: Abdullah Öcalan, Achaemenid Empire, Affirmative action, Afrin Canton, Afrin Region, Afrin, Syria, Al-Darbasiyah, Al-Furat University, Al-Hasakah, Al-Hasakah Governorate, Al-Malikiyah, Al-Manajir, Al-Muabbada, Al-Qahtaniyah, al-Hasakah Governorate, Al-Sabaa wa Arbain, Al-Sanadid Forces, Al-Shaddadah, Al-Thawrah, Alawites, Aleppo, Aleppo Governorate, Aleppo soap, Amnesty International, Amuda, Anarchism, Anatolia, ARA News, Arab nationalism, Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party – Syria Region, Arabian Peninsula, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabization, Arabs, Armenian Genocide, Armenians in Syria, Army of Revolutionaries, Arta FM, Artaxiad dynasty, As-Safir, Asayish (DFNS regions), Assyria, Assyrian Church of the East, Assyrian genocide, Assyrian homeland, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Assyrian people, Athenian democracy, Autonomous administrative division, Ayyubid dynasty, ..., Azaz, Azaz District, İmralı, Battle of al-Hasakah (2016), BBC, Bedouin, Beekeeping, Berlin, Bethnahrain Women's Protection Forces, Byzantine Empire, Capitalism, Central Semitic languages, Chaldean Catholic Church, Chatham House, Chechens, Children in the military, Christian, Circassians in Syria, Civil marriage, Collective farming, Constitution of Syria, Constitution of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, Crusades, Cultural pluralism, Damascus, David Graeber, Dawn Chatty, Dawronoye, Dūr-Katlimmu, De facto, Deforestation, Deir ez-Zor Governorate, Democratic socialism, Democratic Union Party (Syria), Direct democracy, Diyarbakır, Drought, Due process, Eastern Aramaic languages, Emmanuel Macron, Environmentalism, Erosion, Ethnic group, Ethnolinguistic group, Ethnoreligious group, Euphrates Region, Federalism, Federalization of Syria, Federation, Feminist theory, Fertile Crescent, First language, Forced marriage, Foreign relations of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, France, Free Syrian Army, Freedom of religion, Freedom of speech, Freedom of the press, French Mandate for Syria and the Lebanon, Gender equality, Geneva Call, Geneva peace talks on Syria (2016), Greenhouse, Hama, Hawar News Agency, Haytham Manna, Hêvî Îbrahîm, Hediya Yousef, Hellenistic period, Honor and Rights Convention, Human Rights Watch, Humaydi Daham al-Hadi, IHS, Indo-European languages, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Iranian Kurdistan, Iranian peoples, Iraq, Iraqi Kurdistan, Islam and secularism, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Islamism, Janissaries, Jarabulus, Jazira Region, Khabour Guards, Khabur (Euphrates), Kirkuk, Kobanî, Kongreya Star, Krak des Chevaliers, Kurd Mountains, Kurdish languages, Kurdish National Alliance in Syria, Kurdish National Council, Kurdish nationalism, Kurdish Supreme Committee, Kurdish–Turkish conflict (1978–present), Kurdistan, Kurdistan 24, Kurdistan Communities Union, Kurdistan Democratic Party, Kurdistan Democratic Party of Syria, Kurdistan Regional Government, Kurdistan Workers' Party, Kurds, Kurds in Turkey, Laïcité, Latin alphabet, Law–Citizenship–Rights Movement, Lebanon, Libertarian socialism, Make America Great Again, Manbij, Mansur Selum, Mare', Mecca, Medes, Media of Syria, Mesopotamian Social Sciences Academy, Middle East, Mitanni, Modern Standard Arabic, Monoculture, Moscow, Mosul, Mount Qasioun, Movement for a Democratic Society, Multilingualism, Murray Bookchin, Muslim, National Coalition for Syrian Revolutionary and Opposition Forces, National Pact, Nattoreh, Nature reserve, Nineveh, North Mesopotamian Arabic, Northern Democratic Brigade, Northern Kurdish, Northern Syria local elections, 2017, Northern Syria regional elections, 2017, Northwest Semitic languages, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, OpenDemocracy, Ottoman Empire, Paris, Paris 8 University, Parthian Empire, People's Protection Units, Polity, Polyethnicity, Polygamy, Popular Mobilization Forces, Population, Price controls, Private property, Progressivism, Public transport, Qamishli, Raqqa, Raqqa campaign (2016–2017), Raqqa Governorate, Raqqa Internal Security Forces, Ras al-Ayn, Reclaimed water, Reforestation, Regions of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, Religious pluralism, Renewable energy, Restorative justice, Reuters, Richard N. Frye, Right to property, Rmelan, Rojava conflict, Rojava local elections, 2015, Roman Empire, Russia, Saladin, San Marino, Sasanian Empire, Secularism, Self-defense, Self-Defense Forces (DFNS regions), Semi-direct democracy, Semitic languages, Shahba Canton, Sharia, Sheikh Said rebellion, Siege of Kobanî, Social anarchism, Social ecology, Solar Energy Generating Systems, State (polity), Statelessness, Stephen J. 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Abdullah Öcalan (born about 1947), also known as Apo (short for both Abdullah and "uncle" in Kurdish), is a Kurdish nationalist leader and one of the founding members of the militant Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK).
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.
Afrin Canton (Kantona Efrînê, مقاطعة عفرين, translit) was one of the cantons of the de facto autonomous Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS).
Afrin Region (Herêma Efrînê, إقليم عفرين, translit) is the westernmost of the three regions of the de facto autonomous Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS, most commonly known as Rojava).
Afrin (translit; Efrîn or Afrîn; ܥܦܪܝܢ) is a district as well as a city in northern Syria.
Al-Darbasiyah (الدرباسية, Dirbêsiyê, ܕܪܒܐܣܝܐ) is a Syrian town on the Syrian-Turkish border opposite the Turkish town of Senyurt.
Al-Furat University (in Arabic:جامعة الفرات, Jāmi‘atu lfuraːt) is a Syrian university; it is located in Deir ez-Zor and has campuses in other cities in Syria.
Al-Hasakah (الحسكة, Hesîçe, Ḥasake) also known as Al-Hasakeh, Al-Kasaka or simply Hasakah, is the capital city of the Al-Hasakah Governorate and it is located in the far northeastern corner of Syria.
