163 relations: Aerogel, Aerographite, Alloy, Aluminium, Antimony, Archimedes, Area density, Atmosphere (unit), Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic nucleus, Bar (unit), Beryllium, Bismuth, Black hole, Brass, Bulk density, Buoyancy, Bushel, Cadmium, Celsius, Centimetre–gram–second system of units, Charge density, Chromium, Close-packing of equal spheres, Cobalt, Compressibility, Concrete, Convection, Cooking oil, Copper, Cork (material), Cubic centimetre, Cubic foot, Cubic inch, Cubic metre, Cubic yard, Dasymeter, De architectura, Density of air, Diamond, Diiodomethane, Dimensionless quantity, Displacement (fluid), Dord, Earth, Energy density, Eureka (word), Event horizon, Excess molar quantity, Fluid ounce, ..., Gas constant, Girolami method, Glenn Research Center, Glycerol, Gold, Goldsmith, Gram, Helium, Hiero II of Syracuse, Homogeneous and heterogeneous mixtures, Hydrogen, Hydrometer, Hydrostatic weighing, Ice, Ideal gas, Imperial units, Inner core, Intensive and extensive properties, International System of Units, Interstellar medium, Iridium, Iron, Kelvin, Kilogram, Lead, Lighter than air, Linear density, Liquid, Liquid hydrogen, Liquid oxygen, List of chemical elements, Lithium, Litre, Magnesium, Manganese, Mass, Mass concentration (chemistry), Mass flow meter, Mercury (element), Metallic microlattice, Molar mass, Molybdenum, NASA, Neutron star, Nickel, Niobium, Number density, Nylon, Oak, Ohio State University, Orders of magnitude (density), Orthobaric density, Osmium, Ounce, Packaging and labeling, Paper density, Pine, Plastic, Platinum, Plutonium, Polyethylene terephthalate, Polypropylene, Polyvinyl chloride, Potassium, Pound (mass), Precious metal, Pressure, Relative density, Rhenium, Rho, Rhodium, Selenium, Silicon, Silver, Slug (unit), Sodium, Solid, Solution, Specific gravity, Specific volume, Specific weight, Spice (oceanography), Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Styrofoam, Sun, Supercooling, Supermassive black hole, Tantalum, Temperature, Tetrachloroethylene, Thermal expansion, Thermodynamic temperature, Thermodynamics, Thorium, Tin, Titanium, Tonne, Troy weight, Tungsten, Tungsten hexafluoride, United States customary units, Uranium, Vanadium, Vitruvius, Volume, Volume fraction, Water, Weighing scale, Weight, White dwarf, Wood, Wreath, Zinc. Expand index (113 more) » « Shrink index
Aerogel is a synthetic porous ultralight material derived from a gel, in which the liquid component for the gel has been replaced with a gas.
Aerographite is a synthetic foam consisting of a porous interconnected network of tubular carbon.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Antimony is a chemical element with symbol Sb (from stibium) and atomic number 51.
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
The areal density (also known as area density, surface density, superficial density, or density thickness) of a two-dimensional object is calculated as the mass per unit area.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.
Brass is a metallic alloy that is made of copper and zinc.
Bulk density is a property of powders, granules, and other "divided" solids, especially used in reference to mineral components (soil, gravel), chemical substances, (pharmaceutical) ingredients, foodstuff, or any other masses of corpuscular or particulate matter.
In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
A bushel (abbreviation: bsh. or bu.) is an imperial and US customary unit of weight or mass based upon an earlier measure of dry capacity.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
The centimetre–gram–second system of units (abbreviated CGS or cgs) is a variant of the metric system based on the centimetre as the unit of length, the gram as the unit of mass, and the second as the unit of time.
In electromagnetism, charge density is a measure of the amount of electric charge per unit length, surface area, or volume.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
In geometry, close-packing of equal spheres is a dense arrangement of congruent spheres in an infinite, regular arrangement (or lattice).
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, compressibility (also known as the coefficient of compressibility or isothermal compressibility) is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change.
Concrete, usually Portland cement concrete, is a composite material composed of fine and coarse aggregate bonded together with a fluid cement (cement paste) that hardens over time—most frequently a lime-based cement binder, such as Portland cement, but sometimes with other hydraulic cements, such as a calcium aluminate cement.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber (the cork oak), which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa.
