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The Alliance of Bakongo (Alliance des Bakongo, ABAKO) was a Congolese political party, headed by Joseph Kasa-Vubu, which emerged in the late 1950s as vocal opponent of Belgian colonial rule in what today is the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Adam Hochschild (born October 5, 1942) is an American author, journalist, and lecturer.
The African forest elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis) is a forest-dwelling species of elephant found in the Congo Basin.
The African Great Lakes (Maziwa Makuu) are a series of lakes constituting the part of the Rift Valley lakes in and around the East African Rift.
The African Pygmies (or Congo Pygmies, variously also "Central African foragers", "African rainforest hunter-gatherers" (RHG) or "Forest People of Central Africa") are a group of tribal ethnicities, traditionally subsisting in a forager and hunter-gatherer lifestyle, native to Central Africa, mostly the Congo Basin.
African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is an insect-borne parasitic disease of humans and other animals.
Ahmadiyya (officially, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community or the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at; الجماعة الإسلامية الأحمدية, transliterated: al-Jamā'ah al-Islāmiyyah al-Aḥmadiyyah; احمدیہ مسلم جماعت) is an Islamic religious movement founded in Punjab, British India, in the late 19th century.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
The Albertine Rift is the western branch of the East African Rift, covering parts of Uganda, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania.
The Albertine Rift montane forests ecoregion, of the Tropical moist broadleaf forest Biome, are in the heart of Afromontane tropical central Africa.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Alliance of Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Congo-Zaire (AFDL or ADFLC) was a coalition of Rwandan, Ugandan, Burundian, and selected Congolese dissidents, disgruntled minority groups, and nations that toppled Mobutu Sese Seko and brought Laurent-Désiré Kabila to power in the First Congo War.
The Allied Democratic Forces (Forces démocratiques alliées; abbreviated ADF) is a rebel group in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), and is considered a terrorist organisation by the Ugandan government.
The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
The Amazon River (or; Spanish and Amazonas) in South America is the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and either the longest or second longest.
Ange-Félix Patassé (January 25, 1937 – April 5, 2011) was a Central African politician who was President of the Central African Republic from 1993 until 2003, when he was deposed by the rebel leader François Bozizé.
Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.
The Angola colobus, Angolan black-and-white colobus, or Angolan colobus (Colobus angolensis) is an arboreal Old World monkey belonging to the genus Colobus.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
Antoine Gizenga (born 5 October 1925) is a Congolese (DRC) politician who was Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 30 December 2006 to 10 October 2008.
The Arab slave trade was the practice of slavery in the Arab world, mainly in Western Asia, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Southeast Africa and Europe.
The Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo (FARDC)) is the state organisation responsible for defending the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Artisanal and Small Scale Mining (ASM) is emerging as an important socio-economic sector for the rural poor in many developing nations.
The Aruwimi River is a tributary of the Congo River, located to the north and east of the Congo.
Asosa is a town in western Ethiopia and the capital of the Benishangul-Gumuz Region (or kilil) of Ethiopia.
In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource.
An asylum seeker (also rarely called an asylee) is a person who flees his or her home country, 'spontaneously' enters another country and applies for asylum, i.e. the right to international protection, in this other country.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
In the period from 1885 to 1908, a number of well-documented atrocities were perpetrated in the Congo Free State (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo) which, at the time, was a colony under the personal rule of King Leopold II of Belgium.
Lieutenant General Auguste Gilliaert (Sint-Pieters-op-den-Dijk, 7 March 1894 - 10 May 1973) was a Belgian colonial soldier who served in both world wars, and a commander of the Force Publique in the Belgian Congo.
Authenticité, sometimes Zairianisation in English, was an official state ideology of the Mobutu regime that originated in the late 1960s and early 1970s in what was first the Republic of Congo-Léopoldville, later renamed Zaire.
The Bahá'í Faith (بهائی) is a religion teaching the essential worth of all religions, and the unity and equality of all people.
A Bahá'í House of Worship, sometimes referred to by the name of mašriqu-l-'aḏkār (مشرق اﻻذكار), an Arabic phrase meaning "Dawning-place of the remembrances of God", is the designation of a place of worship, or temple, of the Bahá'í Faith.
The Bantu expansion is a major series of migrations of the original proto-Bantu language speaking group, who spread from an original nucleus around West Africa-Central Africa across much of sub-Sahara Africa.
The Bantu peoples are the speakers of Bantu languages, comprising several hundred ethnic groups in sub-Saharan Africa, spread over a vast area from Central Africa across the African Great Lakes to Southern Africa.
Banyamulenge, sometimes called "Tutsi Congolese", is a term historically referring to the ethnic Tutsi concentrated on the High Plateau of South Kivu, in the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, close to the Burundi-Congo-Rwanda border.
Bas-Uele (French for "Lower Uele") is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Bauxite is a sedimentary rock with a relatively high aluminium content.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
The Beira–Lobito Highway is Trans-African Highway 9 in the transcontinental road network being developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), the African Development Bank (ADB), and the African Union.
The Belgian Congo (Congo Belge,; Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa between 1908 and 1960 in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
General elections were held in the Belgian Congo on 22 May 1960, in order to create a government to rule the country following independence, scheduled for 30 June.
The Belgian Federal Parliament is the bicameral parliament of Belgium.
The Belgian government in London (Gouvernement belge à Londres, Belgische regering in Londen), also known as the Pierlot IV Government, was the government in exile of Belgium between October 1940 and September 1944 during World War II.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Beny Steinmetz(בני שטיינמץ; born 1956) is an Israeli businessman, with a portfolio in diamond-mining, engineering and real estate.
The Berlin Conference of 1884–85, also known as the Congo Conference (Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial power.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Bismack Biyombo Sumba (born August 28, 1992) is a Congolese professional basketball player for the Orlando Magic of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Boma is a port town on the Congo River, some 100 km upstream from the Atlantic Ocean, in the Kongo Central province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The bonobo (Pan paniscus), formerly called the pygmy chimpanzee and less often, the dwarf or gracile chimpanzee, is an endangered great ape and one of the two species making up the genus Pan; the other is Pan troglodytes, or the common chimpanzee.
