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Denial-of-service attack

Index Denial-of-service attack

In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet. [1]

186 relations: Access control list, Activism, Advanced persistent threat, Akamai Technologies, Allot Communications, Anonymous (group), Apache HTTP Server, Application firewall, Application-specific integrated circuit, Arbor Networks, AT&T, Bandwidth (computing), Bandwidth management, BASHLITE, Billion laughs attack, Bitcoin, Black fax, Blackmail, BlackNurse, Blaster (computer worm), Blue Screen of Death, Bogon filtering, Botnet, Brick (electronics), Broadcast address, Buffer overflow, Caller ID spoofing, Census in Australia, Circuit breaker, Cisco IOS, Client (computing), Cloud computing, Cloudflare, Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section, Computer Fraud and Abuse Act, Computer Misuse Act 1990, Computer network, Computer virus, Computerworld, Computing, CPU time, Credit card, Crowdsourcing, Cyberattack, D-Link, DC++, DDoS mitigation, Death of Michael Jackson, Deep packet inspection, DEF CON, ..., Delayed binding, Dendroid (malware), Denial-of-service attack, Digg, DigitalGlobe, DNS sinkhole, Domain Name System, E-Trade, EarthLink, Email bomb, Europe, Exploit (computer security), Extortion, F5 Networks, Federal Bureau of Investigation, File sharing, Firewall (computing), Firmware, Fork bomb, Google, Government Communications Headquarters, High Orbit Ion Cannon, Hit-and-run DDoS, Host (network), Imperva, Incapsula, Industrial espionage, Infinite loop, Ingress filtering, Internet, Internet Control Message Protocol, Internet of things, Internet Protocol, Internet protocol suite, Intrusion detection system, IP address, IP address spoofing, LAND, Las Vegas Strip, Level 3 Communications, Linux, Low Orbit Ion Cannon, Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, Mangled packet, Martian packet, Microsoft Windows, Mydoom, NetBIOS, Netgear, Network packet, Network performance, Network service, Network telescope, Network Time Protocol, Networking hardware, Neustar, Nuisance call, Null route, Obscene phone call, Occupy movement, Open-source intelligence, Open-source model, Operation Payback, OSI model, OWASP, Paper terrorism, Payday loan, Payment gateway, Peer-to-peer, Ping (networking utility), Ping flood, Ping of death, Police and Justice Act 2006, POST (HTTP), Prank call, Presentation layer, Project Shield, Radio jamming, Radware, Rate limiting, Reddit, ReDoS, Resource exhaustion attack, Revenge, Root name server, San Diego Supercomputer Center, Script kiddie, Server Message Block, Slashdot, Slashdot effect, Slowdroid, Slowloris (computer security), Smurf attack, Sprint Corporation, Stacheldraht, SYN cookies, SYN flood, Tata Communications, TCP half-open, Telemarketing, Telephone, Telephone numbering plan, The Computer Journal, Traffic shaping, Transmission Control Protocol, Trojan horse (computing), UDP Unicorn, United Kingdom, United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team, United States Department of Justice, Universal Plug and Play, Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment, Unix-like, User (computing), Verisign, Verizon Communications, Virtual sit-in, Voice over IP, Warzapping, We the People (petitioning system), Web search engine, Web server, Whitehouse.gov, Windows 3.1x, Windows 95, Windows NT, Windows Vista, WinNuke, XML denial-of-service attack, Xor DDoS, YouTube, Zemra, Zombie (computer science), 2002 New Hampshire Senate election phone jamming scandal, 2016 Dyn cyberattack, 867-5309/Jenny. Expand index (136 more) »

Access control list

An access control list (ACL), with respect to a computer file system, is a list of permissions attached to an object.

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Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.

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Advanced persistent threat

An advanced persistent threat is a set of stealthy and continuous computer hacking processes, often orchestrated by a person or persons targeting a specific entity.

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Akamai Technologies

Akamai Technologies, Inc. is an American content delivery network (CDN) and cloud service provider headquartered in Cambridge, Massachusetts, in the United States.

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Allot Communications

Allot Communications Ltd. is a multinational with offices and subsidiaries in many countries across the world.