A cubic centimetre (or cubic centimeter in US English) (SI unit symbol: cm3; non-SI abbreviations: cc and ccm) is a commonly used unit of volume that extends the derived SI-unit cubic metre, and corresponds to the volume of a cube that measures 1 cm × 1 cm × 1 cm.
The cubic foot (symbol ft3) is an imperial and US customary (non-metric) unit of volume, used in the United States, and partially in Canada, and the United Kingdom.
The cubic inch (symbol in3) is a unit of measurement for volume in the Imperial units and United States customary units systems.
The cubic metre (in British English and international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures) or cubic meter (in American English) is the SI derived unit of volume.
A cubic yard (symbol yd3) is an Imperial / U.S. customary (non-SI non-metric) unit of volume, used in the United States, Canada, and the UK.
A dasymeter was meant initially as a device to demonstrate the buoyant effect of gases like air; as shown in the pictures on the right.
De architectura (On architecture, published as Ten Books on Architecture) is a treatise on architecture written by the Roman architect and military engineer Marcus Vitruvius Pollio and dedicated to his patron, the emperor Caesar Augustus, as a guide for building projects.
The density of air ρ (Greek: rho) (air density) is the mass per unit volume of Earth's atmosphere.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Diiodomethane or methylene iodide, commonly abbreviated “MI”, is an organoiodine compound.
In dimensional analysis, a dimensionless quantity is a quantity to which no physical dimension is assigned.
In fluid mechanics, displacement occurs when an object is immersed in a fluid, pushing it out of the way and taking its place.
The word dord is a notable error in lexicography, an accidental creation, or ghost word, of the G. and C. Merriam Company's staff in the New International Dictionary, second edition (1934), in which the term is defined as a synonym for density used by physicists and chemists.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume.
Eureka (Εύρηκα) is an interjection used to celebrate a discovery or invention.
In general relativity, an event horizon is a region in spacetime beyond which events cannot affect an outside observer.
Excess molar quantities are properties of mixtures which characterize the nonideal behaviour of real mixtures.
A fluid ounce (abbreviated fl oz, fl. oz. or oz. fl., old forms ℥, fl ℥, f℥, ƒ ℥) is a unit of volume (also called capacity) typically used for measuring liquids.
The gas constant is also known as the molar, universal, or ideal gas constant, denoted by the symbol or and is equivalent to the Boltzmann constant, but expressed in units of energy per temperature increment per mole, i.e. the pressure-volume product, rather than energy per temperature increment per particle.
The Girolami method, named after Gregory Girolami, is a predictive method for estimating densities of pure liquid components at room temperature.
NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field is a NASA center, located within the cities of Brook Park and Cleveland between Cleveland Hopkins International Airport and the Rocky River Reservation of Cleveland Metroparks, with a subsidiary facility in Sandusky, Ohio.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with gold and other precious metals.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hiero II (Ἱέρων Β΄; c. 308 BC – 215 BC) was the Greek Sicilian Tyrant of Syracuse from 270 to 215 BC, and the illegitimate son of a Syracusan noble, Hierocles, who claimed descent from Gelon.
A homogeneous mixture is a solid, liquid, or gaseous mixture that has the same proportions of its components throughout any given sample.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrometer from Practical Physics A hydrometer or areometer is an instrument used for measuring the relative density of liquids based on the concept of buoyancy.
Hydrostatic weighing, also referred to as "underwater weighing", "hydrostatic body composition analysis", and "hydrodensitometry" is a technique for measuring the mass per unit volume of a living person's body.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.
The system of imperial units or the imperial system (also known as British Imperial or Exchequer Standards of 1825) is the system of units first defined in the British Weights and Measures Act of 1824, which was later refined and reduced.
The Earth's inner core is the Earth's innermost part.
Physical properties of materials and systems can often be categorized as being either intensive or extensive quantities, according to how the property changes when the size (or extent) of the system changes.
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Lighter than air refers to materials (usually gases) that are buoyant in air because they have average densities lower than that of air.
Linear density is the measure of a quantity of any characteristic value per unit of length.
A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.
Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.
Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.
