239 relations: An Ziwen, Anti-Rightist Campaign, Armand Hammer, Atlanta, Baise Uprising, Bangkok, Bayeux, BBC News, Beijing, Beijing Spring, Bishkek, Bo Gu, Bo Yibo, Boeing, Boeing 747, Cai Hesen, Central Advisory Commission, Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Central Military Commission, Central Military Commission (China), Chairman of the Central Military Commission, Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Chairman of the Communist Party of China, Châtillon, Hauts-de-Seine, Chen Duxiu, Chen Yun, Chengdu, Chiang Ching-kuo, Chiang Kai-shek, China, China Central Television, China–Japan relations, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Chinese television drama, Chongqing, Coca-Cola, Collins English Dictionary, Communist International, Communist Party of China, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Comrade, Courtesy name, Cultural Revolution, Deng (surname), Deng Fei, Deng Nan, Deng Pufang, Deng Rong, Deng Xiaoping and the Making of Modern China, Deng Xiaoping at History's Crossroads, ..., Deng Xiaoping Theory, Deng Yingchao, Diligent Work-Frugal Study Movement, Dong Wenhua, Dujiangyan, Economy of China, Eight Elders, Eighth Route Army, Export-oriented industrialization, Feng Yuxiang, Fengtian clique, Foreign Affairs, Foreign Relations of the United States (book series), Former Residence of Deng Xiaoping, Four Asian Tigers, Four Modernizations, Gang of Four, General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, Generations of Chinese leadership, Great Leap Forward, Guang'an, Guangxi, Guangzhou, Hainan, Hakka people, Half-mast, Head of state, Hebei, Hegemony, Household responsibility system, Houston, Hu Qiaomu, Hu Sheng, Hu Yaobang, Hua Guofeng, Huang Yongsheng, Huichang County, Hungarian People's Republic, Jacques Chirac, Jean Chrétien, Jiang Qing, Jiang Zemin, Jiangxi, Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet, Jiefang Daily, John Major, Johnson Space Center, Joseph Stalin, Kang Sheng, Kofi Annan, Kuala Lumpur, Kunming, Kuomintang, Kyrgyz language, Kyrgyzstan, Leader of the Communist Party of China, Lee Kuan Yew, Li Desheng, Li Peng, Li Xiannian, Lianhuashan Park, Lijiang, Lin Biao, List of premiers of the People's Republic of China, List of Presidents of the People's Republic of China, Liu Bocheng, Liu Shaoqi, Long March, Macau, Mao Zedong, Maoism, Margaret Thatcher, Market economy, Market socialism, Marseille, Marxism, Marxism–Leninism, Meizhou, Mikhail Gorbachev, Ministry of Finance of the People's Republic of China, Monument to the People's Heroes, Moscow Sun Yat-sen University, Mount Wutai, New Economic Policy, Nie Rongzhen, Nikita Khrushchev, Nikolai Bukharin, One country, two systems, One-child policy, Orders of precedence in China, Organization Department of the Communist Party of China, Paramount leader, Paraplegia, Parkinson's disease, Peng Dehuai, Penguin Books, People's Liberation Army, People's Liberation Army at Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, People's Liberation Army General Staff Department, Perestroika, Pierre Trudeau, Primary stage of socialism, Pudong, Qing dynasty, Qingdao, Qingming Festival, Qu Qiubai, Rao Shushi, Red Guards, Reformism, Revolutions of 1989, Richard Nixon, Roderick MacFarquhar, Ruijin, Seattle, Second Field Army, Second Sino-Japanese War, Secretariat of the Communist Party of China, Seek truth from facts, Self-criticism, Shaanxi, Shanxi, Shenzhen, Sichuan, Singapore, Sino-British Joint Declaration, Sino-Soviet split, Social Anarchism (journal), Socialism, Socialism with Chinese characteristics, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Socialist market economy, Soviet Union, Special economic zones of China, Standard of living in China, State Council of the People's Republic of China, Steerage (deck), Story of Spring, Sun Yat-sen, Taipei Times, Taiwan, Tiananmen Incident, Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, Tibet Autonomous Region, Time Person of the Year, Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, Vice Chairman of the Communist Party of China, Vice Premier 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An Ziwen (September 1909 – 25 June 1980), born as An Zhihan, was a Chinese politician and member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China.
