587 relations: 's-Hertogenbosch, Aachen, Administrative divisions of France, Agen, Ain, Ain (river), Aisne, Aisne (river), Ajaccio, Albi, Alençon, Alessandria, Alger (department), Algeria, Algiers, Allier, Allier (river), Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, Alpes-Maritimes, Alps, Alsace-Lorraine, Amiens, Amsterdam, Ancien Régime, Angers, Angoulême, Annaba, Annecy, Antwerp, Apennins, Ardèche, Ardèche (river), Ardennes, Ardennes (department), Argostoli, Ariège (department), Ariège (river), Armorica, Arnhem, Arno (department), Arras, Arrondissement, Arrondissements of France, Asti, Aube, Aube (river), Auch, Aude, Aude (river), Aumale (département), ..., Aurich, Aurillac, Auxerre, Aveyron, Aveyron (river), Avignon, Édouard Balladur, Épinal, Évreux, Évry, Essonne, Bar-le-Duc, Barcelona, Bas-Rhin, Basse-Terre, Bastia, Batavian Republic, Batna (département), Batna, Algeria, Béchar, Béjaïa, Bône (département), Beauvais, Bec d'Ambès, Belfort, Besançon, Bishopric of Minden, Bishopric of Speyer, Blois, 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's-Hertogenbosch (literally "The Duke's Forest" in English, and historically in French: Bois-le-Duc), colloquially known as Den Bosch (literally "The Forest" in English), is a city and municipality in the Southern Netherlands with a population of 152,968.
Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
The administrative divisions of France are concerned with the institutional and territorial organization of French territory.
The commune of Agen is the prefecture of the Lot-et-Garonne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.
Ain (Arpitan: En) is a department named after the Ain River on the eastern edge of France.
The Ain is a river in eastern France.
Aisne is a French department in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France.
The Aisne is a river in northeastern France.
Ajaccio is a French commune, prefecture of the department of Corse-du-Sud, and head office of the Collectivité territoriale de Corse (capital city of Corsica).
Albi (Albi) is a commune in southern France.
Alençon is a commune in Normandy, France, capital of the Orne department.
Alessandria (Piedmontese: Lissandria) is a city and comune in Piedmont, Italy, and the capital of the Province of Alessandria.
Alger (al-Jazā’ir) a former French department in Algeria.
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
Allier; is a French department located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of central France named after the river Allier.
The Allier (Alèir) is a river in central France.
Alpes-de-Haute-Provence (Occitan: Aups d'Auta Provença) is a French department in the south of France, it was formerly part of the province of Provence.
Alpes-Maritimes (Aups Maritims; Alpi Marittime) is a department of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in the extreme southeast corner of France.
The Alps (Alpes; Alpen; Alpi; Alps; Alpe) are the highest and most extensive mountain range system that lies entirely in Europe,The Caucasus Mountains are higher, and the Urals longer, but both lie partly in Asia.
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
Amiens is a city and commune in northern France, north of Paris and south-west of Lille.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
Angers is a city in western France, about southwest of Paris.
Angoulême (Poitevin-Saintongeais: Engoulaeme; Engoleime) is a commune, the capital of the Charente department, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwestern France.
Annaba (عنّابة), ("Jujube Town"), formerly known as Bona, and then Bône, is a seaport city in the northeastern corner of Algeria, close to Tunisia.
Annecy (Arpitan: Èneci or Ènneci) is the largest city of Haute-Savoie department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in southeastern France.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Apennins was a department of the First French Empire of 1804-1814 in present-day Italy.
Ardèche (Occitan and Arpitan: Ardecha) is a département in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of south-central France.
The Ardèche (Ardecha) is a long river in south-central France, a right-bank tributary of the River Rhône.
The Ardennes (L'Ardenne; Ardennen; L'Årdene; Ardennen; also known as the Ardennes Forest or Forest of Ardennes) is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins.
Ardennes is a department in the Grand Est region of northeastern France named after the Ardennes area.
