108 relations: Abkhaz language, Absolutive case, Adjective, Adyghe language, Alfredo Trombetti, Algic languages, Algonquian–Wakashan languages, Allan R. Bomhard, Allative case, Amerind languages, Andrey Korotayev, Aquitanian language, Assibilation, Athabaskan languages, Attributive, Austric languages, Austronesian languages, Avar language, Basque language, Borean languages, Burushaski, Circumfix, Comitative case, Dargwa language, Dative case, Dené–Yeniseian languages, Doctor of Philosophy, Dravidian languages, Edward Sapir, Edward Vajda, Ergative case, Eurasia, Eurasiatic languages, Eyak language, Genitive case, Grammatical case, Haida language, Haplogroup C-M217, Historical linguistics, Hunzib language, Iberian language, Igor M. Diakonoff, Infinitive, Instrumental case, Intransitive verb, Ives Goddard, John Bengtson, Joseph Greenberg, JPEG, Kabardian language, ..., Ket language, Khinalug language, Kott language, Kryts language, Lak language, Language family, Larry Trask, Linguistic reconstruction, Lyle Campbell, Mary Haas, Merritt Ruhlen, Morris Swadesh, Moscow, Mother Tongue (journal), Munda languages, Na-Dene languages, Navajo language, North America, North Caucasian languages, Northeast Caucasian languages, Nostratic languages, Noun class, Nung language (Sino-Tibetan), Object (grammar), Participle, PDF, Polysynthetic language, Portable Network Graphics, Prefix, Preverb, Proto-Basque language, Proto-Dené–Caucasian language, Proto-language, Robert Bleichsteiner, Rutul language, Salishan languages, Sergei Starostin, Sibilant, Sino-Tibetan languages, Stop consonant, Subject (grammar), Suffix, Sumerian language, Suppletion, Thesis, Tibetic languages, Tlingit language, Transitive verb, Tsakhur language, Tsez language, Tyrsenian languages, Uvular consonant, Vasconic languages, Velar consonant, Vitaly Shevoroshkin, Vladimir Toporov, Wakashan languages, Yeniseian languages. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
Abkhaz (sometimes spelled Abxaz; Аԥсуа бызшәа //), also known as Abkhazian, is a Northwest Caucasian language most closely related to Abaza.
The absolutive case (abbreviated) is the unmarked grammatical case of a core argument of a verb (generally other than the nominative) that is used as the citation form of a noun.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
Adyghe (or; Adyghe: Адыгабзэ, Adygabzæ), also known as West Circassian (КӀахыбзэ, K’axybzæ), is one of the two official languages of the Republic of Adygea in the Russian Federation, the other being Russian. It is spoken by various tribes of the Adyghe people: Abzekh, Adamey, Bzhedug, Hatuqwai, Temirgoy, Mamkhegh, Natekuay, Shapsug, Zhaney and Yegerikuay, each with its own dialect. The language is referred to by its speakers as Adygebze or Adəgăbză, and alternatively transliterated in English as Adygean, Adygeyan or Adygei. The literary language is based on the Temirgoy dialect. There are apparently around 128,000 speakers of Adyghe in Russia, almost all of them native speakers. In total, some 300,000 speak it worldwide. The largest Adyghe-speaking community is in Turkey, spoken by the post Russian–Circassian War (circa 1763–1864) diaspora; in addition to that, the Adyghe language is spoken by the Cherkesogai in Krasnodar Krai. Adyghe belongs to the family of Northwest Caucasian languages. Kabardian (also known as East Circassian) is a very close relative, treated by some as a dialect of Adyghe or of an overarching Circassian language. Ubykh, Abkhaz and Abaza are somewhat more distantly related to Adyghe. The language was standardised after the October Revolution in 1917. Since 1936, the Cyrillic script has been used to write Adyghe. Before that, an Arabic-based alphabet was used together with the Latin.
Alfredo Trombetti (16 January 1866 in Bologna – 5 July 1929 in Venice), was an Italian linguist active in the early 20th century.
The Algic (also Algonquian–Wiyot–Yurok or Algonquian–Ritwan) languages are an indigenous language family of North America.
Algonquian–Wakashan (also Almosan, Algonkian–Mosan, Algonkin–Wakashan) is a hypothetical language family composed of several established language families that was proposed in 1929.
Allan R. Bomhard (born 1943) is an American linguist.