The Anti-Rightist Campaign in the People's Republic of China, which lasted from roughly 1957 to 1959, was a campaign to purge alleged "rightists" within the Communist Party of China (CPC) and abroad.
Armand Hammer (May 21, 1898Armand Hammer, The Untold Story by Steve Weinberg, p. 16 – December 10, 1990) was an American business manager and owner, most closely associated with Occidental Petroleum, a company he ran from 1957 until his death, though he was known as well for his art collection, his philanthropy, and for his close ties to the Soviet Union.
Atlanta is the capital city and most populous municipality of the state of Georgia in the United States.
The Baise Uprising (also known as the Youjiang Riots) was a successful military insurrection in late 1929 in Baise, Guangxi, China, instigated by the Communist Party of China using tense relations between warlords Yu Zuobai and Li Mingrui of the New Guangxi clique, that aimed at opposing Chiang Kai-shek and the Kuomintang party and seizing power by force.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
Bayeux is a commune in the Calvados department in Normandy in northwestern France.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Beijing Spring refers to a brief period of political liberalization in the People's Republic of China (PRC) which occurred in 1978 and 1979.
Bishkek (Бишке́к, BISHKEK, بىشکەک;; bʲɪʂˈkʲɛk), formerly Pishpek and Frunze, is the capital and largest city of Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz Republic).
Qin Bangxian, better known as Bo Gu (May 14, 1907 – April 8, 1946) was a senior leader of the Chinese Communist Party and a member of the 28 Bolsheviks.
Bo Yibo (17 February 1908 – 15 January 2007) (in older texts spelled Po I-po) was a Chinese political and military leader.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".
Cai Hesen (March 30, 1895 – August 4, 1931) was an early leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), and a friend and comrade of Mao Zedong.
Central Advisory Commission (CAC) was a body of the Communist Party of China that existed during the era of the paramount leadership of Deng Xiaoping.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is a political body that comprises the top leaders of the Communist Party of China (CPC).
A Central Military Commission or National Defense Commission is an organization typical of socialist one-party states espousing communism responsible for the ruling party's control of the nation's armed forces.
The Central Military Commission (CMC) refers to the parallel national defense organizations of the Communist Party of China and the People's Republic of China: the Central Military Commission of the Communist Party of China, a Party organ under the CPC Central Committee, and the Central Military Commission of the People's Republic of China, a central state organ under the National People's Congress, being the military branch of the national government.
The Chairman of the Central Military Commission has overall responsibility for the Central Military Commission, serving as the commander-in-chief of the People's Liberation Army.
The Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference is the leader of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (National CPPCC), which is a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China.
The Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was the head of the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Châtillon is a commune in the southwestern suburbs of Paris, France.
Chen Duxiu (October 8, 1879 – May 27, 1942) was a Chinese revolutionary socialist, educator, philosopher, and author, who co-founded the Chinese Communist Party (with Li Dazhao) in 1921, serving from 1921 to 1927 as its first General Secretary.
Chen Yun (pronounced; 13 June 1905 – 10 April 1995) was one of the most influential leaders of the People's Republic of China during the 1980s and 1990s.
Chengdu, formerly romanized as Chengtu, is a sub-provincial city which serves as the capital of China's Sichuan province.
Chiang Ching-kuo (Ningbo dialect) (27 April 1910 – 13 January 1988) was a politician in Taiwan.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Central Television (formerly Beijing Television), commonly abbreviated as CCTV, is the predominant state television broadcaster in the People's Republic of China.
China–Japan relations or Sino-Nippon relations (日中関係; にっちゅうかんけい) refer to the international relations between the People's Republic of China and the State of Japan.
The Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), also known as the People's PCC (人民政协) or just the PCC (政协), is a political advisory body in the People's Republic of China.
Chinese television dramas (simplified Chinese: 中国电视连续剧) or mainland Chinese television dramas (simplified Chinese: 中国大陆电视剧) are similar to television dramas in North America, but are often longer.
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
Coca-Cola, or Coke (also Pemberton's Cola at certain Georgian vendors), is a carbonated soft drink produced by The Coca-Cola Company.
The Collins English Dictionary is a printed and online dictionary of English.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The term comrade is used to mean "friend", "mate", "colleague", or "ally", and derives from the Iberian Romance language term camarada, literally meaning "chamber mate", from Latin camera "chamber" or "room".