Argostoli (Αργοστόλι, Katharevousa: Ἀργοστόλιον) is a town and a former municipality on the island of Kefalonia, Ionian Islands, Greece.
Ariège (Arièja) is a department in the Occitanie region of southwestern France named after the Ariège River.
The Ariège (Arièja, Arieja) is a 164 km long river in southern France, right tributary of the Garonne.
Armorica or Aremorica is the name given in ancient times to the part of Gaul between the Seine and the Loire that includes the Brittany Peninsula, extending inland to an indeterminate point and down the Atlantic Coast.
Arnhem (or; Arnheim, Frisian: Arnhim, South Guelderish: Èrnem) is a city and municipality situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Arno was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
Arras (Atrecht) is the capital (chef-lieu/préfecture) of the Pas-de-Calais department, which forms part of the region of Hauts-de-France; prior to the reorganization of 2014 it was located in Nord-Pas-de-Calais.
An arrondissement is any of various administrative divisions of France, Belgium, Haiti, certain other Francophone countries, and the Netherlands.
An arrondissement is a level of administrative division in France.
Asti is a city and comune of 76 164 inhabitants (1-1-2017) located in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy, about east of Turin in the plain of the Tanaro River.
Aube is a French department in the Grand Est region of north-eastern France.
The Aube is a river in France, a right tributary of the Seine.
Auch (Gascon: Aush or Aux) is a commune in southwestern France.
Aude is a department in south-central France named after the river Aude.
The Aude (Latin Atax) is a river of southern France that is long.
Aumale (Awmāl) is a former French département in Algeria.
Aurich (Low German: Auerk, West Frisian: Auwerk) is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Aurillac (Orlhac) is a commune, capital of the Cantal department, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of south-central France,.
Auxerre is the capital of the Yonne department and the fourth-largest city in Burgundy.
Aveyron (Avairon) is a department located in the north of the Occitanie region of southern France named after the Aveyron River.
The Aveyron (Avairon) is a 291 km long river in southern France, right tributary of the Tarn.
Avignon (Avenio; Provençal: Avignoun, Avinhon) is a commune in south-eastern France in the department of Vaucluse on the left bank of the Rhône river.
Édouard Balladur (born 2 May 1929) is a French politician who served as Prime Minister of France under François Mitterrand from 29 March 1993 to 10 May 1995.
Épinal is a commune in northeastern France and the capital (prefecture) of the Vosges department.
Évreux is a commune in and the capital of the department of Eure, in the French region of Normandy.
Évry is a commune in the southern suburbs of Paris, France, prefecture of the department of Essonne.
Bar-le-Duc, formerly known as Bar, is a commune in the Meuse département, of which it is the capital.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
Bas-Rhin (Alsatian: Unterelsàss) is a department in the Grand Est region of France.
Basse-Terre is a French commune in the Guadaloupe department of France in the Lesser Antilles.
Bastia (Bastìa) (Corsican and Italian pronunciation) is a French commune in the Haute-Corse department of France located in the north-east of the island of Corsica at the base of Cap Corse.
The Batavian Republic (Bataafse Republiek; République Batave) was the successor of the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands.
Batna (Bātna) is a former French département in Algeria.
Batna (باتنة, Berber: ⵜⴱⴰⵜⴻⵏⵜ, Tbatent) is the main city of Batna Province, Algeria.
Béchar (بشار) is the capital city of Béchar Province, Algeria.
Béjaïa (بِجَايَة, Bijayah; Bgayet, Bgayeth, ⴱⴳⴰⵢⴻⵜ), formerly Bougie and Bugia, is a Mediterranean port city on the Gulf of Béjaïa in Algeria; it is the capital of Béjaïa Province, Kabylia.
Bône (‘Annāba) is a former French département in Algeria which existed between 1955 and 1962.
Beauvais archaic English: Beawayes, Beeway, Boway, is a city and commune in northern France.
The Bec d'Ambès ("beak of Ambès") is the point of confluence of the rivers Garonne and Dordogne, in the Gironde estuary.
Belfort is a city in northeastern France in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté région, situated between Lyon and Strasbourg.