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Anonymous (group)

Anonymous is a decentralized international hacktivist group that is widely known for its various DDOS cyber attacks against several governments, government institutions & government agencies, corporations, and the Church of Scientology.

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Apache HTTP Server

The Apache HTTP Server, colloquially called Apache, is a free and open-source cross-platform web server, released under the terms of Apache License 2.0.

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Application firewall

An application firewall is a form of firewall that controls input, output, and/or access from, to, or by an application or service.

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Application-specific integrated circuit

An Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), is an integrated circuit (IC) customized for a particular use, rather than intended for general-purpose use.

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Arbor Networks

Arbor Networks is a software company founded in 2000.

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AT&T Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered at Whitacre Tower in Downtown Dallas, Texas.

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Bandwidth (computing)

In computing, bandwidth is the maximum rate of data transfer across a given path.

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Bandwidth management

Bandwidth management is the process of measuring and controlling the communications (traffic, packets) on a network link, to avoid filling the link to capacity or overfilling the link, which would result in network congestion and poor performance of the network.

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BASHLITE (also known as Gafgyt, Lizkebab, Qbot, Torlus and LizardStresser) is malware which infects Linux systems in order to launch distributed denial-of-service attacks (DDoS).

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Billion laughs attack

In computer security, a billion laughs attack is a type of denial-of-service (DoS) attack which is aimed at parsers of XML documents.

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Bitcoin (₿) is the world's first cryptocurrency, a form of electronic cash.

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Black fax

The term black fax refers to a prank fax transmission, consisting of one or more pages entirely filled with a uniform black tone.

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Blackmail is an act, often criminal, involving unjustified threats to make a gain—most commonly money or property—or cause loss to another unless a demand is met.

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The BlackNurse attack is a form of denial of service attack based on ICMP flooding.

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Blaster (computer worm)

Blaster Worm (also known as Lovsan, Lovesan or MSBlast) is a computer worm that spread on computers running operating systems Windows XP and Windows 2000, during August 2003.

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Blue Screen of Death

A stop error, better known as a Blue Screen of Death (also known as a blue screen or BSOD) is an error screen displayed on a Windows computer system after a fatal system error, also known as a system crash: when the operating system reaches a condition where it can no longer operate safely.

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Bogon filtering

Bogon filtering is the practice of filtering bogons, which are bogus (fake) IP addresses of a computer network.

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A botnet is a number of Internet-connected devices, each of which is running one or more bots.

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Brick (electronics)

The word "brick", when used in reference to consumer electronics, describes an electronic device such as a smartphone, game console, router, or tablet computer that, due to severe physical damage, a serious misconfiguration, corrupted firmware, or a hardware problem, can no longer function, hence, is as technologically useful as a brick.

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Broadcast address

A broadcast address is a network address at which all devices connected to a multiple-access communications network are enabled to receive datagrams.

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Buffer overflow

In information security and programming, a buffer overflow, or buffer overrun, is an anomaly where a program, while writing data to a buffer, overruns the buffer's boundary and overwrites adjacent memory locations.

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Caller ID spoofing

Caller ID spoofing is the practice of causing the telephone network to indicate to the receiver of a call that the originator of the call is a station other than the true originating station.

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Census in Australia

The census in Australia, or officially, the Census of Population and Housing, is a descriptive count of population of Australia on one night, and of their dwellings, generally held quinquennially.

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Circuit breaker

A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by excess current from an overload or short circuit.

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Cisco IOS

Cisco IOS (originally Internetwork Operating System) is a family of software used on most Cisco Systems routers and current Cisco network switches.

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Client (computing)

A client is a piece of computer hardware or software that accesses a service made available by a server.

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Cloud computing

Cloud computing is an information technology (IT) paradigm that enables ubiquitous access to shared pools of configurable system resources and higher-level services that can be rapidly provisioned with minimal management effort, often over the Internet.

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Cloudflare, Inc. is a U.S. company that provides content delivery network services, DDoS mitigation, Internet security and distributed domain name server services, sitting between the visitor and the Cloudflare user's hosting provider, acting as a reverse proxy for websites.