Bosco Ntaganda (born 5 November 1972) is the military chief of staff of the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP), an armed militia group operating in the North Kivu province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
Boyoma Falls, formerly known as Stanley Falls, consists of seven cataracts, each no more than high, extending over more than along a curve of the Lualaba River between the river port towns of Ubundu and Kisangani/Boyoma in the Orientale Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Brazzaville is the capital and largest city of the Republic of the Congo and is on the north side of the Congo River, opposite Kinshasa.
Bruno Tshibala Nzenze (born 20 February 1956) is a Congolese politician who has been Prime Minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo since May 2017.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Burundi, officially the Republic of Burundi (Republika y'Uburundi,; République du Burundi, or), is a landlocked country in the African Great Lakes region of East Africa, bordered by Rwanda to the north, Tanzania to the east and south, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the west.
Bushmeat, wildmeat, or game meat is meat from non-domesticated mammals, reptiles, amphibians and birds hunted for food in tropical forests.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.
Cassiterite is a tin oxide mineral, SnO2.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.
Central Africa Time, or CAT, is a time zone used in central and southern Africa.
The Central African Mining and Exploration Company (CAMEC) was a mining company active in the Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and in other parts of Africa.
The Central African Republic (CAR; Sango: Ködörösêse tî Bêafrîka; République centrafricaine, or Centrafrique) is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
The Central Bank of the Congo (Banque Centrale du Congo) is the central bank of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Central Congolese lowland forests are an ecoregion within the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The densely forested Central Zambezian miombo woodlands that cut across southern central Africa are one of the largest ecozones on the continent and home to a great variety of wildlife, including many large mammals.
Chad (تشاد; Tchad), officially the Republic of Chad ("Republic of the Chad"), is a landlocked country in Central Africa.
Lieutenant General Charles Tombeur (4 May 1867 – 2 December 1947) was a Belgian military officer and colonial civil servant.
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals.
During the first and second civil conflicts which took place in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), all sides involved in the war actively recruited or conscripted child soldiers, known locally as Kadogos which is a Swahili term meaning "little ones".
Children in the military are children (defined by the Convention on the Rights of the Child as persons under the age of 18) who are associated with military organisations, such as state armed forces and non-state armed groups.
Christian Eyenga Moenge (born June 22, 1989) is a Congolese professional basketball player for Montakit Fuenlabrada of the Liga ACB.
The Church of Christ in the Congo or CCC (in French, Église du Christ au Congo or ECC), is a union of 62 Protestant denominations, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
Coltan (short for columbite–tantalites and known industrially as tantalite) is a dull black metallic ore, from which the elements niobium and tantalum are extracted.
The common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), also known as the robust chimpanzee, is a species of great ape.
Conflict resources are natural resources extracted in a conflict zone and sold to perpetuate the fighting.
Congo Airways is the flag carrier of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Congo Basin is the sedimentary basin of the Congo River.
The Congo Crisis (Crise congolaise) was a period of political upheaval and conflict in the Republic of the Congo (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo) between 1960 and 1965.
The Congo Free State (État indépendant du Congo, "Independent State of the Congo"; Kongo-Vrijstaat) was a large state in Central Africa from 1885 to 1908.
The Congo River (also spelled Kongo River and known as the Zaire River) is the second longest river in Africa after the Nile and the second largest river in the world by discharge volume of water (after the Amazon), and the world's deepest river with measured depths in excess of.
The franc is the currency of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Congolese nationalism of Democratic Republic of the Congo, was also for a time known as Zairian nationalism during the rule of Mobutu Sese Seko.
The Congolese forests are a broad belt of lowland tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of the Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests Biome, which extends across the basin of the Congo River and its tributaries in Central Africa.
The conservation status of a group of organisms (for instance, a species) indicates whether the group still exists and how likely the group is to become extinct in the near future.
The Constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the basic law governing the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Constitutional Court was established by the Constitution of the Third Republic on 18 February 2006.
A convention is a set of agreed, stipulated, or generally accepted standards, norms, social norms, or criteria, often taking the form of a custom.
The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Transparency International (TI) has published the Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) since 1995, annually ranking countries "by their perceived levels of corruption, as determined by expert assessments and opinion surveys." The CPI generally defines corruption as "the misuse of public power for private benefit".
Rumba is a secular genre of Cuban music involving dance, percussion, and song.
A cult of personality arises when a country's regime – or, more rarely, an individual politician – uses the techniques of mass media, propaganda, the big lie, spectacle, the arts, patriotism, and government-organized demonstrations and rallies to create an idealized, heroic, and worshipful image of a leader, often through unquestioning flattery and praise.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
Cyrille Adoula (13 September 1921 – 24 May 1978), was a Congolese trade unionist and politician.
Dan Gertler (born December 1973) is an Israeli billionaire businessman in natural resources and the founder and President of the DGI (Dan Gertler International) Group of Companies.
David Grégoire Van Reybrouck (born 11 September 1971 in Bruges) is a Belgian cultural historian, archaeologist and author.
"Debout Congolais" (Arise Congolese) is the national anthem of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
On 20 December 2016 the Democratic Republic of the Congo's president, Joseph Kabila, announced that he would not leave office despite the end of his constitutional term.
Deforestation, clearance, or clearing is the removal of a forest or stand of trees where the land is thereafter converted to a non-forest use.
The Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (Forces démocratiques de libération du Rwanda, or FDLR) is an armed rebel group active in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
A democratic republic is a form of government operating on principles adopted from a republic and a democracy.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo) first participated at the Olympic Games in 1968, when it was known as Congo Kinshasa.