A courtesy name (zi), also known as a style name, is a name bestowed upon one at adulthood in addition to one's given name.
The Cultural Revolution, formally the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was a sociopolitical movement in China from 1966 until 1976.
Deng (Chinese) is an East Asian surname of Chinese origin. It is a transcription of 邓 (simplified Chinese character) or 鄧 (traditional). It is transliterated as Dèng in pinyin and Teng, or Then, in Wade-Giles. In Cantonese, it is Dahng in Yale and Dang6 in Jyutping. In Minnan or Taiwanese, it is Tēng in Pe̍h-ōe-jī. The surname originating from the same Chinese character in Vietnamese is Đặng and it is one of the top ten surnames in Vietnam. The name is transliterated as Deung in Korean but is very rare in Korea. Deng is one of the surnames of the Nanyang, Henan ancestral hall (南陽堂). In addition to spelling "Deng" used in mainland China, other common Chinese spelling variations include.
Deng Fei is a fictional character in Water Margin, one of the Four Great Classical Novels of Chinese literature.
Deng Nan (born October 1945 in Guang'an, Sichuan) is a Chinese politician and physicist.
Deng Pufang (born 16 April 1944) is the first son of China's former Paramount leader Deng Xiaoping.
Deng Rong is a Chinese politician and the third daughter of Paramount Leader Deng Xiaoping.
Deng Xiaoping and the Making of Modern China is a book by Sir Richard Evans chronicling the rise of Deng Xiaoping as the leader of the People's Republic of China.
Deng Xiaoping at History’s Crossroads (历史转折中的邓小平 Lìshǐ zhuǎnzhé zhōng de Dèng Xiǎopíng) is a 2014 TV biopic series based on the life of Deng Xiaoping.
Deng Xiaoping Theory, also known as Dengism, is the series of political and economic ideologies first developed by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping.
Deng Yingchao (February 4, 1904 – July 11, 1992) was the Chairwoman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference from 1983 to 1988, a member of the Communist Party of China, and the wife of the first Chinese Premier, Zhou Enlai.
The Diligent Work-Frugal Study Movement (French: Mouvement Travail-Études) was a series of work-study programs which brought Chinese students to France and Belgium to work in factories as a way to pay for their study of French culture and Western science.
Dong Wenhua (born June 29, 1962) is a famous Chinese singer from the People's Liberation Army.
The Dujiangyan is an ancient irrigation system in Dujiangyan City, Sichuan, China.
The socialist market economy of the People's Republic of China is the world's second largest economy by nominal GDP and the world's largest economy by purchasing power parity according to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), although China's National Bureau of Statistics denies the latter assessment.
The Eight Great Eminent Officials, abbreviated as the Eight Elders, were a group of elderly members of the Communist Party of China who held substantial power during the 1980s and 1990s.
The Eighth Route Army, officially known as the '''18th Army Group''' of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, was a group army under the command of the Chinese Communist Party, nominally within the structure of the Chinese military headed by the Chinese Nationalist Party during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Export-oriented industrialization (EOI) sometimes called export substitution industrialization (ESI), export led industrialization (ELI) or export-led growth is a trade and economic policy aiming to speed up the industrialization process of a country by exporting goods for which the nation has a comparative advantage.
Feng Yuxiang (6 November 1882 – 1 September 1948) was a warlord and leader in Republican China from Chaohu, Anhui.
The Fengtian Clique was one of several mutually hostile cliques or factions that split from the Beiyang Clique in the Republic of China's Warlord Era.
Foreign Affairs is an American magazine of international relations and U.S. foreign policy published by the Council on Foreign Relations, a nonprofit, nonpartisan, membership organization and think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
Foreign Relations of the United States (FRUS) is a book series published by the Office of the Historian in the United States Department of State.
The Former Residence of Deng Xiaoping built in the late Qing dynasty (1644–1911).
The Four Asian Tigers, Four Asian Dragons or Four Little Dragons, are the economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, which underwent rapid industrialization and maintained exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7 percent a year) between the early 1960s (mid-1950s for Hong Kong) and 1990s.
The Four Modernizations were goals first set forth by Deng Xiaoping to strengthen the fields of agriculture, industry, national defense, and science and technology in China.
The Gang of Four was a political faction composed of four Chinese Communist Party officials.
The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is head of the Communist Party of China and the highest-ranking official within the People's Republic of China.