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Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section

The Computer Crime and Intellectual Property Section (CCIPS) is a section of the Criminal Division of the U.S. Department of Justice in charge of investigating computer crime (hacking, viruses, worms) and intellectual property crime and specializing in the search and seizure of digital evidence in computers and on networks.

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Computer Fraud and Abuse Act

The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act (CFAA) is a United States cybersecurity bill that was enacted in 1986 as an amendment to existing computer fraud law, which had been included in the Comprehensive Crime Control Act of 1984.

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Computer Misuse Act 1990

The Computer Misuse Act 1990 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, introduced partly in response to the decision in R v Gold & Schifreen (1988) 1 AC 1063 (see below).

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Computer network

A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.

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Computer virus

A computer virus is a type of malicious software program ("malware") that, when executed, replicates itself by modifying other computer programs and inserting its own code.

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Computerworld is a publication website and digital magazine for information technology (IT) and business technology professionals.

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Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computers.

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CPU time

CPU time (or process time) is the amount of time for which a central processing unit (CPU) was used for processing instructions of a computer program or operating system, as opposed to elapsed time, which includes for example, waiting for input/output (I/O) operations or entering low-power (idle) mode.

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Credit card

A credit card is a payment card issued to users (cardholders) to enable the cardholder to pay a merchant for goods and services based on the cardholder's promise to the card issuer to pay them for the amounts so paid plus the other agreed charges.

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Crowdsourcing is a sourcing model in which individuals or organizations obtain goods and services.

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A cyberattack is any type of offensive maneuver that targets computer information systems, infrastructures, computer networks, or personal computer devices.

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D-Link Corporation is a Taiwanese multinational networking equipment manufacturing corporation headquartered in Taipei, Taiwan.

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DC++ is a free and open-source, peer-to-peer file-sharing client that can be used for connecting to the Direct Connect network or to the ADC protocol.

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DDoS mitigation

DDoS mitigation is a set of techniques or tools for resisting or mitigating the impact of distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) attacks on networks attached to the Internet by protecting the target and relay networks.

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Death of Michael Jackson

On June 25, 2009, Michael Jackson died of acute propofol and benzodiazepine intoxication at his home on North Carolwood Drive in the Holmby Hills neighborhood of Los Angeles.

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Deep packet inspection

Deep packet inspection is a type of data processing that inspects in detail the data being sent over a computer network, and usually takes action by blocking, re-routing, or logging it accordingly.

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DEF CON (also written as DEFCON, Defcon, or DC) is one of the world's largest hacker conventions, held annually in Las Vegas, Nevada, with the first DEF CON taking place in June 1993.

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Delayed binding

Delayed binding, also called TCP connection splicing, is the postponement of the connection between the client and the server in order to obtain sufficient information to make a routing decision.

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Dendroid (malware)

Dendroid is malware that affects Android OS and targets the mobile platform.

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Denial-of-service attack

In computing, a denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is a cyber-attack in which the perpetrator seeks to make a machine or network resource unavailable to its intended users by temporarily or indefinitely disrupting services of a host connected to the Internet.

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Digg is a news aggregator with a curated front page, aiming to select stories specifically for the Internet audience such as science, trending political issues, and viral Internet issues.

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DigitalGlobe is an American commercial vendor of space imagery and geospatial content, and operator of civilian remote sensing spacecraft.

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DNS sinkhole

A DNS sinkhole, also known as a sinkhole server, Internet sinkhole, or Blackhole DNS is a DNS server that gives out false information, to prevent the use of a domain name.

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Domain Name System

The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical decentralized naming system for computers, services, or other resources connected to the Internet or a private network.

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E-Trade Financial Corporation (stylized as E*TRADE) is a financial services company organized in Delaware and headquartered in New York City.

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EarthLink is an IT services, network and communications provider headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia.

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Email bomb

In Internet usage, an email bomb is a form of net abuse consisting of sending huge volumes of email to an address in an attempt to overflow the mailbox or overwhelm the server where the email address is hosted in a denial-of-service attack.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Exploit (computer security)

An exploit (from the English verb to exploit, meaning "to use something to one’s own advantage") is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or a sequence of commands that takes advantage of a bug or vulnerability to cause unintended or unanticipated behavior to occur on computer software, hardware, or something electronic (usually computerized).