General elections were held in the Democratic Republic of the Congo on July 30, 2006, the first multiparty elections in the country in 41 years.
The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program is responsible for collecting and disseminating accurate, nationally representative data on health and population in developing countries.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
A dictatorship is an authoritarian form of government, characterized by a single leader or group of leaders with either no party or a weak party, little mass mobilization, and limited political pluralism.
Dikembe Mutombo Mpolondo Mukamba Jean-Jacques Wamutombo (born June 25, 1966), better known as Dikembe Mutombo, is a Congolese American retired professional basketball player who played 18 seasons in the National Basketball Association (NBA).
The word diocese is derived from the Greek term διοίκησις meaning "administration".
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
The provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo were divided into 26 districts.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
The East African Campaign in World War I was a series of battles and guerrilla actions, which started in German East Africa (GEA) and spread to portions of Portuguese Mozambique, Northern Rhodesia, British East Africa, the Uganda Protectorate, and the Belgian Congo.
The East African Campaign (also known as the Abyssinian Campaign) was fought in East Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly from the British Empire, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI), between June 1940 and November 1941.
The East African Rift (EAR) is an active continental rift zone in East Africa.
The Eastern Congolese swamp forests are a fairly intact but underresearched ecoregion of the tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests biome.
The eastern gorilla (Gorilla beringei) is a critically endangered species of the genus Gorilla and the largest living primate.
An ecoregion (ecological region) is an ecologically and geographically defined area that is smaller than a bioregion, which in turn is smaller than an ecozone.
Embezzlement is the act of withholding assets for the purpose of conversion (theft) of such assets, by one or more persons to whom the assets were entrusted, either to be held or to be used for specific purposes.
Emmanuel Kabeya Mudiay (born March 5, 1996) is a Congolese professional basketball player for the New York Knicks of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Emmanuel Ntima Weyi is a Congolese entrepreneur and presidential candidate for the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Exorcism (from Greek εξορκισμός, exorkismós "binding by oath") is the religious or spiritual practice of evicting demons or other spiritual entities from a person, or an area, that are believed to be possessed.
The is a global standard for the good governance of oil, gas and mineral resources.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
The First Congo War (1996–1997) was a foreign invasion of Zaire led by Rwanda that replaced President Mobutu Sésé Seko with the rebel leader Laurent-Désiré Kabila.
Football is the main sport played in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Force Publique ("Public Force"; Openbare Weermacht) was a gendarmerie and military force in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1885 (when the territory was known as the Congo Free State), through the period of Belgian colonial rule (Belgian Congo – 1908 to 1960).
A fragile state is a low-income country characterized by weak state capacity and/or weak state legitimacy leaving citizens vulnerable to a range of shocks.
Freedom from Torture (previously known as The Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture) is a British registered charity which provides therapeutic care for survivors of torture who seek protection in the UK.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
A front organization is any entity set up by and controlled by another organization, such as intelligence agencies, organized crime groups, banned organizations, religious or political groups, advocacy groups, or corporations.
Garamba National Park is a nearly national park in north-eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance (Gavi for short; previously the GAVI Alliance, and before that the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization) is a public–private global health partnership committed to increasing access to immunisation in poor countries.
La Générale des Carrières et des Mines (Gécamines) is a Congolese commodity trading and mining company headquartered in Lubumbashi, in the Katanga region of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Gédéon Kyungu Mutanga (legal name Gédéon Kyungu Mutanga Wa Bafunkwa Kanonga), known as Commander Gédéon, is a Congolese warlord who was notable for leading the Mai-Mai Kata Katanga.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
German East Africa (Deutsch-Ostafrika) (GEA) was a German colony in the African Great Lakes region, which included present-day Burundi, Rwanda, and the mainland part of Tanzania.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Goma is the capital city of North Kivu province in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
The Great Rift Valley is a name given to the continuous geographic trench, approximately in length, that runs from Lebanon's Beqaa Valley in Asia to Mozambique in Southeastern Africa.
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Haut-Katanga is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Haut-Lomami is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Haut-Uele (French for "Upper Uele") is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Hema, or Hima or Huma, are an ethnic group with about 160,000 members located in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, in particular the Ituri region and Orientale Province, as well as parts of Uganda and Rwanda.
Sir Henry Morton Stanley (born John Rowlands; 28 January 1841 – 10 May 1904) was a Welsh journalist and explorer who was famous for his exploration of central Africa and his search for missionary and explorer David Livingstone.
The common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius), or hippo, is a large, mostly herbivorous, semiaquatic mammal native to sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae, the other being the pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis or Hexaprotodon liberiensis).
The region that is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo was first settled about 80,000 years ago.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
The Hutu, also known as the Abahutu, are a Bantu ethnic group native to African Great Lakes region of Africa, primarily area now under Burundi and Rwanda.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
ICF International, Inc. is a global consulting and technology services company.
Idi Amin Dada (2816 August 2003) was a Ugandan politician and military officer.
Articles (arranged alphabetically) related to the Democratic Republic of the Congo include.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
The Inga Dams are two hydroelectric dams connected to one of the largest waterfalls in the world, Inga Falls.
The Interahamwe is a Hutu paramilitary organization.
The International African Association (Association internationale africaine) was a front organization established by the guests at the Brussels Geographic Conference of 1876, an event hosted by King Leopold II of Belgium.
International asset recovery is any effort by governments to repatriate the proceeds of corruption hidden in foreign jurisdictions.
The International Association of the Congo (Association internationale du Congo), also known as the International Congo Society, was an association founded on 17 November 1879 by Leopold II of Belgium to further his interests in the Congo.
The International Criminal Court investigation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo or the situation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is an ongoing investigation by the International Criminal Court (ICC) into crimes committed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) during the Second Congo War and its aftermath, including the Ituri and Kivu conflicts.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is an intergovernmental organization that provides services and advice concerning migration to governments and migrants, including internally displaced persons, refugees, and migrant workers.