, 118 chemical elements are identified.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
In chemistry, the mass concentration is defined as the mass of a constituent divided by the volume of the mixture: For a pure chemical the mass concentration equals its density (mass divided by volume); thus the mass concentration of a component in a mixture can be called the density of a component in a mixture.
A mass flow meter, also known as an inertial flow meter is a device that measures mass flow rate of a fluid traveling through a tube.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metallic microlattice is a synthetic porous metallic material consisting of an ultra-light metal foam.
In chemistry, the molar mass M is a physical property defined as the mass of a given substance (chemical element or chemical compound) divided by the amount of substance.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Niobium, formerly known as columbium, is a chemical element with symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41.
In physics, astronomy, chemistry, biology and geography, number density (symbol: n or ρN) is an intensive quantity used to describe the degree of concentration of countable objects (particles, molecules, phonons, cells, galaxies, etc.) in physical space: three-dimensional volumetric number density, two-dimensional areal number density, or one-dimensional line number density.
Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers, based on aliphatic or semi-aromatic polyamides.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
The Ohio State University, commonly referred to as Ohio State or OSU, is a large, primarily residential, public university in Columbus, Ohio.
The orthobaric density of a compound is the density of coexisting phases (liquid, gas, or solid) at a given temperature.
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.
The ounce (abbreviated oz; apothecary symbol: ℥) is a unit of mass, weight, or volume used in most British derived customary systems of measurement.
Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.
Paper density is its mass per unit volume.
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is the most common thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family and is used in fibres for clothing, containers for liquids and foods, thermoforming for manufacturing, and in combination with glass fibre for engineering resins.
Polypropylene (PP), also known as polypropene, is a thermoplastic polymer used in a wide variety of applications.
Polyvinyl chloride, also known as polyvinyl or '''vinyl''', commonly abbreviated PVC, is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer, after polyethylene and polypropylene.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
The pound or pound-mass is a unit of mass used in the imperial, United States customary and other systems of measurement.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density of a given reference material.
Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.
Rho (uppercase Ρ, lowercase ρ or ϱ; ῥῶ) is the 17th letter of the Greek alphabet.
Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
The slug is a derived unit of mass in the weight-based system of measures, most notably within the British Imperial measurement system and in the United States customary measures system.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.
In thermodynamics, the specific volume of a substance is the ratio of the substance's volume to its mass.
The specific weight (also known as the unit weight) is the weight per unit volume of a material.
In oceanography the term spice refers to spatial variations in the temperature and salinity of seawater whose effects on density cancel each other.
Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.
Styrofoam is a trademarked brand of closed-cell extruded polystyrene foam (XPS), commonly called "Blue Board" manufactured as foam continuous building insulation board used in walls, roofs, and foundations as thermal insulation and water barrier.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.
A supermassive black hole (SMBH or SBH) is the largest type of black hole, on the order of hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses, and is found in the centre of almost all currently known massive galaxies.
Tantalum is a chemical element with symbol Ta and atomic number 73.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Tetrachloroethylene, also known under the systematic name tetrachloroethene, or perchloroethylene ("perc" or "PERC"), and many other names, is a chlorocarbon with the formula Cl2C.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Thermodynamic temperature is the absolute measure of temperature and is one of the principal parameters of thermodynamics.
Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Tin is a chemical element with the symbol Sn (from stannum) and atomic number 50.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Troy weight is a system of units of mass customarily used for precious metals and gemstones.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Tungsten(VI) fluoride, also known as tungsten hexafluoride, is an inorganic compound with the formula WF6.
United States customary units are a system of measurements commonly used in the United States.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Vanadium is a chemical element with symbol V and atomic number 23.
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio (c. 80–70 BC – after c. 15 BC), commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.
Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.
In chemistry, the volume fraction φi is defined as the volume of a constituent Vi divided by the volume of all constituents of the mixture V prior to mixing: Being dimensionless, its unit is 1; it is expressed as a number, e.g., 0.18.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Weighing scales (or weigh scales or scales) are devices to measure weight.
In science and engineering, the weight of an object is related to the amount of force acting on the object, either due to gravity or to a reaction force that holds it in place.
A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
A wreath is an assortment of flowers, leaves, fruits, twigs, or various materials that is constructed to resemble a ring.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.