Besançon (French and Arpitan:; archaic Bisanz, Vesontio) is the capital of the department of Doubs in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.
The Bishopric of Minden was a Roman Catholic diocese (Bistum Minden) and a state, Prince-bishopric of Minden (Hochstift Minden), of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Bishopric of Speyer, or Prince-Bishopric of Speyer (formerly known as Spires in English), was an ecclesiastical principality in what are today the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Baden-Württemberg.
Blois is a city and the capital of Loir-et-Cher department in central France, situated on the banks of the lower river Loire between Orléans and Tours.
Bobigny is a ''commune'', or town, in the northeastern suburbs of Paris, France.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
Bouches-de-l'Èbre ("Mouths of the Ebro") was a short-lived department of the First French Empire in present-day Spain.
Bouches-de-l'Èbre-Montserrat was a short-lived department of the First French Empire, created in present-day Spain on 7 March 1813 by merging the departments of Bouches-de-l'Èbre and Montserrat.
Bouches-de-l'Elbe ("Mouths of the Elbe") was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Germany that survived for three years.
Bouches-de-l'Escaut ("Mouths of the Scheldt") was a department of the First French Empire in the present-day Netherlands.
Bouches-de-l'Yssel ("Mouths of the IJssel") was a department of the First French Empire in the present-day Netherlands.
Bouches-de-la-Meuse ("Mouths of the Meuse";, Monden van de Maas) was a department of the First French Empire in the present-day Netherlands.
Bouches-du-Rhône (Occitan: Bocas de Ròse, literally "Mouths of the Rhône") is a department in Southern France named after the mouth of the river Rhône.
Bouches-du-Rhin ("Mouths of the Rhine") was a department of the First French Empire in the present-day Netherlands.
Bouches-du-Weser ("Mouths of the Weser") was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Germany.
Bourg-en-Bresse (Bôrg in Arpitan language) is a commune in eastern France, capital of the Ain department, and the capital of the ancient province of Bresse (Arpitan: Brêsse).
Bourges is a city in central France on the Yèvre river.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
Brittany (Breizh, Bretagne) is one of the 18 regions of France.
Bruges (Brugge; Bruges; Brügge) is the capital and largest city of the province of West Flanders in the Flemish Region of Belgium, in the northwest of the country.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.
Cahors (Caors) is the capital of the Lot department in south-western France.
Calvados is a department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
Cantal is a department (administrative province) in south-central France, with its capital at Aurillac.
Basel was a canton of Switzerland that was in existence between 1501 and 1833, when it was split into the two half-cantons of Basel-City and Basel-Country.
The canton of Valais (Kanton Wallis) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland, situated in the southwestern part of the country, around the valley of the Rhône from its headwaters to Lake Geneva, separating the Pennine Alps from the Bernese Alps.
The cantons of France are territorial subdivisions of the French Republic's arrondissements and departments.
Carcassonne (Carcaso) is a French fortified city in the department of Aude, in the region of Occitanie.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
Cayenne is the capital city of French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France located in South America.
The Côte d'Or is a limestone escarpment in Burgundy, France that lends its name to the department which was formed around it.
Côte-d'Or (literally, "golden slope") is a department in the eastern part of France.
Côtes-d'Armor (Aodoù-an-Arvor), formerly known as Côtes-du-Nord, is a department in the north of Brittany, in northwestern France.
In politics, centrism—the centre (British English/Canadian English/Australian English) or the center (American English/Philippine English)—is a political outlook or specific position that involves acceptance or support of a balance of a degree of social equality and a degree of social hierarchy, while opposing political changes which would result in a significant shift of society either strongly to the left or the right.
The ceremonial counties, also referred to as the lieutenancy areas of England, are areas of England to which a Lord Lieutenant is appointed.
Cergy is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France.
Cergy-Pontoise is a new town and an agglomeration community in France, in the Val-d'Oise department, northwest of Paris on the river Oise.
Chalon-sur-Saône is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.