Al-Hasakah Governorate (Muḥāfaẓat al-Ḥasakah, Parêzgeha Hesîçe, Huparkiyo d'Ḥasake, also known as Gozarto) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Al-Malikiyah (المالكية, ܕܪܝܟ, Dayrik, Dêrika Hemko) is a small Syrian city and the center of an administrative district belonging to Al-Hasakah Governorate.
al-Manajir (المناجير, Menacîr), often referred to as Manajir, Manajer or Manjar, is a large village in northwestern al-Hasakah Governorate, northeastern Syria.
Al-Muabbada (المعبدة; Girkê Legê, ܡܥܒܕܗ) is a town in al-Hasakah Governorate, Syria.
Al-Qahtaniyah (القحطانية; Tirbespî; Qabre Ḥewore), formerly Qubour al-Bid, is a town in northeastern Al-Hasakah Governorate, northeastern Syria.
Al-Sabaa wa Arbain (السبعة وأربعين) is a town in southern al-Hasakah Governorate, northeastern Syria.
The Forces of the Brave (translit), generally called the al-Sanadid Forces, are a militia formed by the Arab Shammar tribe to fight against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
Al-Shaddadah or al-Shaddadi (الشدادي, Kurdish: Şeddadê) is a town in southern al-Hasakah Governorate, northeastern Syria.
Al-Thawrah (الثورة), also known as al-Tabqah (الطبقة; Tebqa, ܛܒܩܗ; official name before 8 March 1967), is a city located in Raqqa Governorate (Syria), approximately west of Raqqa.
The Alawis, also rendered as Alawites (علوية Alawiyyah/Alawīyah), are a syncretic sect of the Twelver branch of Shia Islam, primarily centered in Syria.
Aleppo (ﺣﻠﺐ / ALA-LC) is a city in Syria, serving as the capital of the Aleppo Governorate, the most-populous Syrian governorate.
Aleppo Governorate (محافظة حلب / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Ḥalab /) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Aleppo soap (also known as savon d'Alep, laurel soap, Syrian soap, or ghar soap, the Arabic word "غَار", meaning 'laurel') is a handmade, hard bar soap associated with the city of Aleppo, Syria.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Amuda ('Āmūdā, Amûdê, ܥܐܡܘܕܐ) is a town in Al Hasakah Governorate in northeastern Syria close to the border with Turkey.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
ARA News (آرانيوز) was an online news service focussed on the consequences of war in Syria and Iraq.
Arab nationalism (القومية العربية al-Qawmiyya al-`arabiyya) is a nationalist ideology that asserts the Arabs are a nation and promotes the unity of Arab people, celebrating the glories of Arab civilization, the language and literature of the Arabs, calling for rejuvenation and political union in the Arab world.
The Arab Socialist Bath Party – Syria Region (حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي – قطر سوريا Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-Arabi Al-Ishtiraki – Qutr Suriya), officially the Syrian Regional Branch (Syria being a "region" of the Arab nation in Ba'ath ideology), is a neo-Ba'athist organisation founded on 7 April 1947 by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar and followers of Zaki al-Arsuzi.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
Arabization or Arabisation (تعريب) describes either the conquest and/or colonization of a non-Arab area and growing Arab influence on non-Arab populations, causing a language shift by their gradual adoption of the Arabic language and/or their incorporation of Arab culture, Arab identity.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The Armenian Genocide (Հայոց ցեղասպանություն, Hayots tseghaspanutyun), also known as the Armenian Holocaust, was the Ottoman government's systematic extermination of 1.5 million Armenians, mostly citizens within the Ottoman Empire.
The Armenians in Syria are Syrian citizens of either full or partial Armenian descent.
The Army of Revolutionaries (Jayš al-Thuwwār), or Jaysh al-Thuwar, is a multi-ethnic armed Syrian rebel coalition that is allied with the primarily Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) and participating in the Syrian Civil War as part of the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF).
ARTA FM is a Syrian community radio station.
The Artaxiad dynasty or Ardaxiad dynasty (Artashesian Dynasty, Armenian: Արտաշեսյան արքայատոհմ) ruled the Kingdom of Armenia from 189 BC until their overthrow by the Romans in AD 12.
As-Safir (السفير), meaning The Ambassador, was a leading Arabic-language daily newspaper in Lebanon.
The Asayîş or Asayish (الأسايش, ܐܣܐܝܝܫ, Kurdish for Security) is the police force of the autonomous cantons within the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria.
Assyria, also called the Assyrian Empire, was a major Semitic speaking Mesopotamian kingdom and empire of the ancient Near East and the Levant.
The Assyrian Church of the East (ܥܕܬܐ ܕܡܕܢܚܐ ܕܐܬܘܖ̈ܝܐ ʻĒdtā d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), officially the Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East (ʻEdtā Qaddīštā wa-Šlīḥāitā Qātolīqī d-Madenḥā d-Ātorāyē), is an Eastern Christian Church that follows the traditional christology and ecclesiology of the historical Church of the East.
The Assyrian genocide (also known as Sayfo or Seyfo, "Sword"; ܩܛܠܥܡܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ or ܣܝܦܐ) refers to the mass slaughter of the Assyrian population of the Ottoman Empire and those in neighbouring Persia by Ottoman troops during the First World War, in conjunction with the Armenian and Greek genocides.
The Assyrian homeland or Assyria refers to a geographic and cultural region situated in Northern Mesopotamia that has been traditionally inhabited by Assyrian people.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (ܣܘܪܝܬ, sūrët), or just simply Assyrian, is a Neo-Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
The Ayyubid dynasty (الأيوبيون; خانەدانی ئەیووبیان) was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Kurdish origin founded by Saladin and centred in Egypt.
Azaz (أعزاز A‘zāz, Hurrian: Azazuwa, Azázion, Neo-Assyrian: Ḫazazu, Old Aramaic: Ḥzz) is a city in northwestern Syria, roughly north-northwest of Aleppo.
Azaz District (manṭiqat A'zāz) is a district of Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria.
İmralı is a small Turkish island in the south of the Sea of Marmara, west of the Armutlu-Bozburun peninsula within Bursa Province.