These are the international rankings by various organizations of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The International Rescue Committee (IRC) is a global humanitarian aid, relief, and development nongovernmental organization.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
Islam is a major religion within the Democratic Republic of the Congo where it is estimated that around 10 percent of the national population identifies as Muslim.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Ituri conflict (Guerre d'Ituri) was a major conflict between the agriculturalist Lendu and pastoralist Hema ethnic groups in the Ituri region of the north-eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC).
Ituri is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Jan Egeland (born 12 September 1957) is a Norwegian diplomat, political scientist, humanitarian leader and former Labour Party politician.
Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo (born 4 November 1962) is a politician in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
A jet engine is a type of reaction engine discharging a fast-moving jet that generates thrust by jet propulsion.
John Arnold Bredenkamp (born 11 August 1940) is a Zimbabwean businessman and former rugby player.
Joseph Iléo (15 September 1921 – 19 September 1994), later called Sombo Amba Iléo, was a politician in the Republic of the Congo and was prime minister for two periods.
Joseph Kabila Kabange (born 4 June 1971) is a Congolese politician who has been President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo since January 2001.
Joseph Kasa-Vubu, alternatively Joseph Kasavubu, (c. 1915 – 24 March 1969) was the first President of the Republic of the Congo (1960–65), today the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Joseph Rao Kony (born July 24, 1961) is the leader of the Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), a guerrilla group that formerly operated in Uganda.
The Kahuzi-Biega National Park is a protected area near Bukavu town in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Kananga Mine is an open pit copper mine near Kolwezi in Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Kasai region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo is divided administratively into Kasai-Occidental and Kasai-Oriental.
Kasaï-Central is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Kasai Province is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Kasai River (called Cassai in Angola) is a tributary (left side) of the Congo River, located in central Africa.
Kasai-Oriental is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Katanda Territory is one of five territories which, along with the city of Mbuji-Mayi, constitute the current Congolese province of Kasai-Oriental.
Katanga Mining Ltd (TSX:KAT) is a mining company operating in the Democratic Republic of the Congo with its headquarters in Canada.
Katanga was one of the eleven provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo between 1966 and 2015, when it was split into the Tanganyika, Haut-Lomami, Lualaba and Haut-Katanga provinces.
Kimbanguism is a new religious movement professed by the Church of Jesus Christ on Earth by His special envoy Simon Kimbangu (Église de Jésus Christ sur la Terre par son envoyé spécial Simon Kimbangu) founded by Simon Kimbangu in the Belgian Congo (today the Democratic Republic of the Congo) in 1921.
King Leopold's Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror and Heroism in Colonial Africa (1998) is a best-selling popular history book by Adam Hochschild that explores the exploitation of the Congo Free State by King Leopold II of Belgium between 1885 and 1908, as well as the large-scale atrocities committed during that period.
The Kingdom of Kongo (Kongo: Kongo dya Ntotila or Wene wa Kongo; Portuguese: Reino do Congo) was an African kingdom located in west central Africa in what is now northern Angola, Cabinda, the Republic of the Congo, the western portion of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, as well as the southernmost part of Gabon.
The Kingdom of Luba or Luba Empire (1585–1889) was a pre-colonial Central African state that arose in the marshy grasslands of the Upemba Depression in what is now southern Democratic Republic of Congo.
The Nation of Lunda (c. 1665 CE – c. 1887 CE) was a confederation of states in what is now the Democratic Republic of Congo, north-eastern Angola, and north-western Zambia, its central state was in Katanga.
Kinshasa (formerly Léopoldville (Léopoldville or Dutch)) is the capital and the largest city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Kinshasa General Hospital is a hospital in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.
Kisangani (formerly Stanleyville or Stanleystad) is the capital of Tshopo province in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Kitco is a Canadian company that buys and sells physical precious metals such as gold, platinum, palladium, and silver.
Kituba is a widely used lingua franca in Central Africa.
The Kivu conflict began in 2004 in the eastern Congo as an armed conflict between the military of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (FARDC) and the Hutu Power group Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Kleptocracy (from Greek κλέπτης kléptēs, "thief", κλέπτω kléptō, "I steal", and -κρατία -kratía from κράτος krátos, "power, rule") is a government with corrupt leaders (kleptocrats) that use their power to exploit the people and natural resources of their own territory in order to extend their personal wealth and political powers.
Kolwezi or Kolwesi is the capital city of Lualaba Province in the south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, west of Likasi.
Kongo Central, formerly Bas-Congo, is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Kongo or Kikongo is one of the Bantu languages spoken by the Kongo and Ndundu peoples living in the tropical forests of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the Republic of the Congo and Angola.
The Kongo people (Kongo: Esikongo (singular: Mwisikngo, also Bakongo (singular: Mukongo) "since about 1910 it is not uncommon for the term Bakongo (singular Mukongo) to be used, especially in areas north of the Zaire river, and by intellectuals and anthropologists adopting a standard nomenclature for Bantu-speaking peoples." J. K. Thornton, "Mbanza Kongo / São Salvador" in Anderson (ed.), Africa's Urban Past (2000)) are a Bantu ethnic group primarily defined as the speakers of Kikongo (Kongo languages). They have lived along the Atlantic coast of Central Africa, in a region that by the 15th century was a centralized and well organized Kongo kingdom, but is now a part of three countries. Their highest concentrations are found south of Pointe-Noire in the Republic of Congo, southwest of Pool Malebo and west of the Kwango River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and north of Luanda, Angola., Encyclopædia Britannica They are the largest ethnic group in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and one of the major ethnic groups in the other two countries they are found in. In 1975, the Kongo population was reported as 10,220,000. The Kongo people were among the earliest sub-Saharan Africans to welcome Portuguese traders in 1483 CE, and began converting to Catholicism in the late 15th century. They were among the first to protest slavery in letters to the King of Portugal in the 1510s and 1520s, then succumbed to the demands for slaves from the Portuguese through the 16th century. The Kongo people were a part of the major slave raiding, capture and export trade of African slaves to the European colonial interests in 17th and 18th century. The slave raids, colonial wars and the 19th-century Scramble for Africa split the Kongo people into Portuguese, Belgian and French parts. In the early 20th century, they became one of the most active ethnic groups in the efforts to decolonize Africa, helping liberate the three nations to self governance. They now occupy influential positions in the politics, administration and business operations in the three countries they are most found in.