Allative case (abbreviated; from Latin allāt-, afferre "to bring to") is a type of locative case.
Amerind is a hypothetical higher-level language family proposed by Joseph Greenberg in 1960 and elaborated by his student Merritt Ruhlen.
Andrey Vitalievich Korotayev (Андре́й Вита́льевич Корота́ев; born 17 February 1961) is a Russian anthropologist, economic historian, comparative political scientist, demographer and sociologist, with major contributions to world-systems theory, cross-cultural studies, Near Eastern history, Big History, and mathematical modelling of social and economic macrodynamics.
The Aquitanian language was spoken on both sides of the western Pyrenees in ancient Aquitaine (approximately between the Pyrenees and the Garonne, in the region later known as Gascony) and in the areas south of the Pyrenees in the valleys of the Basque Country before the Roman conquest.
In linguistics, assibilation is a sound change resulting in a sibilant consonant.
Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Dene, Athapascan, Athapaskan) is a large family of indigenous languages of North America, located in western North America in three groups of contiguous languages: Northern, Pacific Coast and Southern (or Apachean).
In grammar, an attributive is a word or phrase within a noun phrase that modifies the head noun.
Austric is a large hypothetical grouping of languages primarily spoken in Southeast Asia and Pacific.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
Avar (self-designation Магӏарул мацӏ Maⱨarul maⱬ "language of the mountains" or Авар мацӏ Avar maⱬ "Avar language"), also known as Avaric, is a language that belongs to the Avar–Andic group of the Northeast Caucasian family.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Borean (also Boreal or Boralean) is a hypothetical linguistic macrofamily that encompasses almost all language families worldwide except those native to sub-Saharan Africa, New Guinea, Australia, and the Andaman Islands.
Burushaski (بروشسکی) is a language isolate spoken by Burusho people who reside almost entirely in northern Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, with a few hundred speakers in northern Jammu and Kashmir, India.
A circumfix (abbreviated) or confix is an affix which has two parts, one placed at the start of a word, and the other at the end.
The comitative case (abbreviated) is a grammatical case that denotes accompaniment.
The Dargwa or Dargin language is spoken by the Dargin people in the Russian republic Dagestan.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
Dené–Yeniseian is a proposed language family consisting of the Yeniseian languages of central Siberia and the Na-Dené languages of northwestern North America.
A Doctor of Philosophy (PhD or Ph.D.; Latin Philosophiae doctor) is the highest academic degree awarded by universities in most countries.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
Edward Sapir (January 26, 1884 – February 4, 1939) was a German anthropologist-linguist, who is widely considered to be one of the most important figures in the early development of the discipline of linguistics.
Edward J. Vajda (Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, September 10, 1958 as Edward M. Johnson; changed his name in 1981) is a historical linguist at Western Washington University.
The ergative case (abbreviated) is the grammatical case that identifies the noun as a subject of a transitive verb in ergative–absolutive languages.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
Eurasiatic is a proposed language macrofamily that would include many language families historically spoken in northern, western, and southern Eurasia.
Eyak is an extinct Na-Dené language historically spoken by the Eyak people, indigenous to south-central Alaska, near the mouth of the Copper River.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Case is a special grammatical category of a noun, pronoun, adjective, participle or numeral whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by that word in a phrase, clause or sentence.
Haida (X̱aat Kíl, X̱aadas Kíl, X̱aayda Kil, Xaad kil) is the language of the Haida people, spoken in the Haida Gwaii archipelago of the coast of Canada and on Prince of Wales Island in Alaska.
Haplogroup C-M217, also known as C2 (and previously as C3), is a Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup.
Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
Hunzib is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 1840 people in southern Dagestan, near the Russian border with Georgia.
The Iberian language was the language of an indigenous pre-Migration Period people identified by Greek and Roman sources who lived in the eastern and southeastern regions of the Iberian Peninsula.
Igor Mikhailovich Diakonoff (И́горь Миха́йлович Дья́конов; 12 January 1915 – 2 May 1999) was a Russian historian, linguist, and translator and a renowned expert on the Ancient Near East and its languages.
Infinitive (abbreviated) is a grammatical term referring to certain verb forms existing in many languages, most often used as non-finite verbs.
The instrumental case (abbreviated or) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action.
In grammar, an intransitive verb does not allow a direct object.
Robert Hale Ives Goddard III (1941–) is curator emeritus in the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian Institution.
John D. Bengtson (born 1948) is an American historical and anthropological linguist.