The Battle of al-Hasakah (2016) was a battle between the paramilitary police of the Asayish and the People's Protection Units (YPG), against the pro-government National Defence Forces and the Syrian Arab Army, backed by the Syrian Arab Air Force, in the city of al-Hasakah, Syria.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
The Bedouin (badawī) are a grouping of nomadic Arab peoples who have historically inhabited the desert regions in North Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, Iraq and the Levant.
Beekeeping (or apiculture) is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives, by humans.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
The Bethnahrain Women's Protection Forces (translit; HSNB) is an all-female Syriac-Assyrian military and police organization based in al-Qahtaniyah, al-Hasakah Governorate, Syria.
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
The Central Semitic languages are a proposed intermediate group of Semitic languages, comprising the Late Iron Age, modern dialect of Arabic (prior to which Arabic was a Southern Semitic language), and older Bronze Age Northwest Semitic languages (which include Aramaic, Ugaritic, and the Canaanite languages of Hebrew and Phoenician).
The Chaldean Catholic Church (ܥܕܬܐ ܟܠܕܝܬܐ ܩܬܘܠܝܩܝܬܐ, ʿīdtha kaldetha qāthuliqetha; Arabic: الكنيسة الكلدانية al-Kanīsa al-kaldāniyya; translation) is an Eastern Catholic particular church (sui juris) in full communion with the Holy See and the rest of the Catholic Church, with the Chaldean Patriarchate having been originally formed out of the Church of the East in 1552.
The Royal Institute of International Affairs, commonly known as Chatham House, is a non-profit, non-governmental organisation based in London whose mission is to analyse and promote the understanding of major international issues and current affairs.
Chechens (Нохчий; Old Chechen: Нахчой Naxçoy) are a Northeast Caucasian ethnic group of the Nakh peoples originating in the North Caucasus region of Eastern Europe.
Children in the military are children (defined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child as persons under the age of 18) who are associated with military organisations, such as state armed forces and non-state armed groups.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
The Circassians in Syria (Circassian: Сирием ис адыгэхэр) refers to the Circassian diaspora, some of whom settled in Syria (then part of the Ottoman Empire) in the 19th century.
A civil marriage is a marriage performed, recorded and recognised by a government official.
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
The Constitution of the Syrian Arab Republic was adopted on 13 March 1973 and amended on 26 February 2012.
The Constitution of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, officially titled Charter of the Social Contract, is the provisional constitution of the self-proclaimed autonomous region of Syria known as the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS).
The Crusades were a series of religious wars sanctioned by the Latin Church in the medieval period.
Cultural pluralism is a term used when smaller groups within a larger society maintain their unique cultural identities, and their values and practices are accepted by the wider culture provided they are consistent with the laws and values of the wider society.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
David Rolfe Graeber (born 12 February 1961) is an American anthropologist and anarchist activist, perhaps best known for his 2011 volume Debt: The First 5000 Years.
Dawn Chatty, FBA (born 16 October 1947) is an American social anthropologist and academic, who specialises in the Middle East, nomadic pastoral tribes, and refugees.
Dawronoye is a secular, leftist nationalist movement among the Assyrian people.
Tell Sheikh Hamad (Arabic: تل الشيخ حمد) is an archeological site in eastern Syria on the lower Khabur River,.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
Deir ez-Zor Governorate (مُحافظة دير الزور / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat Dayr az-Zawr) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
Democratic socialism is a political philosophy that advocates political democracy alongside social ownership of the means of production with an emphasis on self-management and/or democratic management of economic institutions within a market socialist, participatory or decentralized planned economy.
The Democratic Union Party or PYD (Partiya Yekîtiya Demokrat; translit; translit) is a Kurdish democratic confederalist political party established on 20 September 2003 in northern Syria.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
Diyarbakır (Amida, script) is one of the largest cities in southeastern Turkey.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that are owed to a person.
Eastern Aramaic languages have developed from the varieties of Aramaic that developed in and around Mesopotamia (Iraq, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria and northwest and southwest Iran), as opposed to western varieties of the Levant (modern Levantine Syria and Lebanon).
Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (born 21 December 1977) is a French politician serving as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 14 May 2017.
Environmentalism or environmental rights is a broad philosophy, ideology, and social movement regarding concerns for environmental protection and improvement of the health of the environment, particularly as the measure for this health seeks to incorporate the impact of changes to the environment on humans, animals, plants and non-living matter.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
An ethnolinguistic group (or ethno-linguistic group) is a group that is unified by both a common ethnicity and language.
An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group whose members are also unified by a common religious background.
Euphrates Region, formerly Kobanî Canton, (Herêma Firatê, إقليم الفرات, translit), is the central of three regions of the de facto autonomous Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, factually comprising Ayn al-Arab District of the Aleppo Governorate, Tell Abyad District of the Raqqa Governorate, and the westernmost tip of Nahiya Ras al-Ayn of the Ras al-Ayn District of Al-Hasakah Governorate.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The partition or federalization of Syria is a scenario to end the Syrian Civil War.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical, fictional, or philosophical discourse.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.
Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or more of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will.
The foreign relations of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria refers to the external relations of the self-proclaimed autonomous region of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS).
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
The Free Syrian Army (al-Jaysh as-Sūrī al-Ḥurr; abbreviated FSA) is a loose faction in the Syrian Civil War founded on 29 July 2011 by officers of the Syrian Armed Forces who said their goal was to bring down the government of Bashar al-Assad.
Freedom of religion is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or community, in public or private, to manifest religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship, and observance without government influence or intervention.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
The Mandate for Syria and Lebanon (Mandat français pour la Syrie et le Liban; الانتداب الفرنسي على سوريا ولبنان) (1923−1946) was a League of Nations mandate founded after the First World War and the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire concerning Syria and Lebanon.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
Geneva Call is a neutral and impartial non-governmental organization based in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Geneva peace talks on Syria, also known as Geneva III, are intended peace negotiations between the Syrian government and opposition in Geneva under the auspices of the UN.
A greenhouse (also called a glasshouse) is a structure with walls and roof made mainly of transparent material, such as glass, in which plants requiring regulated climatic conditions are grown.
Hama (حماة,; ܚܡܬ Ḥmṭ, "fortress"; Biblical Hebrew: חֲמָת Ḥamāth) is a city on the banks of the Orontes River in west-central Syria.