Chambéry (Chambèri, Sciamberì, and in Helvetii: Camberia) is a city in the department of Savoie, located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in south-eastern France.
Chandannagar, formerly spelled as Chandernagore, is a city and a municipal corporation with former French colony located about north of Kolkata, in West Bengal, India.
Charente (Saintongeais: Chérente, Occitan: Charanta) is a department in southwestern France, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region, named after the Charente River, the most important river in the department, and also the river beside which the department's two largest towns, Angoulême and Cognac, are sited.
The Charente (Charanta) is a long river in southwestern France.
Charente-Maritime is a department on the southwestern coast of France named after the Charente River.
Charleville-Mézières is a commune in northern France, capital of the Ardennes department in the Grand Est region.
Chartres is a commune and capital of the Eure-et-Loir department in France.
Chaumont is a commune of France, and the capital (or préfecture) of the Haute-Marne department.
Châlons-en-Champagne is a city in the Grand Est region of France.
Châteauroux is the capital of the Indre department in central France and the second-largest town in the province of Berry, after Bourges.
Cher (Berrichon: Char) is a department in the Centre-Val de Loire region of France.
The Cher (Char) is a river in central France, left tributary to the river Loire.
Chiavari (Ciävai) is a small town in the province of Genoa, Italy.
Chlef (Berber: Clef, الشلف.) is the capital of Chlef Province, Algeria.
Clermont-Ferrand (Auvergnat Clharmou, Augustonemetum) is a city and commune of France, in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, with a population of 141,569 (2012).
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon (i.e., shield), surcoat, or tabard.
Colmar (Alsatian: Colmer; German during 1871–1918 and 1940–1945: Kolmar) is the third-largest commune of the Alsace region in north-eastern France.
The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.
In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
The Conseil général des Ponts et Chaussées (CGPC "Civil Engineering General Council") is one of the oldest institutions in France and the direct heir of the assembly of inspectors general of bridges and roads, which met regularly from 1747 under Daniel-Charles Trudaine.
Constantine is a former French département in Algeria which existed between 1848 and 1962.
Not to be confused with Constantinople, the historical city from 330 to 1453 in Thrace, now Istanbul, Turkey. Constantine (قسنطينة, ⵇⵙⴻⵏⵟⵉⵏⴰ), also spelled Qacentina or Kasantina, is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria.
Corcyre (Kerkyra; archaic French for "Corfu") was one of three short-lived French departments of Greece.
Corfu or Kerkyra (translit,; translit,; Corcyra; Corfù) is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
Corrèze (Corresa) is a department in south-western France, named after the river Corrèze which runs though it.
The Corrèze (Corresa) is a 95 km long river in south-western France, left tributary of the river Vézère.
Corse-du-Sud (Corsica suttana) (South Corsica) is a department of France consisting of the southern part of the island of Corsica.
Corsica (Corse; Corsica in Corsican and Italian, pronounced and respectively) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France.
In the United States, an administrative or political subdivision of a state is a county, which is a region having specific boundaries and usually some level of governmental authority.
The County of Flanders (Graafschap Vlaanderen, Comté de Flandre) was a historic territory in the Low Countries.
The County of Hainaut (Comté de Hainaut, Graafschap Henegouwen; Grafschaft Hennegau), sometimes given the archaic spellings Hainault and Heynowes, was a historical lordship within the medieval Holy Roman Empire, with its capital at Mons (Bergen).
The County of Holland was a State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1432 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1648 onward, Holland was the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Horne (also Horn, Hoorn or Hoorne) is a small historic county of the Holy Roman Empire in the present day Netherlands and Belgium.
The County of Loon was a province of the ancien regime Holy Roman Empire, which by 1190 came under the overlordship of the Prince-bishop of Liège.
The County of Nice (Comté de Nice / Pays Niçois, Contea di Nizza/Paese Nizzardo, Niçard Countèa de Nissa/Paìs Nissart) is a historical region of France, located in the south-eastern part, around the city of Nice, and roughly equivalent to the modern department of Alpes-Maritimes.