Since both the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army promote according to seniority, it is possible to discern distinct generations of Chinese leadership.
The Great Leap Forward of the People's Republic of China (PRC) was an economic and social campaign by the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1958 to 1962.
Guang'an is a prefecture-level city in eastern Sichuan province.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Hainan is the smallest and southernmost province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), consisting of various islands in the South China Sea.
The Hakkas, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou.
Half-mast or half-staff refers to a flag flying below the summit on a pole.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
The household responsibility system, or contract responsibility system, was a practice in China, first adopted in agriculture in 1979 and later extended to other sectors of the economy, by which local managers are held responsible for the profits and losses of an enterprise.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
Hu Qiaomu (4 June 191228 September 1992) was a revolutionary, sociologist, Marxist philosopher and prominent politician of People's Republic of China.
Hu Sheng (11 January 1918 – 5 November 2000),was a Chinese Marxist theorist and historian.
Hu Yaobang (20 November 1915 – 15 April 1989) was a high-ranking official of the People's Republic of China.
Hua Guofeng (born Su Zhu; 16 February 1921 – 20 August 2008) was a Chinese politician who served as Chairman of the Communist Party of China and Premier of the People's Republic of China.
Huang Yongsheng (1910–1983) was a general of the China's People's Liberation Army.
Huichang County is a county, under the jurisdiction of Ganzhou, in the south of Jiangxi province, People's Republic of China.
The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a one-party socialist republic (communist state) from 20 August 1949 to 23 October 1989.
Jacques René Chirac (born 29 November 1932) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 1995 to 2007.
Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien (born January 11, 1934), known commonly as Jean Chrétien, is a Canadian politician who served as the 20th Prime Minister of Canada from November 4, 1993, to December 12, 2003.
Jiang Qing (March 19, 1914May 14, 1991), also known as Madame Mao, was a Chinese Communist Revolutionary, Chinese actress, and major political figure during the Cultural Revolution (1966–76).
Jiang Zemin (born 17 August 1926) is a retired Chinese politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of China from 1989 to 2002, as Chairman of the Central Military Commission from 1989 to 2004, and as President of the People's Republic of China from 1993 to 2003.
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
The Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet (commonly called the Jiangxi Soviet) was the largest component territory of the Chinese Soviet Republic, an unrecognized state established in November 1931 by Mao Zedong and Zhu De during the Chinese civil war.
Jiefang Daily, also translated as Liberation Daily, is the official daily newspaper of the Shanghai Committee of the Communist Party of China.
Sir John Major (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997.
The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Kang Sheng (c. 1898 – December 16, 1975) was a Communist Party of China (CPC) official best known for having overseen the work of the CPC's internal security and intelligence apparatus during the early 1940s and again at the height of the Cultural Revolution in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.
Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.
Kunming is the capital and largest city of Yunnan province in southwest China.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Kyrgyz (natively кыргызча, قىرعىزچه, kyrgyzcha or кыргыз тили, قىرعىز تيلى, kyrgyz tili) is a Turkic language spoken by about four million people in Kyrgyzstan as well as China, Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, Pakistan and Russia.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
The leader, now officially the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of China (CPC), is by right of office the Chairman of the Central Military Commission and the President of the People's Republic of China.
Lee Kuan Yew GCMG CH SPMJ (16 September 1923 – 23 March 2015), commonly referred to by his initials LKY, was the first Prime Minister of Singapore, governing for three decades.
Li Desheng (4 May 1916 – 8 May 2011) was a general in the Chinese People's Liberation Army.
Li Peng (born 20 October 1928) is a retired Chinese politician.
Li Xiannian (pronounced; 23 June 1909 – 21 June 1992) was a President of the People's Republic of China between 1983 and 1988 and then Chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference until his death.
Lianhuashan Park is a hill and urban park in Shenzhen, China.
Lijiang is a prefecture-level city in the northwest of Yunnan province, China.
Lin Biao (December 5, 1907 – September 13, 1971) was a Marshal of the People's Republic of China who was pivotal in the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeast China.
This is a list of the premiers of the People's Republic of China since 1949.
This is a list of the Presidents and other heads of state of the People's Republic of China.
Liu Bocheng (December 4, 1892 – October 7, 1986) was a Chinese Communist military commander and Marshal of the People's Liberation Army.