Hawar News Agency (sometimes abbreviated ANHA) (وكالة أنباء هاوار) is an online Kurdish news service based in Al-Hasaka, Syria.
Haytham Manna (al-Awdat) is a Syrian writer; he spent three decades as a human rights activist who helped create and became spokesperson for the Arab Commission for Human Rights (ACHR).
Hêvî Îbrahîm Mustefa is the Democratic Union Party (PYD) prime minister of the Afrin Region (originally called "Afron Canton"), a de facto autonomous region of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria.
Hediya Yousef (Hediya Yûsif, هدية يوسف) is a Syrian-Kurdish politician with the Northern Syria Federation.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
The Honor and Rights Convention (تجمع عهد الكرامة والحقوق, CDR) is a secular left-wing multi-ethnic political party established in 2011 in northern Syria during the Arab Spring.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Sheikh Humaydi Daham al-Hadi (also Hamidi Daham al-Hadi and Hmeidi Daham al-Jarba) is the current leader in Syria of the Arab tribe of Shammar.
IHS may refer to.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly with resolution 2200A (XXI) on 16 December 1966, and in force from 23 March 1976 in accordance with Article 49 of the covenant.
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 16 December 1966, and came in force from 3 January 1976.
Iranian Kurdistan, or Eastern Kurdistan (Kurdish: Rojhilatê Kurdistanê), is an unofficial name for the parts of northwestern Iran inhabited by Kurds which borders Iraq and Turkey.
The Iranian peoples, or Iranic peoples, are a diverse Indo-European ethno-linguistic group that comprise the speakers of the Iranian languages.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Iraqi Kurdistan, officially called the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Herêmî Kurdistan) by the Iraqi constitution, is an autonomous region located in northern Iraq.
The definition and application of secularism, especially the place of religion in society, varies among Muslim countries as it does among western countries.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
The Janissaries (يڭيچرى, meaning "new soldier") were elite infantry units that formed the Ottoman Sultan's household troops, bodyguards and the first modern standing army in Europe.
Jarabulus (جرابلس / ALA-LC: Jarābulus; Cerablus, North Syrian Arabic: Jrāblos), is a Syrian city administratively belonging to Aleppo Governorate.
Jazira Region, formerly Jazira Canton, (Herêma Cizîrê, إقليم الجزيرة, translit), is the largest of the three regions of the de facto autonomous Democratic Federation of Northern Syria.
The Khabour Guards (Mawtḇā d-Nāṭorē d-Ḥābor; مجلس حرس الخابور الآشوري) is an Assyrian Syrian militia created after the collapse of Syrian government control in the Assyrian-majority Khabur valley northwest of al-Hasakah Governorate.
The Khabur River is the largest perennial tributary to the Euphrates in Syrian territory.
Kirkuk (كركوك; کەرکووک; Kerkük) is a city in Iraq, serving as the capital of the Kirkuk Governorate, located north of Baghdad.
Kobanî (also rendered Kobanê, كوباني, ܟܘܒܐܢܝ), officially Ayn al-Arab (عين العرب), is a city in the Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria, lying immediately south of the border with Turkey.
Kongreya Star, founded in 2005 under the name of Yekîtiya Star (Kurdish for Star Union of Women), is a confederation of women’s organizations in Rojava, Syria.
Krak des Chevaliers (حصن الفرسان), also Crac des Chevaliers, Ḥoṣn al-Akrād (rtl, literally "Castle of the Kurds"), formerly Crac de l'Ospital is a Crusader castle in Syria and one of the most important preserved medieval castles in the world.
Kurd Mountains or Kurd-Dagh (جبل الأكراد Jabal al-Akrad, چیای کورمنج Çiyayê Kurmênc, Kurt Dağı), also called Aleppo Mountain (جبل حلب Jabal Ḥalab), is a highland region in northwestern Syria and southeastern Turkey.
Kurdish (Kurdî) is a continuum of Northwestern Iranian languages spoken by the Kurds in Western Asia.
The Kurdish National Alliance in Syria is a Syrian Kurdish coalition formed by five Syrian Kurdish parties in the city of Amuda in the al-Hasakah Governorate of northeastern Syria in 13 February 2016.
The Kurdish National Council (KNC,, ENKS; المجلس الوطني الكوردي Al-Majlis Al-Watani Al-Kurdi) is a Syrian Kurdish political organization funded by the President of Iraqi Kurdistan Masoud Barzani and Turkey in the Syrian Civil War.
Kurdish nationalism (Kurdish: Kurdayetî, کوردایەتی) holds that the Kurdish people are deserving of a sovereign nation that would be partitioned out of areas in Turkey, northern Iraq, and Syria based on the promised nation of Kurdistan under the Treaty of Sèvres.
Map of Syria and Syrian Kurdistan. The boundary of the Kurdish autonomous entity is defined on the basis of the political demands of the Kurds of Syria. Syrian Kurdistan includes the territory actually under the control of the Kurdish self-defense forces, and the places where Kurds constitute an absolute or relative majority. The Kurdish Supreme Committee (Desteya Bilind a Kurd; DBK) was a self-proclaimed governing body in Northern Syria, which was founded by the Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD) and the Kurdish National Council (KNC), following the signing on 12 July 2012 of a cooperation agreement between the two parties in Hewlêr, Iraqi Kurdistan under the auspice of the Iraqi Kurdistan President Massoud Barzani.
The Kurdish–Turkish conflict is an armed conflict between the Republic of Turkey and various Kurdish insurgent groups, which have demanded separation from Turkey to create an independent Kurdistan, or to have autonomy and greater political and cultural rights for Kurds inside the Republic of Turkey.
Kurdistan (کوردستان; lit. "homeland of the Kurds") or Greater Kurdistan is a roughly defined geo-cultural historical region wherein the Kurdish people form a prominent majority population and Kurdish culture, languages and national identity have historically been based.
Kurdistan 24 (K24) is a Kurdish broadcast news station based in Hawler, Kurdistan with foreign bureaus in Washington, DC and Cologne, Germany.
The Kurdistan Communities Union or KCK (Koma Civakên Kurdistan) is a Kurdish political organization committed to implementing Abdullah Öcalan's ideology of Democratic Confederalism.