The County of Ravensberg (Grafschaft Ravensberg) was a historical county of the Holy Roman Empire.
The County of Veldenz was a principality in the contemporary Land Rhineland-Palatinate.
The County of Zeeland (Graafschap Zeeland) was a county of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries.
Créteil is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France.
Creuse is a department in central France named after the river Creuse.
The Creuse (Cruesa) is a long river in western France, a tributary of the Vienne.
Cuneo (Coni; Coni) is a city and comune in Piedmont, Northern Italy, the capital of the province of Cuneo, the third largest of Italy’s provinces by area.
The Democratic Movement (Mouvement démocrate; MoDem) is a centrist political party in France that is characterised by a strong pro-European stance.
The departmental councils (French: conseil départemental) of France are assemblies of the departments, elected by universal suffrage.
Deux-Nèthes (Twee Nethen) was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Belgium and the Netherlands.
Deux-Sèvres is a French department.
Digne-les-Bains, or simply and historically Digne (Occitan: Dinha (dei Banhs) in classical norm or Digno in Mistralian norm), is a commune of France, capital of the Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department, and situated in the region of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur.
Dijon is a city in eastern:France, capital of the Côte-d'Or département and of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region.
Doire was a department of the French Consulate and of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Dordogne (Dordonha) is a department in southwestern France, with its prefecture in Périgueux.
The Dordogne (Dordonha, La Dordogne) is a river in south-central and southwest France.
Doubs (Arpitan: Dubs) is a department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France named after the Doubs River.
The Doubs (Le Doubs,, Dub) is a long river in eastern France and western Switzerland, left tributary of the Saône.
Drôme (Droma in Occitan, Drôma in Arpitan) is a department in southeastern France named after the Drôme River.
The Drôme (Droma), a river in southeastern France, has a length of 111 km and a watershed of 1,663 km² and is a left tributary of the Rhône.
The Duchy of Bouillon (Duché de Bouillon) was a duchy comprising Bouillon and adjacent towns and villages in present-day Belgium.
The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183.
The Duchy of Jülich (Herzogtum Jülich; Hertogdom Gulik; Duché de Juliers) comprised a state within the Holy Roman Empire from the 11th to the 18th centuries.
The Duchy of Limburg or Limbourg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Duchy of Oldenburg (Herzogtum Oldenburg) — named after its capital, the town of Oldenburg — was a state in the north-west of present-day Germany.
The Duchy of Parma was created in 1545 from that part of the Duchy of Milan south of the Po River, which was conquered by the Papal States in 1512.
From 1416 to 1860, the Duchy of Savoy (Duché de Savoie, Ducato di Savoia) was a state in Western Europe.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
Dyle was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Belgium.
East Frisia or Eastern Friesland (Ostfriesland; East Frisian Low Saxon: Oostfreesland; Oost-Friesland) is a coastal region in the northwest of the German federal state of Lower Saxony.
The County Palatine of the Rhine (Pfalzgrafschaft bei Rhein), later the Electorate of the Palatinate (Kurfürstentum von der Pfalz) or simply Electoral Palatinate (Kurpfalz), was a territory in the Holy Roman Empire (specifically, a palatinate) administered by the Count Palatine of the Rhine.
The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (Kurfürstentum Braunschweig-Lüneburg) was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany.
The Electorate of Mainz (Kurfürstentum Mainz or Kurmainz, Electoratus Moguntinus), also known in English by its French name, Mayence, was among most prestigious and the most influential states of the Holy Roman Empire from its creation to the dissolution of the HRE in the early years of the 19th century.
Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès (3 May 1748 – 20 June 1836), most commonly known as the Abbé Sieyès, was a French Roman Catholic abbé, clergyman and political writer.
Ems-Occidental ("Western Ems) was a department of the First French Empire in the present-day Netherlands and Germany.
Ems-Oriental ("Eastern Ems") was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Germany.
Ems-Supérieur ("Upper Ems"; Ober-Ems) was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Germany.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Escaut was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Belgium and Netherlands.