Liu Shaoqi (24 November 189812 November 1969) was a Chinese revolutionary, politician, and theorist.
The Long March (October 1934 – October 1935) was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Market socialism is a type of economic system involving the public, cooperative or social ownership of the means of production in the framework of a market economy.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
Meizhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Guangdong province, China.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
The Ministry of Finance of the Government of the People's Republic of China is the national executive agency of the Central People's Government which administers macroeconomic policies and the national annual budget.
The Monument to the People's Heroes is a ten-story obelisk that was erected as a national monument of the People's Republic of China to the martyrs of revolutionary struggle during the 19th and 20th centuries.
Moscow Sun Yat-sen University, officially the Sun Yat-sen Communist University of the Toilers of China, was a Comintern school, which operated from 1925-1930 in the city of Moscow, Russia, then the Soviet Union.
Mount Wutai, also known by its Chinese name Wutaishan and as is a sacred Buddhist site at the headwaters of the Qingshui in Shanxi Province, China.
The New Economic Policy (NEP, Russian новая экономическая политика, НЭП) was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin in 1921 as a temporary expedient.
Nie Rongzhen (December 29, 1899 – May 14, 1992) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader, and one of ten Marshals in the People's Liberation Army of China.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikolai Ivanovich Bukharin (– 15 March 1938) was a Russian Bolshevik revolutionary, Soviet politician and prolific author on revolutionary theory.
"One country, two systems" is a constitutional principle formulated by Deng Xiaoping, the Paramount Leader of the People's Republic of China (PRC), for the reunification of China during the early 1980s.
The one-child policy, a part of the family planning policy, was a population planning policy of China.
The Orders of precedence in China is the ranking of political leaders in China for the purposes of event protocol and to arrange the ordering of names in official news bulletins, both written and televised.
The Organization Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is a department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China that controls staffing positions within the CPC.
In modern Chinese politics, the paramount leader of the Communist Party of China and the State is an informal term that refers to the most prominent political leader in the People's Republic of China.
Paraplegia is an impairment in motor or sensory function of the lower extremities.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.
Peng Dehuai (October 24, 1898November 29, 1974) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader, who served as China's Defense Minister from 1954 to 1959.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
During the 1989 student demonstrations in Beijing, the Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) played a decisive role in enforcing martial law, suppressing the demonstrations by force and upholding the authority of the Chinese Communist Party.
The People's Liberation Army General Staff Department (GSD) is the former command organ and the headquarters for the People's Liberation Army (PLA) of China.
Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s until 1991 and is widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.
Joseph Philippe Pierre Yves Elliott Trudeau (October 18, 1919 – September 28, 2000), often referred to by the initials PET, was a Canadian statesman who served as the 15th Prime Minister of Canada (1968–1979 and 1980–1984).
The primary stage of socialism (sometimes referred to as the preliminary stage of socialism),Properly Understand Theories Concerning Preliminary Stage of Socialism, by Wei Xinghua and Sang Baichuan.
Pudong is a district of Shanghai located east of the Huangpu River across from the historic city center of Shanghai in Puxi.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qingdao (also spelled Tsingtao) is a city in eastern Shandong Province on the east coast of China.
The Qingming or Ching Ming festival, also known as Tomb-Sweeping Day in English (sometimes also called Chinese Memorial Day or Ancestors' Day), is a traditional Chinese festival.
Qu Qiubai (29 January 1899 – 18 June 1935) was a leader of the Communist Party of China in the late 1920s.
Rao Shushi (1903—1975) like his confederate Gao Gang, was a senior leader of the Communist Party of China (CPC), who once enjoyed great power and fame that then quickly evaporated, leaving behind many mysteries about his rise and fall.
Red Guards were a student mass paramilitary social movement mobilized by Mao Zedong in 1966 and 1967, during the Cultural Revolution.
Reformism is a political doctrine advocating the reform of an existing system or institution instead of its abolition and replacement.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Roderick Lemonde MacFarquhar (born 2 December 1930) is a Harvard University professor and China specialist, British politician, newspaper and television journalist and academic orientalist.
Ruijin is a county-level city of Ganzhou in the mountains bordering Fujian Province in south-eastern Jiangxi.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
The Second Field Army was a military formation of the Chinese Communist Party during the last stages of the Chinese Civil War.
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945.
The Central Secretariat of the Communist Party of China is a body serving the Politburo of the Communist Party of China and its Standing Committee.