The Kurdistan Democratic Party (Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistanê), usually abbreviated as KDP or PDK, is one of the main Kurdish parties in Iraqi Kurdistan.
The Kurdistan Democratic Party of Syria (Kurdish: Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistanê li Sûriyê پارتی دیموکراتی کوردستان سووری; حزب الديمقراطي کوردستان في سوريا Hizb Al-Dimuqrati Kurdistan fi Suriya), commonly known as KDPS or PDKS, is a Kurdish Syrian political party founded in 1957 by Kurdish nationalists in northern Syria.
The Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) (حکوومەتی هەرێمی کوردستان, Hikûmetî Herêmî Kurdistan; حكومة اقليم كردستان, Ḥukūmat ʾIqlīm Kurdistān) is the official ruling body of the predominantly Kurdish region of Northern Iraq referred to as Iraqi Kurdistan or Southern Kurdistan.
The Kurdistan Workers' Party or PKK (Partiya Karkerên Kurdistanê) is an organization based in Turkey and Iraq.
The Kurds (rtl, Kurd) or the Kurdish people (rtl, Gelî kurd), are an ethnic group in the Middle East, mostly inhabiting a contiguous area spanning adjacent parts of southeastern Turkey (Northern Kurdistan), northwestern Iran (Eastern Kurdistan), northern Iraq (Southern Kurdistan), and northern Syria (Western Kurdistan).
Kurds in Turkey refers to people born in or residing in Turkey who are of Kurdish origin.
Laïcité, literally "secularity", is a French concept of secularism.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
The Law–Citizenship–Rights Movement (قيم مواطنة حقوق), QMH (from the English transliteration qiyyam, muwatana, huqouq), also known as Teyar El-Qemih (from the Arabic acronym), and translated as Wheat Wave Movement, is a democratic secular multi-ethnic political party established in 2015 in northern Syria.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
Libertarian socialism (or socialist libertarianism) is a group of anti-authoritarian political philosophies inside the socialist movement that rejects socialism as centralized state ownership and control of the economy.
"Make America Great Again" (abbreviated as MAGA) is a campaign slogan used in American politics that was popularized by Donald Trump in his successful 2016 presidential campaign.
Manbij (منبج, Minbic) is a city in the northeast of Aleppo Governorate in northern Syria, 30 kilometers west of the Euphrates.
Mansur Selum (منصور سلوم) is a Syrian politician.
Mare' (مارع Māriʿ, locally pronounced Mēreʿ), also spelled Marea, is a town in northern Aleppo Governorate, northwestern Syria.
Mecca or Makkah (مكة is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, and the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, and is also the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of above sea level, and south of Medina. Its resident population in 2012 was roughly 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj (حَـجّ, "Pilgrimage") period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah (ذُو الْـحِـجَّـة). As the birthplace of Muhammad, and the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran (specifically, a cave from Mecca), Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities. It was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925. In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait, also known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj. As a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world,Fattah, Hassan M., The New York Times (20 January 2005). even though non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
The media of Syria consists primarily of television, radio, Internet, film and print.
The Mesopotamian Social Sciences Academy is an educational institution established within the de facto Federation of Northern Syria – Rojava in the city of Qamishli in Syria.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mitanni (Hittite cuneiform; Mittani), also called Hanigalbat (Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform) in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop, plant, or livestock species, variety, or breed in a field or farming system at a time.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Mosul (الموصل, مووسڵ, Māwṣil) is a major city in northern Iraq. Located some north of Baghdad, Mosul stands on the west bank of the Tigris, opposite the ancient Assyrian city of Nineveh on the east bank. The metropolitan area has grown to encompass substantial areas on both the "Left Bank" (east side) and the "Right Bank" (west side), as the two banks are described by the locals compared to the flow direction of Tigris. At the start of the 21st century, Mosul and its surrounds had an ethnically and religiously diverse population; the majority of Mosul's population were Arabs, with Assyrians, Armenians, Turkmens, Kurds, Yazidis, Shabakis, Mandaeans, Kawliya, Circassians in addition to other, smaller ethnic minorities. In religious terms, mainstream Sunni Islam was the largest religion, but with a significant number of followers of the Salafi movement and Christianity (the latter followed by the Assyrians and Armenians), as well as Shia Islam, Sufism, Yazidism, Shabakism, Yarsanism and Mandaeism. Mosul's population grew rapidly around the turn of the millennium and by 2004 was estimated to be 1,846,500. In 2014, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant seized control of the city. The Iraqi government recaptured it in the 2016–2017 Battle of Mosul. Historically, important products of the area include Mosul marble and oil. The city of Mosul is home to the University of Mosul and its renowned Medical College, which together was one of the largest educational and research centers in Iraq and the Middle East. Mosul, together with the nearby Nineveh plains, is one of the historic centers for the Assyrians and their churches; the Assyrian Church of the East; its offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church; and the Syriac Orthodox Church, containing the tombs of several Old Testament prophets such as Jonah, some of which were destroyed by ISIL in July 2014.
Mount Qasioun (جبل قاسيون, transliterated as Jabal Qāsiyūn) is a mountain overlooking the city of Damascus, Syria.
The Movement for a Democratic Society (Tevgera Civaka Demokratîk, TEV-DEM, حركة المجتمع الديمقراطي, Zaw'o d'Kensho Demoqraṭoyo) is the coalition governing the de facto autonomous region of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS).
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
Murray Bookchin (January 14, 1921 – July 30, 2006)was an American social theorist, author, orator, historian, and political philosopher.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
The National Coalition for Syrian Revolution and Opposition Forces (الائتلاف الوطني لقوى الثورة والمعارضة السورية), commonly named the Syrian National Coalition (الائتلاف الوطني السوري), is a coalition of opposition groups in the Syrian Civil War that was founded in Doha, Qatar, in November 2012.
The National Pact (الميثاق الوطني) is an unwritten agreement that laid the foundation of Lebanon as a multiconfessional state, having shaped the country to this day.
The Assyrian People's Guard – Nattoreh (Naṭore d'Tel Tamer Ashoraye; اللجنه الشعبيه للحرس الأشوري) is an Assyrian Syrian militia based in the Khabur valley town of Tell Tamer northwest of Al-Hasakah, an area with a large Assyrian population.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
Nineveh (𒌷𒉌𒉡𒀀 URUNI.NU.A Ninua); ܢܝܼܢܘܹܐ was an ancient Assyrian city of Upper Mesopotamia, located on the outskirts of Mosul in modern-day northern Iraq.