Kwango is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Kwilu Province is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
L'Avenir is a daily newspaper published in Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Lagos–Mombasa Highway (also known as the Mombasa-Lagos Highway) is Trans-African Highway 8 and is the principal road route between West and East Africa.
Lake Albert, also Albert Nyanza and formerly Lake Mobutu Sese Seko, is a lake located in Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Lake Edward, Rutanzige or Edward Nyanza is the smallest of the African Great Lakes.
Lake Kivu is one of the African Great Lakes.
Lake Mweru (also spelled Mwelu, Mwero) is a freshwater lake on the longest arm of Africa's second-longest river, the Congo.
Lake Tanganyika is an African Great Lake.
Laurent Jean-Pierre Mbariko (January 19, 1925 – December 30, 1972), from the Kwilu region of the Democratic Republic of Congo, was a prominent Congolese politician who played a significant role in Congo's independence from Belgium.
Laurent Nkunda (or Laurent Nkundabatware Mihigo (birth name), or Laurent Nkunda Batware, or as he prefers to be called The Chairman; born February 2, 1967) is a former General in the Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and is the former warlord (leader of a rebel faction) operating in the province of Nord-Kivu, sympathetic to Congolese Tutsis and the Tutsi-dominated government of neighbouring Rwanda.
Laurent-Désiré Kabila (November 27, 1939 – January 16, 2001), or simply Laurent Kabila (US), was a Congolese revolutionary and politician who served as the third President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo from May 17, 1997, when he overthrew Mobutu Sese Seko, until his assassination by one of his bodyguards on January 16, 2001.
Le Potentiel is a Democratic Republic of the Congo daily newspaper published by award-winning journalist Modeste Mutinga.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The Lendu, or Balendru, are an ethno-linguistic agriculturalist group residing in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo in the area west and northwest of Lake Albert, specifically the Ituri Region of Orientale Province.
Leopold II (9 April 183517 December 1909) reigned as the second King of the Belgians from 1865 to 1909 and became known for the founding and exploitation of the Congo Free State as a private venture.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Linda Melvern is a British investigative journalist.
Lingala (Ngala) is a Bantu language spoken throughout the northwestern part of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and a large part of the Republic of the Congo, as well as to some degree in Angola and the Central African Republic.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
The List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor is an annual publication issued by the United States Government’s Bureau of International Labor Affairs at the U.S. Department of Labor.
The following is a list of hospitals in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
This is a list of rivers by their average discharge, that is their water flow.
As of 2015, there are 29 independent nations where French is an official language.
The provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo are divided into 192 territories (fr. territoires, sing. territoire) and communes.
This is a list of the largest Protestant denominations.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Livingstone Falls (French, Chutes Livingstone) — named for the explorer David Livingstone — are a succession of enormous rapids on the lower course of the Congo River in west equatorial Africa, downstream from Malebo Pool in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Lomami is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Lord's Resistance Army (LRA), also known as the Lord's Resistance Movement, is a rebel group and heterodox Christian group which operates in northern Uganda, South Sudan, the Central African Republic, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Lualaba is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Luba people or baLuba are an ethno-linguistic group indigenous to the south-central region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Luba-Kasai, also known as Western Luba, Bena-Lulua, Ciluba/Tshiluba, Luba-Lulua or Luva, is a Bantu language (Zone L) of Central Africa and an official language of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, alongside Lingala, Swahili, and Kikongo.
Lubumbashi (former names: (French) and (Dutch)) in the southeastern part of Democratic Republic of the Congo is the second-largest city in the country, the largest being the capital, Kinshasa.
Lubumbashi International Airport is an airport serving Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Lulonga is a river in the Equateur province of Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Luluabourg Constitution (Constitution de Luluabourg) was the second constitution of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The M23 rebellion was fighting in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), that occurred between the March 23 Movement and government forces.
A magnetic alloy is a combination of various metals from the periodic table such as ferrite that contains at least one of the three main magnetic elements: iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) or cobalt (Co) etc..
The term Mai-Mai or Mayi-Mayi refers to any kind of community-based militia group active in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), formed to defend their local territory against other armed groups.
Mai-Mai Kata Katanga, also called Mai-Mai Bakata Katanga, is a mai-mai rebel group in the Democratic Republic of the Congo which supports the independence of the Congo's Katanga Province.
Mai-Ndombe Province is one of 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
The Mangbetu are a people of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, living in the Orientale Province.
Maniema is one of 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The March 23 Movement (Mouvement du 23 mars), often abbreviated as M23 and also known as the Congolese Revolutionary Army (Armée révolutionnaire du Congo), was a rebel military group based in eastern areas of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), mainly operating in the province of North Kivu.
Matadi is the chief sea port of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and the capital of the Kongo Central province.
The Matadi–Kinshasa Railway is a railway line in Bas-Congo Province between the port of Matadi and Kinshasa, the capital of Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Maternal death or maternal mortality is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes." There are two performance indicators that are sometimes used interchangeably: maternal mortality ratio and maternal mortality rate, which confusingly both are abbreviated "MMR".
Maternal health is the health of women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period.
Mbandaka, pronounced mba ˈnda ka and formerly known as Coquilhatville in French or Coquilhatstad in Flemish, is a city on the Congo River in the Democratic Republic of Congo lying near the confluence of the Congo and Ruki Rivers.