"Seek truth from facts" is a historically established expression (chengyu) that first appeared in the Book of Han.
Self-criticism involves how an individual evaluates oneself.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China.
Sichuan, formerly romanized as Szechuan or Szechwan, is a province in southwest China occupying most of the Sichuan Basin and the easternmost part of the Tibetan Plateau between the Jinsha River on the west, the Daba Mountains in the north, and the Yungui Plateau to the south.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Sino–British Joint Declaration, formally known as the Joint Declaration of the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of the People's Republic of China on the Question of Hong Kong, was signed by Premier Zhao Ziyang of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher of the United Kingdom (UK) on behalf of their respective governments on 19 December 1984 in Beijing.
The Sino-Soviet split (1956–1966) was the breaking of political relations between the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), caused by doctrinal divergences arising from each of the two powers' different interpretation of Marxism–Leninism as influenced by the national interests of each country during the Cold War.
Social Anarchism: A Journal of Theory and Practice is a biannual journal of "community self-reliance, direct participation in political decision-making, respect for nature, and nonviolent paths to peace and justice".
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The theoretical system of socialism with Chinese characteristics (hp) is a broad term for political theories and polices that are seen by their proponents as representing Marxism–Leninism adapted to Chinese circumstances and specific time periods.
The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFR Yugoslavia or SFRY) was a socialist state led by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, that existed from its foundation in the aftermath of World War II until its dissolution in 1992 amid the Yugoslav Wars.
The socialist market economy (SME) is the economic system and model of economic development employed in the People’s Republic of China.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Special economic zones of China (SEZs) are special economic zones located in mainland China.
In past times, the Chinese economy was characterized by widespread poverty, extreme income inequalities, and endemic insecurity of livelihood.
The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China.
Steerage is the lower deck of a ship, where the cargo is stored above the closed hold.
"The Story of Spring" is a patriotic Chinese song praising Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, although it never mentions him by name.
Sun Yat-sen (12 November 1866 – 12 March 1925)Singtao daily.
The Taipei Times is the only printed daily English-language newspaper in Taiwan and the third to be established in the nation.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Tiananmen Incident took place on April 5, 1976, at Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China.
The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly known in mainland China as the June Fourth Incident (六四事件), were student-led demonstrations in Beijing, the capital of the People's Republic of China, in 1989.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Person of the Year (called Man of the Year or Woman of the Year until 1999) is an annual issue of the United States news magazine Time that features and profiles a person, a group, an idea, or an object that "for better or for worse...
The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China, referred to as "the Handover" internationally or "the Return" in Mainland China, took place on 1 July 1997.
The Vice Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was the highest rank under the Party Chairman within the Communist Party of China (CPC) from 1956 to 1982.
The Vice-Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China is a high-ranking executive assistant to the Premier.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Wan Li (1 December 1916 – 15 July 2015) was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and politician.
Wang Dongxing (9 January 1916 – 21 August 2015) was a Chinese politician who was Vice Chairman of the Communist Party of China from 1977 to 1980 after being Mao Zedong's principal bodyguard during the Cultural Revolution.
Wang Hongwen (December, 1935 – August 3, 1992) was a Chinese labour activist and politician who spent most of his career in Shanghai.
Wang Ming (May 23, 1904 – March 27, 1974) was a senior leader of the early Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and the mastermind of the famous 28 Bolsheviks group.
Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language is an American dictionary first published in 1951 and since 2012 published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
Wei Jingsheng (born 20 May 1950, Beijing) is a Chinese human rights activist known for his involvement in the Chinese democracy movement.
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
Xinwen Lianbo (literally "News Simulcast") is a daily news programme produced by China Central Television (CCTV).
Yan'an is a prefecture-level city in the Shanbei region of Shaanxi province, China, bordering Shanxi to the east and Gansu to the west.
Yang Dezhi (January 13, 1911 – October 25, 1994) was a Chinese general and politician.
Yang Shangkun (3 August 1907 – 14 September 1998) was President of the People's Republic of China from 1988 to 1993, and was a powerful Vice Chairman and Secretary-General of the Central Military Commission under Deng Xiaoping.
The Yangtze River Delta or YRD is a triangle-shaped metropolitan region generally comprising the Wu Chinese-speaking areas of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang province.