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Extortion (also called shakedown, outwrestling and exaction) is a criminal offense of obtaining money, property, or services from an individual or institution, through coercion.

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F5 Networks

F5 Networks, Inc. is an American-based company that specializes in application delivery networking (ADN) technology for the delivery of web applications and the security, performance, availability of servers, data storage devices, and other network and cloud resources.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), formerly the Bureau of Investigation (BOI), is the domestic intelligence and security service of the United States, and its principal federal law enforcement agency.

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File sharing

File sharing is the practice of distributing or providing access to digital media, such as computer programs, multimedia (audio, images and video), documents or electronic books.

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Firewall (computing)

In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.

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In electronic systems and computing, firmware is a specific class of computer software that provides the low-level control for the device's specific hardware.

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Fork bomb

In computing, a fork bomb (also called rabbit virus or wabbit) is a denial-of-service attack wherein a process continually replicates itself to deplete available system resources, slowing down or crashing the system due to resource starvation.

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Google LLC is an American multinational technology company that specializes in Internet-related services and products, which include online advertising technologies, search engine, cloud computing, software, and hardware.

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Government Communications Headquarters

The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.

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High Orbit Ion Cannon

High Orbit Ion Cannon (HOIC) is an open-source network stress testing and denial-of-service attack application written in BASIC designed to attack as many as 256 URLs at the same time.

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Hit-and-run DDoS

Hit-and-run DDoS is a type of denial-of-service (DDoS) attack that uses short bursts of high volume attacks in random intervals, spanning a time frame of days or weeks.

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Host (network)

A network host is a computer or other device connected to a computer network.

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Imperva provides cyber security software and services to protect enterprise data and application software, ensure regulatory compliance, and improve performance and delivery.

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Imperva Incapsula is a cloud-based application delivery platform.

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Industrial espionage

Industrial espionage, economic espionage, corporate spying or corporate espionage is a form of espionage conducted for commercial purposes instead of purely national security.

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Infinite loop

An infinite loop (or endless loop) is a sequence of instructions in a computer program which loops endlessly, either due to the loop having no terminating condition, having one that can never be met, or one that causes the loop to start over.

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Ingress filtering

In computer networking, ingress filtering is a technique used to ensure that incoming packets are actually from the networks from which they claim to originate.

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The Internet is the global system of interconnected computer networks that use the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to link devices worldwide.

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Internet Control Message Protocol

The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a supporting protocol in the Internet protocol suite.

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Internet of things

The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances, and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and connectivity which enables these things to connect and exchange data, creating opportunities for more direct integration of the physical world into computer-based systems, resulting in efficiency improvements, economic benefits, and reduced human exertions.

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Internet Protocol

The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries.

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Internet protocol suite

The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used on the Internet and similar computer networks.

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Intrusion detection system

An intrusion detection system (IDS) is a device or software application that monitors a network or systems for malicious activity or policy violations.

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IP address

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical label assigned to each device connected to a computer network that uses the Internet Protocol for communication.

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IP address spoofing

In computer networking, IP address spoofing or IP spoofing is the creation of Internet Protocol (IP) packets with a false source IP address, for the purpose of hiding the identity of the sender or impersonating another computing system.

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A LAND (Local Area Network Denial) attack is a DoS (Denial of Service) attack that consists of sending a special poison spoofed packet to a computer, causing it to lock up.

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Las Vegas Strip

The Las Vegas Strip is a stretch of South Las Vegas Boulevard in Clark County, Nevada that is known for its concentration of resort hotels and casinos.

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Level 3 Communications

Level 3 Communications was an American multinational telecommunications and Internet service provider company headquartered in Broomfield, Colorado.

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Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems built around the Linux kernel.

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Low Orbit Ion Cannon

Low Orbit Ion Cannon (LOIC) is an open-source network stress testing and denial-of-service attack application, written in C#.