Mbuji-Mayi (formerly Bakwanga) serves as the capital city of Kasai-Oriental Province in the south-central Democratic Republic of Congo.
Merengue is a type of music and dance originating in the Dominican Republic, which has become a very popular genre throughout Latin America, and also in several major cities in the United States which have Hispanic communities.
Mining Weekly is a weekly news magazine that provides in-depth coverage of global mining projects and the personalities reshaping the mining industry.
Belgium had a colonial empire in Central Africa from 1908 to 1962, comprising the colony of the Belgian Congo (1908–60) and the international mandate of Ruanda-Urundi (1918–62).
Moïse Kapenda Tshombe (sometimes written Tshombé) (10 November 1919 – 29 June 1969) was a Congolese businessman and politician.
Marshal Mobutu Sese Seko Kuku Ngbendu Wa Za Banga (born Joseph-Désiré Mobutu; 14 October 1930 – 7 September 1997) was the military dictator and President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (which Mobutu renamed Zaire in 1971) from 1965 to 1997.
Mongala is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Mongo people are a Bantu ethnic group who live in the equatorial forest of Central Africa.
Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the world, is all-powerful and intervenes in the world.
The United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo or MONUSCO, an acronym based on its French name, is a United Nations peacekeeping force in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) which was established by the United Nations Security Council in resolutions 1279 (1999) and 1291 (2000) of the United Nations Security Council to monitor the peace process of the Second Congo War, though much of its focus subsequently turned to the Ituri conflict, the Kivu conflict and the Dongo conflict.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Mount Nyiragongo is an active stratovolcano with an elevation of in the Virunga Mountains associated with the Albertine Rift.
The mountain gorilla (Gorilla beringei beringei) is one of the two subspecies of the eastern gorilla.
The Congolese National Movement (Mouvement national Congolais, or MNC) is a political party in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Movement for the Liberation of the Congo (Mouvement de Libération du Congo, or MLC) is a political party in Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Mukondo Mine is a copper and cobalt mine in Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
N'djili Airport (Aéroport de N'djili), also known as N'Djili International Airport and Kinshasa International Airport, serves the city of Kinshasa and is the largest of the four international airports in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
The National Assembly is the lower house and main legislative political body of the Parliament of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
The National Congress for the Defence of the People (Congrès national pour la défense du peuple, CNDP) is a political armed militia established by Laurent Nkunda in the Kivu region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in December 2006.
A national park is a park in use for conservation purposes.
The Nationalist and Integrationist Front (Front des Nationalistes et Intégrationnistes, or FNI) is a rebel group active in the Ituri conflict in Ituri, Democratic Republic of the Congo, associated with the Lendu ethnic group.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
A body of water, such as a river, canal or lake, is navigable if it is deep, wide and slow enough for a vessel to pass or walk.
Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.
Nikanor plc was a publicly quoted holding company for Global Enterprises Corporate (GEC) with assets in the rich Copperbelt region in Katanga Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.
Nord-Ubangi is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
North Kivu (Nord-Kivu) is a province bordering Lake Kivu in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Northeastern Congolian lowland forests is a WWF Ecoregion that spans the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Central African Republic.
The Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC, Flyktninghjelpen) is a humanitarian, non-governmental organisation that protects the rights of people affected by displacement.
Nyamuragira, also known as Nyamulagira, is an active volcano in the Virunga Mountains of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, situated about 25 km north of Lake Kivu.
The Office National des Transports (ONATRA) (in English, National Transport Agency) is a publicly owned company, based in Kinshasa, which operates railways, ports and river transport in the north and west of the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is the United States government agency responsible for developing and recommending United States trade policy to the President of the United States, conducting trade negotiations at bilateral and multilateral levels, and coordinating trade policy within the government through the interagency Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) and Trade Policy Review Group (TPRG).
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
OHADA is a system of corporate law and implementing institutions adopted by seventeen West and Central African nations in 1993 in Port Louis, Mauritius.
The okapi (Okapia johnstoni), also known as the forest giraffe, congolese giraffe or zebra giraffe, is an artiodactyl mammal native to the northeast of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in Central Africa.
The Okapi Wildlife Reserve is a World Heritage Site in the Ituri Forest in the north-east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, near the borders with South Sudan and Uganda.
A one-party state, single-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which one political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.
Flag of the Francophonie The Organisation internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), generally known as the Francophonie (La Francophonie), but also called International Organisation of La Francophonie in English language context, is an international organization representing countries and regions where French is a lingua franca or customary language, where a significant proportion of the population are francophones (French speakers), or where there is a notable affiliation with French culture.
Ostend (Oostende, or; Ostende; Ostende) is a Belgian coastal city and municipality, located in the province of West Flanders.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to the Democratic Republic of the Congo: Democratic Republic of the Congo – country located in Central Africa.
Oxfam is a confederation of 20 independent charitable organizations focusing on the alleviation of global poverty, founded in 1942 and led by Oxfam International.
Jules Shungu Wembadio Pene Kikumba (14 June 1949 – 24 April 2016), known professionally as Papa Wemba, was a Congolese singer and musician who played Congolese rumba, soukous, and ndombolo.
The Parliament of the Democratic Republic of the Congo consists of two chambers.
The Parti Solidaire Africain (African Mutual Party) or PSA was a political party active in the Belgian Congo and subsequently in the Republic of the Congo after the country received its independence.
Pastoralism is the branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock.
Patrice Émery Lumumba (alternatively styled Patrice Hemery Lumumba; 2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was a Congolese politician and independence leader who served as the first Prime Minister of the independent Democratic Republic of the Congo (then Republic of the Congo) from June until September 1960.
Paul Kagame (born 23 October 1957) is a Rwandan politician and former military leader.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
The Pool Malebo, formerly Stanley Pool, also known as Lake Nkunda by local indigenous people in pre-colonial times, is a lake-like widening in the lower reaches of the Congo River.