North Mesopotamian Arabic (also known as Moslawi or Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic) is a variety of Mesopotamian Arabic spoken north of the Hamrin Mountains in Iraq, in western Iran, northern Syria, and in southeastern Turkey (in the eastern Mediterranean Region, Southeastern Anatolia Region, and southern Eastern Anatolia Region).
The Northern Democratic Brigade (Liwa al-Shamal al-Democrati) is a Free Syrian Army unit, led by Alexander Khalil, that is closely allied to the Syrian Kurdish YPG and YPJ in Afrin Canton since 2014.
Northern Kurdish (Kurdiya jorîn, rtl), also called Kurmanji (Kurmancî, rtl), is a Kurdish language spoken in southeast Turkey, northwest and northeast Iran, northern Iraq and northern Syria.
The first local elections in the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria were held on 22 September 2017.
The first Northern Syria regional elections were held on 1 December 2017.
Northwest Semitic is a division of the Semitic language family comprising the indigenous languages of the Levant.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
openDemocracy is a United Kingdom-based political website.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
The University of Paris VIII or University of Vincennes in Saint-Denis (French: Université Paris 8 Vincennes-Saint-Denis or Université de Vincennes à Saint-Denis) is a public university in Paris.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
The People's Protection Units (یەکینەکانی پاراستنی گەل;Yekîneyên Parastina Gel, وحدات حماية الشعب, translit; YPG) is a mainly-Kurdish militia in Syria and the primary component of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria's Syrian Democratic Forces.
A polity is any kind of political entity.
Polyethnicity refers to the proximity of people from different ethnic backgrounds within a country or other specific geographic region.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
The Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF), also known as the People's Mobilization Committee (PMC) and the Popular Mobilization Units (PMU) (الحشد الشعبي Al-Hashd Al-Sha'abi), is an Iraqi state-sponsored umbrella organization composed of some 40 militias that are mainly Shia Muslim groups, but also including Sunni Muslim, Christian, and Yazidi individuals as well. The popular mobilization units have fought in nearly every major battle against ISIL. It has been called the new Iraqi Republican Guard after it was fully reorganized in early 2018 by its Commander in Chief Haider al-Abadi. Iraqi Prime Minister Haider al-Abadi issued “regulations to adapt the situation of the Popular Mobilization fighters,” giving them ranks and salaries equivalent to other branches of the Iraqi military.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Price controls are governmental restrictions on the prices that can be charged for goods and services in a market.
Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.
Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform.
Public transport (also known as public transportation, public transit, or mass transit) is transport of passengers by group travel systems available for use by the general public, typically managed on a schedule, operated on established routes, and that charge a posted fee for each trip.
Qamishli (القامشلي, Qamişlo, lit or translit) is a city in northeastern Syria on the border with Turkey, adjoining the Turkish city of Nusaybin, and close to Iraq.
Raqqa (الرقة; Kurdish: Reqa) also called Raqa, Rakka and Al-Raqqah is a city in Syria located on the northeast bank of the Euphrates River, about east of Aleppo.
The Raqqa campaign (codenamed Operation Wrath of Euphrates) was a military operation launched by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) in the Raqqa Governorate, with the goal of isolating and eventually capturing the Islamic State's capital city, Raqqa.
Raqqa Governorate (Muḥāfaẓat ar-Raqqah) is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces) of Syria.
The Raqqa Internal Security Forces (short: RISF) are a police unit that was formed in 2017 by the Syrian Democratic Forces, supported by the United States and Jordan, to handle the security in southern Raqqa Governorate, including Raqqa city, after the region's conquest from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
Ras al-Ayn (Raʾs al-ʿAyn, Resülayn, Serê Kaniyê, Rēš Aynā), also spelled Ras al-Ain, is a city in al-Hasakah Governorate in northeastern Syria, on the border with Turkey.
Reclaimed or recycled water (also called wastewater reuse or water reclamation) is the process of converting wastewater into water that can be reused for other purposes.
Reforestation is the natural or intentional restocking of existing forests and woodlands (forestation) that have been depleted, usually through deforestation.
The Regions of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, formerly known as Cantons, are the three self-governing regions of the de facto autonomous region of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria (DFNS).
Religious pluralism is an attitude or policy regarding the diversity of religious belief systems co-existing in society.
Renewable energy is energy that is collected from renewable resources, which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat.
Restorative justice is an approach to justice in which the response to a crime is to organize a mediation between the victim and the offender, and sometimes with representatives of a wider community as well.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Richard Nelson Frye (January 10, 1920 – March 27, 2014) was an American scholar of Iranian and Central Asian Studies, and Aga Khan Professor Emeritus of Iranian Studies at Harvard University.
The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.
Rmelan (رميلان, Rimêlan, ܪܡܝܠܐܢ) is a town in the al-Hasakah Governorate in the northeast of Syria.
The Rojava conflict, also known as the Rojava revolution, is a political upheaval and military conflict taking place in Northern Syria, known among Kurdish nationalists as Western Kurdistan or Rojava.
In the de facto autonomous Rojava region of northern Syria, the very first local elections took place on Friday, 13 March 2015.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
An-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (صلاح الدين يوسف بن أيوب / ALA-LC: Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb; سەلاحەدینی ئەییووبی / ALA-LC: Selahedînê Eyûbî), known as Salah ad-Din or Saladin (11374 March 1193), was the first sultan of Egypt and Syria and the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty.
San Marino, officially the Republic of San Marino (Repubblica di San Marino), also known as the Most Serene Republic of San Marino (Serenissima Repubblica di San Marino), is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains.