Joseph Harold Greenberg (May 28, 1915 – May 7, 2001) was an American linguist, known mainly for his work concerning linguistic typology and the genetic classification of languages.
JPEG is a commonly used method of lossy compression for digital images, particularly for those images produced by digital photography.
Kabardian (адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдей адыгэбзэ, къэбэрдейбзэ; Adyghe: адыгэбзэ, къэбэртай адыгабзэ, къэбэртайбзэ), also known as Kabardino-Cherkess (къэбэрдей-черкесыбзэ) or, is a Northwest Caucasian language closely related to the Adyghe language.
The Ket language, or more specifically Imbak and formerly known as Yenisei Ostyak,Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student's Handbook, Edinburgh is a Siberian language long thought to be an isolate, the sole surviving language of a Yeniseian language family.
Khinalug (also spelled Khinalig, Khinalugi, Xinalug(h), Xinaliq or Khinalugh) is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by about 1,500 people in the villages of Khinalug and Gülüstan, Quba in the mountains of Quba Rayon, northern Azerbaijan.
The Kott (Kot) language (Коттский язык) is an extinct Yeniseian language that was formerly spoken in central Siberia by the banks of Mana River, a tributary of the Yenisei river.
Kryts (Kryc) is a Samur language of the Northeast Caucasian language family spoken in parts of the Quba Rayon of Azerbaijan by 6,000 people in 1975.
The Lak language (лакку маз, lakːu maz) is a Northeast Caucasian language forming its own branch within this family.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
Robert Lawrence "Larry" Trask (November 10, 1944 – March 27, 2004) was an American–British professor of linguistics at the University of Sussex, and an authority on the Basque language and field of historical linguistics.
Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of an unattested ancestor language of one or more given languages.
Lyle Richard Campbell (born October 22, 1942) is an American scholar and linguist known for his studies of indigenous American languages, especially those of Central America, and on historical linguistics in general.
Mary Rosamond Haas (January 23, 1910 – May 17, 1996) was an American linguist who specialized in North American Indian languages, Thai, and historical linguistics.
Merritt Ruhlen (born 1944) is an American linguist who has worked on the classification of languages and what this reveals about the origin and evolution of modern humans.
Morris Swadesh (January 22, 1909 – July 20, 1967) was an American linguist who specialized in comparative and historical linguistics.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Mother Tongue is an annual academic journal published by the Association for the Study of Language in Prehistory (ASLIP) that has been published since 1995.
The Munda languages are a language family spoken by about nine million people in central and eastern India and Bangladesh.
Na-Dene (also Nadene, Na-Dené, Athabaskan–Eyak–Tlingit, Tlina–Dene) is a family of Native American languages that includes at least the Athabaskan languages, Eyak, and Tlingit languages.
Navajo or Navaho (Navajo: Diné bizaad or Naabeehó bizaad) is a Southern Athabaskan language of the Na-Dené family, by which it is related to languages spoken across the western areas of North America.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
The North Caucasian languages, sometimes called simply Caucasic, are a pair of well established language families spoken in the Caucasus, chiefly in the north: the Northwest Caucasian family, also called Pontic, Abkhaz–Adyghe, Circassian, or West Caucasian; and the Northeast Caucasian family, also called Nakh–Dagestanian or East Caucasian.
The Northeast Caucasian languages, or Nakh-Daghestanian languages, are a language family spoken in the Russian republics of Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia and in northern Azerbaijan as well as in diaspora populations in Western Europe, Turkey and the Middle East.
Nostratic is a macrofamily, or hypothetical large-scale language family, which includes many of the indigenous language families of Eurasia, although its exact composition and structure vary among proponents.
In linguistics, a noun class is a particular category of nouns.
Fuche Naw or Anong (Derung: Vnung), is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by the Nung people in Fugong County, China and Kachin State, Burma.
Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.
A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
In linguistic typology, polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i.e. languages in which words are composed of many morphemes (word parts that have independent meaning but may or may not be able to stand alone).
Portable Network Graphics (PNG, pronounced or) is a raster graphics file format that supports lossless data compression.
A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.
Although not widely accepted in linguistics, the term preverb is used in Caucasian (including all three families: Northwest Caucasian, Northeast Caucasian and Kartvelian), Caddoan, Athabaskan, and Algonquian linguistics to describe certain elements prefixed to verbs.