The Popular Movement of the Revolution (Mouvement Populaire de la Révolution, or MPR) was the ruling political party in Zaire which, for most of its existence, was the sole permitted faction in Zaire's one-party state.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
The President of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Président de la République démocratique du Congo, Rais wa Jamhuri ya Kidemokrasia ya Kongo, Mokonzi wa Republíki ya Kongó Demokratíki), is the head of state of the Democratic Republic of the Congo and commander-in-chief of the armed forces.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
A primate is a mammal of the order Primates (Latin: "prime, first rank").
The prime minister of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (1, 1, 1), is Congo's head of government.
Production is a process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (the output).
Équateur Province is one of the twenty-five provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo specified under Article 2 of the country's 2006 Constitution.
There are currently twenty-five provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The public domain consists of all the creative works to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply.
Radium is a chemical element with symbol Ra and atomic number 88.
Rainforests are forests characterized by high rainfall, with annual rainfall in the case of tropical rainforests between, and definitions varying by region for temperate rainforests.
The Congolese Rally for Democracy (Rassemblement Congolais pour la Démocratie; abbreviated RCD), also known as the Rally for Congolese Democracy, is a political party and a former rebel group that operated in the eastern region of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
The Rally for Congolese Democracy–Goma (Rassemblement Congolais pour la Démocratie-Goma, known as RCD-Goma) was a faction of the Rally for Congolese Democracy, a rebel movement based in Goma, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) during the Second Congo War (1998–2003).
Raymond Tshibanda N'Tungammulong (born 20 November 1950, Lomela, Belgian Congo) is a Congolese diplomat and politician serving as the President of the Liberal Christian Democrats Union, a political party in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo), also known as the Congo-Brazzaville, the Congo Republic or simply the Congo, is a country in Central Africa.
The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo) was a sovereign state in Central Africa that was created with the independence of the Belgian Congo in 1960.
A constitutional referendum was held in the Republic of the Congo (Léopoldville) between 25 June and 10 July 1964.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
A rift valley is a linear-shaped lowland between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Ruanda-Urundi (in Dutch also Roeanda-Oeroendi) was a territory in the African Great Lakes region, once part of German East Africa, which was ruled by Belgium between 1916 and 1962.
Rugby union in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is a minor but growing sport.
The Ruzizi (also sometimes spelled Rusizi) is a river, long, that flows from Lake Kivu to Lake Tanganyika in Central Africa, descending from about to about above sea level over its length.
Rwanda (U Rwanda), officially the Republic of Rwanda (Repubulika y'u Rwanda; République du Rwanda), is a sovereign state in Central and East Africa and one of the smallest countries on the African mainland.
The Rwandan Civil War was a conflict in the African republic of Rwanda, between the Rwandan Armed Forces (FAR) and the rebel Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF).
The Rwandan genocide, also known as the genocide against the Tutsi, was a genocidal mass slaughter of Tutsi in Rwanda by members of the Hutu majority government.
The Rwandan Patriotic Front (Front patriotique rwandais, FPR) is the ruling political party in Rwanda.
The Rwenzori Mountains, previously called the "Ruwenzori Range" (spelling changed around 1980 to conform more closely with the local name Rwenjura), is a mountain range of eastern equatorial Africa, located on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
Salonga National Park is a national park in the Democratic Republic of the Congo located in the Congo River basin.
The Sangha River, a tributary of the Congo River, is located in Central Africa.
Sankuru is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
The Second Congo War (also known as the Great War of Africa or the Great African War, and sometimes referred to as the African World War) began in August 1998 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, little more than a year after the First Congo War, and involved some of the same issues.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
The Semliki harpoon, also known as the Katanda harpoon, refers to a group of complex barbed harpoon heads carved from bone, which were found at an archaeologic site on the Semliki River in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire); the artifacts which date back approximately 90,000 years.
Semliki River (sometimes Semuliki) is a major river, long, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Uganda in Central and East Africa.
The Senate is the upper house of the Parliament of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Serge Jonas Ibaka Ngobila (born 18 September 1989) is a Congolese-Spanish professional basketball player for the Toronto Raptors of the National Basketball Association.
Sexual violence is any sexual act or attempt to obtain a sexual act by violence or coercion, acts to traffic a person or acts directed against a person's sexuality, regardless of the relationship to the victim.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo, and the east of the country in particular, has been described as the "Rape Capital of the World," and the prevalence and intensity of all forms of sexual violence has been described as the worst in the world.
Shia (شيعة Shīʿah, from Shīʻatu ʻAlī, "followers of Ali") is a branch of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad designated Ali ibn Abi Talib as his successor (Imam), most notably at the event of Ghadir Khumm.
The Siege of Saïo or Battle of Saïo took place during the East African Campaign of World War II.
Slave raiding is a military raid for the purpose of capturing people and bringing them out of the raid area to serve as slaves.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Société nationale d'électricité (SNEL) is the national electricity company of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer du Congo (SNCC; "National Railway Company of the Congo") is the national railway company for the inland railways of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Soukous (from French secouer, "to shake") is a popular genre of dance music from the Congo Basin.
South Kasai (Sud-Kasaï) was an unrecognised secessionist state within the Republic of the Congo (the modern-day Democratic Republic of the Congo) which was semi-independent between 1960 and 1962.
South Kivu (Sud-Kivu) is one of 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
South Sudan, officially known as the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in East-Central Africa.
The Southern African Development Community (SADC) is an inter-governmental organization headquartered in Gaborone, Botswana.
The southern congolian forest-savanna mosaic covers a large area of the southern Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Sperata seenghala, the Giant river-catfish, is a species of bagrid catfish.
Stade Frédéric-Kibassa-Maliba, also known as Stade de la Kenya, is a multi-use stadium located in the Kenya suburb of Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
The State of Katanga, also sometimes denoted as the Republic of Katanga, was a breakaway state that proclaimed its independence from the Republic of Congo-Léopoldville on 11 July 1960 under Moise Tshombe, leader of the local ''Confédération des associations tribales du Katanga'' (CONAKAT) political party (Federation of Kata).