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Malaysia Airlines Flight 370

Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 (MH370/MAS370) was a scheduled international passenger flight operated by Malaysia Airlines that disappeared on 8 March 2014 while flying from Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Malaysia, to its destination, Beijing Capital International Airport in China.

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Mangled packet

In computer networking, a mangled or invalid packet is a packet — especially IP packet — that either lacks order or self-coherence, or contains code aimed to confuse or disrupt computers, firewalls, routers, or any service present on the network.

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Martian packet

A Martian packet is an IP packet seen on the public internet that contains a source or destination address that is reserved for special-use by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).

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Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

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Mydoom, also known as W32.MyDoom@mm, Novarg, Mimail.R and "'Shimgapi'", is a computer worm affecting Microsoft Windows.

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NetBIOS is an acronym for Network Basic Input/Output System.

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Netgear Inc. (stylized NETGEAR) is a multinational computer networking company based in San Jose, California, with offices in about 25 other countries.

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Network packet

A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network.

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Network performance

Network performance refers to measures of service quality of a network as seen by the customer.

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Network service

In computer networking, a network service is an application running at the network application layer and above, that provides data storage, manipulation, presentation, communication or other capability which is often implemented using a client-server or peer-to-peer architecture based on application layer network protocols.

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Network telescope

A network telescope (also known as a darknet, Internet motion sensor or black hole) is an Internet system that allows one to observe different large-scale events taking place on the Internet.

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Network Time Protocol

Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a networking protocol for clock synchronization between computer systems over packet-switched, variable-latency data networks.

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Networking hardware

Networking hardware, also known as network equipment or computer networking devices, are physical devices which are required for communication and interaction between devices on a computer network.

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Neustar, Inc. is an American technology company that provides real-time information and analytics for the Internet, telecommunications, entertainment, and marketing industries, and also provides clearinghouse and directory services to the global communications and Internet industries.

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Nuisance call

Nuisance calls encompass any type of unwanted, unsolicited, telephone call.

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Null route

In computer networking, a null route (blackhole route) is a network route (routing table entry) that goes nowhere.

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Obscene phone call

An obscene phone call, as the term is commonly used, is an unsolicited telephone call where a person derives sexual pleasure by using sexual or foul language to someone, who may be known to them or who may be a complete stranger.

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Occupy movement

The Occupy movement is an international socio-political movement against social and economic inequality and the lack of "real democracy" around the world.

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Open-source intelligence

Open-source intelligence (OSINT) is data collected from publicly available sources to be used in an intelligence context.

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Open-source model

The open-source model is a decentralized software-development model that encourages open collaboration.

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Operation Payback

Operation Payback was a coordinated, decentralized group of attacks on high-profile opponents of Internet piracy by Internet activists using the "Anonymous" moniker.

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OSI model

The Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard to its underlying internal structure and technology.

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The Open Web Application Security Project (OWASP), an online community, produces freely-available articles, methodologies, documentation, tools, and technologies in the field of web application security.

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Paper terrorism

Paper terrorism is a neologism to refer to the use of false liens, frivolous lawsuits, bogus letters of credit, and other legal documents lacking sound factual basis as a method of harassment, especially against government officials.

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Payday loan

A payday loan (also called a payday advance, salary loan, payroll loan, small dollar loan, short term, or cash advance loan) is a small, short-term unsecured loan, "regardless of whether repayment of loans is linked to a borrower's payday." The loans are also sometimes referred to as "cash advances," though that term can also refer to cash provided against a prearranged line of credit such as a credit card.

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Payment gateway

A payment gateway is a merchant service provided by an e-commerce application service provider that authorizes credit card or direct payments processing for e-businesses, online retailers, bricks and clicks, or traditional brick and mortar.

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Peer-to-peer (P2P) computing or networking is a distributed application architecture that partitions tasks or workloads between peers.

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Ping (networking utility)

Ping is a computer network administration software utility used to test the reachability of a host on an Internet Protocol (IP) network.

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Ping flood

A ping flood is a simple denial-of-service attack where the attacker overwhelms the victim with ICMP "echo request" (ping) packets.

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Ping of death

A ping of death is a type of attack on a computer system that involves sending a malformed or otherwise malicious ping to a computer.