Proto-Basque (Aitzineuskara; protoeuskera, protovasco; proto-basque) is a reconstructed predecessor of the Basque language, before the Roman conquests in the Western Pyrenees.
Proto-Dené–Caucasian is the reconstructed hypothetical common ancestor of the Dené–Caucasian languages, a proposed language superfamily to which Basque, North Caucasian, Burushaski, Sino-Tibetan, Yeniseian, Na-Dené and possibly also other language families may belong.
A proto-language, in the tree model of historical linguistics, is a language, usually hypothetical or reconstructed, and usually unattested, from which a number of attested known languages are believed to have descended by evolution, forming a language family.
Robert Bleichsteiner (6 January 1891 – 10 April 1954) was an Austrian ethnologist.
Rutul is a language spoken by the Rutuls, an ethnic group living in Dagestan (Russia) and some parts of Azerbaijan.
The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of the Pacific Northwest in North America (the Canadian province of British Columbia and the American states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho and Montana).
Sergei Anatolyevich Starostin (Cyrillic: Серге́й Анато́льевич Ста́ростин, March 24, 1953 – September 30, 2005) was a Russian historical linguist and philologist, perhaps best known for his reconstructions of hypothetical proto-languages, including his work on the controversial Altaic theory, the formulation of the Dené–Caucasian hypothesis, and the proposal of a Borean language of still earlier date.
Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
The subject in a simple English sentence such as John runs, John is a teacher, or John was hit by a car is the person or thing about whom the statement is made, in this case 'John'.
In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.
Sumerian (𒅴𒂠 "native tongue") is the language of ancient Sumer and a language isolate that was spoken in southern Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).
In linguistics and etymology, suppletion is traditionally understood as the use of one word as the inflected form of another word when the two words are not cognate.
A thesis or dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.
The Tibetic languages are a cluster of Sino-Tibetan languages descended from Old Tibetan, spoken across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas in Baltistan, Ladakh, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan.
The Tlingit language (Lingít) is spoken by the Tlingit people of Southeast Alaska and Western Canada.
A transitive verb is a verb that requires one or more objects.
Tsakhur (also spelled Tsaxur or Caxur; Saxur dili; Цахурский, Tsakhurskiy) is a language spoken by the Tsakhurs in northern Azerbaijan and southwestern Dagestan (Russia).
Tsez, also known as Dido (цезйас мец cezyas mec or цез мец cez mec in Tsez) is a Northeast Caucasian language with about 15,354 speakers (2002) spoken by the Tsez, a Muslim people in the mountainous Tsunta District of southwestern Dagestan in Russia.
Tyrsenian (also Tyrrhenian), named after the Tyrrhenians (Ancient Greek, Ionic: Τυρσηνοί, Tursēnoi), is a hypothetical extinct family of closely related ancient languages proposed by Helmut Rix (1998), that consists of the Etruscan language of central Italy, the Raetic language of the Alps, and the Lemnian language of the Aegean Sea.
Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.
The Vasconic languages (from Latin vasco "Basque") are a putative family of languages that includes Basque and the extinct Aquitanian language.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Vitaly Victorovich Shevoroshkin (Виталий Викторович Шеворошкин) is an American linguist of Russian origin, specializing in the study of ancient Mediterranean languages.
Vladimir Nikolayevich Toporov (Влади́мир Никола́евич Топоро́в; 5 July 1928 in Moscow5 December 2005 in Moscow) was a leading Russian philologist associated with the Tartu-Moscow semiotic school.
Wakashan is a family of languages spoken in British Columbia around and on Vancouver Island, and in the northwestern corner of the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state, on the south side of the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
The Yeniseian languages (sometimes known as Yeniseic or Yenisei-Ostyak;"Ostyak" is a concept of areal rather than genetic linguistics. In addition to the Yeniseian languages it also includes the Uralic languages Khanty and Selkup. occasionally spelled with -ss-) are a family of languages that were spoken in the Yenisei River region of central Siberia.
Dene-Caucasian, Dene-Caucasian languages, Dene-Iberic, Dene-SIno-Caucasian, Dene-Sino-Caucasian, Dene-caucasian languages, Dene–Caucasian, Dene–Caucasian languages, Dené-Caucasian, Dené-Caucasian languages, Dené-SIno-Caucasian, Dené–Caucasian, Macro-Caucasian, Sino-Caucasian, Sino-Caucasian languages, Vasco-Caucasian, Vasco-Dene, Vasco-Dene languages, Vascodene.