Statutes of limitations are laws passed by legislative bodies in common law systems to set the maximum time after an event within which legal proceedings may be initiated.
Streptococcus pneumoniae, or pneumococcus, is a Gram-positive, alpha-hemolytic (under aerobic conditions) or beta-hemolytic (under anaerobic conditions), facultative anaerobic member of the genus Streptococcus.
Stunted growth, also known as stunting and nutritional stunting, is a reduced growth rate in human development.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
Sud-Ubangi is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy that exhibits several key characteristics: excellent mechanical strength, resistance to thermal creep deformation, good surface stability, and resistance to corrosion or oxidation.
Swahili, also known as Kiswahili (translation: coast language), is a Bantu language and the first language of the Swahili people.
Tabora is the capital of Tanzania's Tabora Region and is classified as a municipality by the Tanzanian government.
Tanganyika was a sovereign state, comprising the mainland part of present-day Tanzania, that existed from 1961 until 1964.
Tanganyika is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
Country Code: +243 International Call Prefix: 00 Trunk Prefix: 0.
Lieutenant-General Baron Théophile-Théodore Wahis (1844–1921) was a Belgian soldier and colonial civil servant who served as Governor-General of the Congo Free State and, subsequently, the Belgian Congo for two terms between 1891 and 1912.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Poisonwood Bible (1998), by Barbara Kingsolver, is a bestselling novel about a missionary family, the Prices, who in 1959 move from the U.S. state of Georgia to the village of Kilanga in the Belgian Congo, close to the Kwilu River.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Tilwezembe is an open-pit copper and cobalt mine in Katanga Province of the Democratic Republic of the Congo operated by Katanga Mining, a subsidiary of Glencore.
This is a timeline of healthcare in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Tippu Tip, or Tippu Tib (1832 – June 14, 1905), real name Hamad bin Muhammad bin Juma bin Rajab el Murjebi (حمد بن محمد بن جمعة بن رجب بن محمد بن سعيد المرجبي), was a Swahili–Zanzibari slave trader, ivory trader, explorer, plantation owner and governor.
The Trans-African Highway network comprises transcontinental road projects in Africa being developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), the African Development Bank (ADB), and the African Union in conjunction with regional international communities.
The Transitional Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo was tasked with moving from the state riven by the Second Congo War (1998-2003) to a government based upon a constitution agreed on by consensus.
Tremalt Limited was a mining company incorporated in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC).
The Tripoli–Cape Town Highway is Trans-African Highway 3 in the transcontinental road network being developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), the African Development Bank (AfDB), and the African Union.
A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least.
Tropical rainforests are rainforests that occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest.
Tshopo is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
Tshuapa is one of the 26 provinces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The Tutsi, or Abatutsi, are a social class or ethnic group of the African Great Lakes region.
The Ubangi River, also spelled Oubangui, is the largest right-bank tributary of the Congo River in the region of Central Africa.
Uganda, officially the Republic of Uganda (Jamhuri ya Uganda), is a landlocked country in East Africa.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The Union of Congolese Patriots (Union des Patriotes congolais, or UPC) is a political and militia group in Ituri, northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, formed towards the end of the Second Congo War.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The United Nations Force Intervention Brigade (FIB) is a military formation which constitutes part of the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO).
The United Nations geoscheme is a system which divides the countries of the world into regional and subregional groups.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The titles Special Rapporteur, Independent Expert, and Working Group Member are given to individuals working on behalf of the United Nations (UN) within the scope of "special procedure" mechanisms who have a specific country or thematic mandate from the United Nations Human Rights Council.
The United States Department of Labor (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government responsible for occupational safety, wage and hour standards, unemployment insurance benefits, reemployment services, and some economic statistics; many U.S. states also have such departments.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States Government Publishing Office (GPO) (formerly the Government Printing Office) is an agency of the legislative branch of the United States federal government.
The Committee on Ways and Means is the chief tax-writing committee of the United States House of Representatives.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The University of Denver (DU) is a research coeducational, four-year university in Denver, Colorado.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
Violence against women (VAW), also known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is, collectively, violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women and girls.
The Virunga National Park (Parc National des Virunga), formerly named Albert National Park, is a National Park that stretches from the Virunga Mountains in the south to the Rwenzori Mountains in the north, in the eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo, bordering Volcanoes National Park in Rwanda and Rwenzori Mountains National Park and Queen Elizabeth National Park in Uganda.
Vitalism is the belief that "living organisms are fundamentally different from non-living entities because they contain some non-physical element or are governed by different principles than are inanimate things".
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
A waterway is any navigable body of water.
West Africa Time, or WAT, is a time zone used in west-central Africa; with countries west of Benin instead using Greenwich Mean Time (GMT; equivalent to UTC with no offset).
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
The western gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) is a great ape—the type species as well as the most populous species of the genus Gorilla.
The white rhinoceros or square-lipped rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) is the largest extant species of rhinoceros.
Witchcraft or witchery broadly means the practice of and belief in magical skills and abilities exercised by solitary practitioners and groups.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration.
Zaire, officially the Republic of Zaire (République du Zaïre), was the name for the Democratic Republic of the Congo that existed between 1971 and 1997 in Central Africa.
Zambia, officially the Republic of Zambia, is a landlocked country in south-central Africa, (although some sources prefer to consider it part of the region of east Africa) neighbouring the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Tanzania to the north-east, Malawi to the east, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia to the south, and Angola to the west.
The Azande (plural of "Zande" in the Zande language) are an ethnic group of North Central Africa.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
.cd is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Democratic Republic of Congo.
The meridian 12° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 14th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 14 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
On 19 January 2015, protests led by students at the University of Kinshasa broke out in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
The meridian 32° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Turkey, Africa, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 6th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 6 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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