Ye Jianying (28 April 1897 – 22 October 1986) was a Chinese communist general, Marshal of the People's Liberation Army.
Yu Guangyuan (5 July 1915 – 23 September 2013) was a prominent Chinese economist, philosopher and government official.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
Zhang Chunqiao (1 February 1917 – 21 April 2005) was a prominent Chinese political theorist, writer, and politician.
Zhao Shiyan (13 April 1901 in Youyang - 19 July 1927 in Shanghai) was a Chinese Communist martyr and former Chinese premier Li Peng's uncle.
Zhao Ziyang (pronounced; 17 October 1919 – 17 January 2005) was a high-ranking statesman in China.
Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.
Zhu Rongji (IPA:; born 1 October 1928) is a retired Chinese politician who served as Mayor and Party chief in Shanghai from 1988 to 1991 and as First Vice Premier and then Premier from March 1998 to March 2003.
Zhuhai (Yale: Jyūhói; literally: "Pearl Sea") is a prefecture-level city on the southern coast of Guangdong province in China.
Zhuo Lin (April 6, 1916 – July 29, 2009) was the third and last wife of Deng Xiaoping, former Paramount leader of China.
The Zunyi Conference was a meeting of the Communist Party of China (CPC) in January 1935 during the Long March.
The 10th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from 1973 to 1977.
The 10th Politburo of the Communist Party of China was elected at the 1st Plenary Session of the 10th Central Committee on August 30, 1973, consisting of 21 members and 4 alternate members.
The 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from 1977 to 1982.
The 11th Politburo of the Communist Party of China was elected at the 1st Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee on August 19, 1977, consisting of 23 members and 3 alternate members.
The 12th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from September 1982 to November 1987.
The 12th Politburo of the Communist Party of China was elected at the 1st Plenary Session of the 12th Central Committee on September 13, 1982, consisting of 25 members and 3 alternate members.
The 14th Dalai Lama (religious name: Tenzin Gyatso, shortened from Jetsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshe Tenzin Gyatso; born Lhamo Thondup, 6 July 1935) is the current Dalai Lama.
The 2nd National People's Congress was in session from 1959 to 1964.
The 3rd Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was a pivotal meeting of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China held in Beijing, China, from December 18 to December 22, 1978.
The 5th National People's Congress was in session from 1978 to 1983.
The 6th National People's Congress was in session from 1983 to 1988.
The 7th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from 1945 to 1956.
The 7th National People's Congress was in session from 1988 to 1993.
The 8th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China was in session from 1956 to 1969.
The 8th National People's Congress was in session from 1993 to 1998.
The 8th Politburo of the Communist Party of China was elected at the 1st Plenary Session of the 8th Central Committee on September 28, 1956, consisting of 17 members and 6 alternate members.
Chairman Deng, Chairman Deng Xiaoping, Chairman Xiaoping, Comrade Deng, Comrade Deng Xiaoping, Comrade Xiaoping, Deng Hsaio-P'ing, Deng Hsiao-P'ing, Deng Hsiao-Peng, Deng Siaoping, Deng Xaiopeng, Deng Xaoping, Deng Xeaoping, Deng Xiansheng, Deng Xiao Ping, Deng Xiao-Ping, Deng Xiao-ping, Deng Xiaopang, Deng Xiaopeng, Deng Xioping, Deng Xixian, Deng xiao ping, Deng xiaoping, Deng xiopeng, Deng, Xiaoping, Dengxiaoping, Dâing Siēu-bìng, Dèng Xiaopíng, Dèng Xiānshèng, Dèng Xiǎopíng, Dèng Xīxián, Hsiao Ping Teng, Hsiao-ping Teng, Needle inside a ball of cotton, Steel Factory, Teng Hi Hien, Teng Hsaio-P'ing, Teng Hsi-hsien, Teng Hsiao Ping, Teng Hsiao-P'ing, Teng Hsiao-Ping, Teng Hsiao-p'ing, Teng Hsiao-ping, Teng Hsiao-p’ing, Teng Hsiaop'ing, Teng Hsiaoping, Teng Hsien-sheng, Teng Hsihsien, Teng Xiaopeng, Teng Xiaoping, Thèn Séu-phìn, Tieng Xiao Ping, Tong Shau Ping, Tēng Siáu-pêng, Xiaoping Deng, 邓先圣, 邓小平, 鄧先聖, 鄧小平.