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Police and Justice Act 2006

The Police and Justice Act 2006 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.

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In computing, POST is a request method supported by HTTP used by the World Wide Web.

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Prank call

A prank call (also known as a crank call, phony call or hoax call) is a telephone practical joke.

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Presentation layer

In the seven-layer OSI model of computer networking, the presentation layer is layer 6 and serves as the data translator for the network.

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Project Shield

Project Shield is a free anti-distributed-denial-of-service (anti-DDoS) service that is offered by Jigsaw, a subsidiary of Google's parent company, Alphabet Inc. to websites that have "media, elections, and human rights related content." The main goal of the project is to serve "small, under-resourced news sites that are vulnerable to the web’s growing epidemic of DDOS attacks", according to team lead George Conard.

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Radio jamming

Radio jamming is the deliberate jamming, blocking or interference with authorized wireless communications.

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Radware is a provider of load balancing and cybersecurity services for data centers.

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Rate limiting

In computer networks, rate limiting is used to control the rate of traffic sent or received by a network interface controller and is used to prevent DoS attacks.

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Reddit (stylized in its logo as reddit) is an American social news aggregation, web content rating, and discussion website.

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The regular expression denial of service (ReDoS) is an algorithmic complexity attack that produces a denial-of-service by providing a regular expression that takes a very long time to evaluate.

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Resource exhaustion attack

Resource exhaustion attacks are computer security exploits that crash, hang, or otherwise interfere with the targeted program or system.

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Revenge is a form of justice enacted in the absence or defiance of the norms of formal law and jurisprudence.

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Root name server

A root name server is a name server for the root zone of the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet.

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San Diego Supercomputer Center

The San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC) is an organized research unit of the University of California San Diego (UCSD).

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Script kiddie

In programming and hacking culture, a script kiddie or skiddie is an unskilled individual who uses scripts or programs developed by others to attack computer systems and networks and deface websites.

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Server Message Block

In computer networking, Server Message Block (SMB), one version of which was also known as Common Internet File System (CIFS), operates as an application-layer network protocol mainly used for providing shared access to files, printers, and serial ports and miscellaneous communications between nodes on a network.

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Slashdot (sometimes abbreviated as /.) is a social news website that originally billed itself as "News for Nerds.

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Slashdot effect

The Slashdot effect, also known as slashdotting, occurs when a popular website links to a smaller website, causing a massive increase in traffic.

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SlowDroid is a denial-of-service attack which allows a single mobile device to take down a network server requiring minimal bandwidth.

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Slowloris (computer security)

Slowloris is a type of denial of service attack tool invented by Robert "RSnake" Hansen which allows a single machine to take down another machine's web server with minimal bandwidth and side effects on unrelated services and ports.

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Smurf attack

The Smurf attack is a distributed denial-of-service attack in which large numbers of Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) packets with the intended victim's spoofed source IP are broadcast to a computer network using an IP broadcast address.

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Sprint Corporation

Sprint Corporation is an American telecommunications company that provides wireless services and is an internet service provider.

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Stacheldraht (German for "barbed wire") is malware written by Mixter for Linux and Solaris systems which acts as a distributed denial-of-service (DDoS) agent.

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SYN cookies

SYN cookie is a technique used to resist SYN flood attacks.

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SYN flood

A SYN flood is a form of denial-of-service attack in which an attacker sends a succession of SYN requests to a target's system in an attempt to consume enough server resources to make the system unresponsive to legitimate traffic.

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Tata Communications

Tata Communications formerly called VSNL is a global provider of telecommunications solutions and services.

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TCP half-open

The term half-open refers to TCP connections whose state is out of synchronization between the two communicating hosts, possibly due to a crash of one side.

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Telemarketing (sometimes known as inside sales, or telesales in the UK and Ireland) is a method of direct marketing in which a salesperson solicits prospective customers to buy products or services, either over the phone or through a subsequent face to face or Web conferencing appointment scheduled during the call.

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A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly.

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Telephone numbering plan

A telephone numbering plan is a type of numbering scheme used in telecommunication to assign telephone numbers to subscriber telephones or other telephony endpoints.