The Sasanian Empire, also known as the Sassanian, Sasanid, Sassanid or Neo-Persian Empire (known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr in Middle Persian), was the last period of the Persian Empire (Iran) before the rise of Islam, named after the House of Sasan, which ruled from 224 to 651 AD. The Sasanian Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognised as one of the leading world powers alongside its neighbouring arch-rival the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.Norman A. Stillman The Jews of Arab Lands pp 22 Jewish Publication Society, 1979 International Congress of Byzantine Studies Proceedings of the 21st International Congress of Byzantine Studies, London, 21–26 August 2006, Volumes 1-3 pp 29. Ashgate Pub Co, 30 sep. 2006 The Sasanian Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Parthian Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. At its greatest extent, the Sasanian Empire encompassed all of today's Iran, Iraq, Eastern Arabia (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatif, Qatar, UAE), the Levant (Syria, Palestine, Lebanon, Israel, Jordan), the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Dagestan), Egypt, large parts of Turkey, much of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), Yemen and Pakistan. According to a legend, the vexilloid of the Sasanian Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.Khaleghi-Motlagh, The Sasanian Empire during Late Antiquity is considered to have been one of Iran's most important and influential historical periods and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam. In many ways, the Sasanian period witnessed the peak of ancient Iranian civilisation. The Sasanians' cultural influence extended far beyond the empire's territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe, Africa, China and India. It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art. Much of what later became known as Islamic culture in art, architecture, music and other subject matter was transferred from the Sasanians throughout the Muslim world.
Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
Self-defence (self-defense in some varieties of English) is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm.
Self-Defense Forces ('''Hêzên Xweparastinê'''., abbreviated as HXP; translit, translit) is a multi-ethnic territorial defense militia and the only conscripted armed force in the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria.
Semi-direct democracy is a type of democracy that combines the mechanisms of direct democracy and representative government.
The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
The Shahba Canton (Kantona Şehba, مقاطعة الشهباء, translit) is a de facto autonomous region in the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
The Sheikh Said Rebellion (Serhildana Seîdê Pîran, Şeyh Said İsyanı) or Genç Incident (Genç Hâdisesi) was a Kurdish rebellion aimed at reviving the Islamic caliphate and sultanate.
The Siege of Kobanî was launched by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (also known as ISIL, ISIS, or Daesh) militants on 13 September 2014, in order to capture the Kobanî Canton and its main city of Kobanî (also known as Kobanê or Ayn al-Arab) in northern Syria, in the de facto autonomous region of Rojava. By 2 October 2014, ISIL succeeded in capturing 350 Kurdish villages and towns within the vicinity of Kobanê, generating a wave of some 300,000 displaced Kurds, who fled across the border into Turkey's Şanlıurfa Province. By January 2015, this had risen to 400,000. The Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) backed by Euphrates Volcano joint operations room, some Free Syrian Army (FSA) reinforcements, heavily armed Peshmerga of the Kurdistan Regional Government, and American and US-allied Arab militaries' airstrikes began to recapture Kobane. On 26 January 2015, the YPG and its allies, along with the continued US-led airstrikes, began to retake the city, driving ISIL into a steady retreat. The city of Kobanê was fully recaptured on 27 January; however, most of the remaining villages in the Kobanî Canton remained under ISIL control. Kurdish militia along with allied Arab armed groups backed by further airstrikes, then made rapid advances in rural Kobanî, with ISIL withdrawing 25 km from the city of Kobanî by 2 February. By late April 2015, ISIL had lost almost all of the villages it had captured in the Canton, but maintained control of a few dozen villages it seized in the northwestern part of the Raqqa Governorate. In late June 2015, ISIL launched a new offensive against the city, killing at least 233 civilians. The militants were quickly driven back. The battle for Kobanî was considered a turning point in the war against ISIL.
Social anarchism (sometimes referred to as socialist anarchism or anarcho-socialism)Ostergaard, Geoffrey.
Social ecology is a critical social theory founded by American anarchist and libertarian socialist author Murray Bookchin.
Solar Energy Generating Systems (SEGS) in California, with the combined capacity from three separate locations at 354 megawatts (MW, 474,700 hp), is now the world's second largest solar thermal energy generating facility, after the commissioning of the even larger Ivanpah facility in 2014.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
In International law a stateless person is someone who is "not considered as a national by any state under the operation of its law".
Stephen J. Townsend is a United States Army four-star general.
Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
Sustainability is the process of change, in which the exploitation of resources, the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
The Syriac Security Office (Mawtbo d'Sutoro Suryoyo, سوتورو), commonly known as the Sutoro or the Sutoro Police, is an ethnic Assyrian, Syriac-Christian police force in Jazira Canton of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria in Syria, where it works in concert with the general Asayish police force of the canton with the mission to police ethnic Assyrian areas and neighbourhoods.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syriac alphabet is a writing system primarily used to write the Syriac language since the 1st century AD.
The Syriac Catholic Church (or Syrian Catholic Church) (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Qaṯolīqayṯo), (also known as Syriac Catholic Patriarchate of Antioch or Aramean Catholic Church), is an Eastern Catholic Christian Church in the Levant that uses the West Syriac Rite liturgy and has many practices and rites in common with the Syriac Orthodox Church.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
The Syriac Military Council (translit, MFS for short; المجلس العسكري السرياني السوري) is an Assyrian/Syriac military organisation in Syria.
The Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch (ʿĪṯo Suryoyṯo Trišaṯ Šubḥo; الكنيسة السريانية الأرثوذكسية), or Syriac Orthodox Patriarchate of Antioch and All the East, is an Oriental Orthodox Church with autocephalous patriarchate established in Antioch in 518, tracing its founding to St. Peter and St. Paul in the 1st century, according to its tradition.
Syriac Union Party in Syria (translit, حزب الإتحاد السرياني في سورية, SUP) is a secular Syriac/Assyrian political party in Syria that represents the interests of Syrian-Assyrians and their communities in Syria and is committed to the Dawronoye modernization ideology.
The Syrian Civil War (الحرب الأهلية السورية, Al-ḥarb al-ʼahliyyah as-sūriyyah) is an ongoing multi-sided armed conflict in Syria fought primarily between the Ba'athist Syrian Arab Republic led by President Bashar al-Assad, along with its allies, and various forces opposing both the government and each other in varying combinations.
The Syrian Democratic Council (مجلس سوريا الديمقراطية MSD, translit, Meclîsa Sûriya Demokratîk) is the political wing of the Syrian Democratic Forces in the de facto autonomous Democratic Federation of Northern Syria.
The Syrian Democratic Forces (translit, Hêzên Sûriya Demokratîk, translit), commonly abbreviated as SDF, HSD or QSD, are a multi-ethnic and multi-religious alliance of predominantly Kurdish, but also Arab and Assyrian/Syriac militias, as well as some smaller Turkmen, Armenian, Circassian and Chechen groups/participation in the Syrian Civil War. The SDF is mostly composed of, and militarily led by, the People's Protection Units (YPG), a mostly Kurdish militia. Founded in October 2015, the SDF states its mission as fighting to create a secular, democratic and federal Syria, along the lines of the Rojava Revolution in northern Syria. The updated December 2016 constitution of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria names the SDF as its official defence force. The primary opponents of the SDF and their allies are the Salafist and Islamic fundamentalist groups involved in the civil war, in particular the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), Turkey-backed Syrian opposition groups, al-Qaeda affiliates, and their allies. The SDF has focused primarily on ISIL, successfully driving them from important strategic areas, such as Al-Hawl, Shaddadi, Tishrin Dam, Manbij, al-Tabqah, Tabqa Dam, Baath Dam, and ISIL's former capital of Raqqa.
Throughout 2016, the Syrian Democratic Forces have established four separate military councils (three in the Shahba region) in order to facilitate and conduct military operations.
The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (also known as SOHR; المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان), founded in May 2006, is a UK-based information office whose stated aim is to document human rights abuses in Syria; it has focused since 2011 on the Syrian Civil War.
The Syrian pound or Syrian lira (الليرة السورية; livre syrienne; sign: LS or £S; code: SYP) is the currency of Syria and is issued by the Central Bank of Syria.
Syrian Telecom (officially: Syrian Telecommunications Establishment) (الإتصالات السورية) is a telecommunications company in Syria.
Syrian Turkmen (also referred to as Syrian Turkomans or simply Syrian Turks or Turks of Syria) (تركمان سوريا, Suriye Türkmenleri or Suriye Türkleri), are Syrian citizens of mainly Turkish origin whose families had migrated to Syria from Anatolia during the centuries of Ottoman rule (1516-1918).
Syrians (سوريون), also known as the Syrian people (الشعب السوري ALA-LC: al-sha‘ab al-Sūrī; ܣܘܪܝܝܢ), are the inhabitants of Syria, who share a common Levantine Semitic ancestry.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Tell Abyad (lit, Girê Spî, Tellebyad,Günümüzde Suriye Türkmenleri — ORSAM Rapor № 83. ORSAM – Ortadoğu Türkmenleri Programı Rapor № 14. Ankara — November 2011, 33 pages. Թել Աբյադ, ܬܠ ܐܒܝܕ) is a town and nahiya in Syria.
Tell Abyad District (Manṭiqat Tall Abyaḍ; Devera Girê Spî) is a district of the Raqqa Governorate in northern Syria.
The Tell Abyad offensive or Martyr Rubar Qamışlo operation was a military operation that began in late May 2015 in the northern Raqqa Governorate, during the Syrian Civil War, conducted by Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) and the Free Syrian Army (FSA) against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
Tell Halaf (تل حلف) is an archaeological site in the Al Hasakah governorate of northeastern Syria, near the Turkish border, just opposite Ceylanpınar.
Tell Rifaat (تل رفعت, also spelled Tel Rifaat, Tel Rif'at or Tal Rifaat) is a city in northern Aleppo Governorate, northwestern Syria.
Tell Tamer (تل تمر, ܬܠ ܬܡܪ, Girê Xurma) also known as Tal Tamr or Tal Tamir, is a small town in western al-Hasakah Governorate, northeastern Syria.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Vancouver Observer is an independent online newspaper.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Tikrit (تكريت Tikrīt, ܬܓܪܝܬ) sometimes transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit, is a city in Iraq, located northwest of Baghdad and southeast of Mosul on the Tigris River.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The Turkic languages are a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages, spoken by the Turkic peoples of Eurasia from Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and West Asia all the way to North Asia (particularly in Siberia) and East Asia (including the Far East).
Turkish Kurdistan, or Northern Kurdistan (Bakurê Kurdistanê), refers to portions of Turkey's Eastern Anatolia Region and Southeastern Anatolia Region where Kurds form the predominant ethnic group.
Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeast Europe (mostly in East and Western Thrace) and 60–65 million native speakers in Western Asia (mostly in Anatolia).
In January 2018, the Turkish military launched a military operation, code-named Operation Olive Branch (Zeytin Dalı Harekâtı) by Turkey, in the SDF-controlled Afrin District and the Tell Rifaat Subdistrict.
Turkish people or the Turks (Türkler), also known as Anatolian Turks (Anadolu Türkleri), are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
The University of Afrin was an unrecognized university established in the city of Afrin by the Afrin Canton Board of Education in the de facto Federation of Northern Syria – Rojava in Syria.
The University of Rojava is an unrecognized university established within the de facto Federation of Northern Syria – Rojava in the city of Qamishli in Syria by the Jazira Canton Board of Education.
Upper Mesopotamia is the name used for the uplands and great outwash plain of northwestern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey, in the northern Middle East.
Urban agriculture, urban farming, or urban gardening is the practice of cultivating, processing and distributing food in or around a village, town, or city.
The Western Iranian languages are a branch of the Iranian languages, attested from the time of Old Persian (6th century BC) and Median.
A workers' council is a form of political and economic organization in which a single local administrative division, such as a municipality or a county, is governed by a council made up of temporary and instantly revocable delegates elected in the region's workplaces.
The Yazidis, or Yezidis (Êzidî), are a Kurdish-speaking people, indigenous to a region of northern Mesopotamia (known natively as Ezidkhan) who are strictly endogamous.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
The 2004 Qamishli uprising was an uprising by Syrian Kurds in the northeastern city of Qamishli in March 2004.
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000.
Coat of arms of Rojava, DFNS, Democratic Federal System of Northern Syria, Demographics of Rojava, Demographics of Syrian Kurdistan, Economy of Rojava, Federation of North Syria, Federation of Northern Syria, Federation of Northern Syria - Rojava, Federation of Northern Syria – Rojava, Foreign relations of Syrian Kurdistan, Kurdistan (Syria), North Syria Federation, Politics of Rojava, Politics of Syrian Kurdistan, Politics of the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria, Rojava, Rojavayê Kurdistanê, Rojawa, Syrian Kurdistan, Syrian kurdistan, West Kurdistan, Western Kurdistan.