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The Computer Journal

The Computer Journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering computer science and information systems.

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Traffic shaping

Traffic shaping is a bandwidth management technique used on computer networks which delays some or all datagrams to bring them into compliance with a desired traffic profile.

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Transmission Control Protocol

The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite.

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Trojan horse (computing)

In computing, a Trojan horse, or Trojan, is any malicious computer program which misleads users of its true intent.

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UDP Unicorn

UDP Unicorn is a free and open source DoS attack software.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team

The United States Computer Emergency Readiness Team (US-CERT) is an organization within the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD).

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United States Department of Justice

The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.

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Universal Plug and Play

Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is a set of networking protocols that permits networked devices, such as personal computers, printers, Internet gateways, Wi-Fi access points and mobile devices to seamlessly discover each other's presence on the network and establish functional network services for data sharing, communications, and entertainment.

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Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment

Universal Tube & Rollform Equipment Corporation is an American manufacturer and supplier of metal machine tubes and pipes that is based in Perrysburg, Ohio.

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A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.

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User (computing)

A user is a person who utilizes a computer or network service.

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Verisign, Inc. is an American company based in Reston, Virginia, United States that operates a diverse array of network infrastructure, including two of the Internet's thirteen root nameservers, the authoritative registry for the,, and generic top-level domains and the and country-code top-level domains, and the back-end systems for the,, and top-level domains.

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Verizon Communications

Verizon Communications Inc., or simply Verizon, is an American multinational telecommunications conglomerate and a corporate component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average.

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Virtual sit-in

A virtual sit-in is a form of electronic civil disobedience deriving its name from the sit-ins popular during the civil rights movement of the 1960s.

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Voice over IP

Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.

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Warzapping is the act of searching for remote disable features in electronics or computing devices, generally while in motion, using a portable computer or PDA.

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We the People (petitioning system)

We the People, launched September 22, 2011, was a section of the whitehouse.gov website (under President Barack Obama) for petitioning the administration's policy experts.

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Web search engine

A web search engine is a software system that is designed to search for information on the World Wide Web.

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Web server

Web server refers to server software, or hardware dedicated to running said software, that can serve contents to the World Wide Web.

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whitehouse.gov is the official website of the White House and is owned by the United States government.

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Windows 3.1x

Windows 3.1x (codenamed Janus) is a series of 16-bit operating environments produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers.

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Windows 95

Windows 95 (codenamed Chicago) is a consumer-oriented operating system developed by Microsoft.

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Windows NT

Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993.

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Windows Vista

Windows Vista (codenamed Longhorn) is an operating system by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs and media center PCs.

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The term WinNuke refers to a remote denial-of-service attack (DoS) that affected the Microsoft Windows 95, Microsoft Windows NT and Microsoft Windows 3.1x computer operating systems.

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XML denial-of-service attack

An XML denial-of-service attack (XDoS attack) is a content-borne denial-of-service attack whose purpose is to shut down a web service or system running that service.

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Xor DDoS

XOR DDoS is Trojan malware that hijacks Linux systems and uses them to launch DDoS attacks which have reached loads of 150+ Gbps.

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YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.

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Zemra is a DDoS Bot which was first discovered in underground forums in May 2012.

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Zombie (computer science)

In computer science, a zombie is a computer connected to the Internet that has been compromised by a hacker, computer virus or trojan horse program and can be used to perform malicious tasks of one sort or another under remote direction.

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2002 New Hampshire Senate election phone jamming scandal

The 2002 New Hampshire Senate election phone jamming scandal involved the use of a telemarketing firm hired by that state's Republican Party (NHGOP) for election tampering.

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2016 Dyn cyberattack

The 2016 Dyn cyberattack took place on October 21, 2016, and involved multiple distributed denial-of-service attacks (DDoS attacks) targeting systems operated by Domain Name System (DNS) provider Dyn, which caused major Internet platforms and services to be unavailable to large swathes of users in Europe and North America.

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"867-5309/Jenny" is a 1981 song written by Alex Call and Jim Keller and performed by Tommy Tutone that was released on the album Tommy Tutone 2, on the Columbia Records label.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denial-of-service_attack

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