Essonne is a French department in the region of Île-de-France.
The Essonne is a long French river.
Eure is a department in the north of France named after the river Eure.
The Eure is a river between Normandy and Centre-Val de Loire in north-western France, left tributary of the Seine.
Eure-et-Loir is a French department, named after the Eure and Loir rivers.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Finistère (Penn-ar-Bed) is a department of France in the extreme west of Brittany.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Foix (Fois; Foix) is a commune, the former capital of the County of Foix.
Fontaine-de-Vaucluse (La Fònt de Vauclusa or simply Vauclusa in Occitan) is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
Forêts was a department of the French First Republic, and later the First French Empire, in present-day Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany.
The Forest of Rambouillet or Forest of Yveline (Forêt de Rambouillet, or Forêt de l'Yveline) is a large forest covering some 200 km², located to the west of Paris, in the Île-de-France region in northern France.
Fort-de-France is the capital of France's Caribbean overseas department of Martinique.
François Gérard Georges Nicolas Hollande (born 12 August 1954) is a French politician who served as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra from 2012 to 2017.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Frédéric Lefebvre (born October 14, 1963 in Neuilly-sur-Seine) is a French politician who was Secretary of State for Trade, Small and Medium Enterprises, Tourism, Services, Liberal professions and Consumption under the Minister of Economy, Finance and Industry, François Baroin.
In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (Freie Reichsstadt, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that had a certain amount of autonomy and was represented in the Imperial Diet.
The Free Imperial City of Aachen, known in English by its French name of Aix-la-Chapelle, was a Free Imperial City and spa of the Holy Roman Empire west of Cologne and southeast of the Low Countries, in the Lower Rhenish–Westphalian Circle.
French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
The French Communist Party (Parti communiste français, PCF) is a communist party in France.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Friesland (official, Fryslân), also historically known as Frisia, is a province of the Netherlands located in the northern part of the country.
Frise was a department of the First French Empire in the present-day Netherlands.
Gap is a commune in southeastern France, the capital and largest town of the Hautes-Alpes department.
Gard (Gard) is a department in southern France in the Occitanie region.
The Gardon or Gard (Occitan and French: Gardon, Gard) is a river in southern France.
The Garonne (Garonne,; in Occitan, Catalan, and Spanish: Garona; Garumna or Garunna) is a river in southwest France and northern Spain, with a length of.
Gérard Longuet (born 24 February 1946 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, Hauts-de-Seine) is a French conservative politician.
Gênes was a department of the French Consulate and of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
The Generality Lands, Lands of the Generality or Common Lands (Generaliteitslanden) were about one fifth of the territories of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, that were directly governed by the States-General.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
The department of Guadeloupe comprises five islands: Guadeloupe island composed of Basse-Terre Island and Grande-Terre (separated from Basse-Terre by a narrow sea channel called salt river) and the dependencies composed by the adjacent French islands of La Désirade, Les Saintes and Marie-Galante.
Mayotte is an island of volcanic origin in the northernmost Mozambique Channel, about one-half of the way from northern Madagascar to northern Mozambique.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Gers is a department in the Occitanie region in the southwest of France named after the Gers River.
The Gers is a long river in southern France, left tributary of the Garonne.
Ghent (Gent; Gand) is a city and a municipality in the Flemish Region of Belgium.
Girona (Gerona; Gérone) is a city in Catalonia, Spain, at the confluence of the rivers Ter, Onyar, Galligants, and Güell and has an official population of 99,013 as of January 2017.
Gironde (in Occitan Gironda) is a department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of southwest France.
The Gironde is a navigable estuary (often falsely referred to as a river), in southwest France and is formed from the meeting of the rivers Dordogne and Garonne just downstream of the centre of Bordeaux.
The Girondins, Girondists or Gironde were members of a loosely knit political faction during the French Revolution.
Golo was a department of France from 1793 to 1811.
The Government of the French Republic (Gouvernement de la République française) exercises executive power in France.
The Grand Duchy of Berg (Großherzogtum Berg) was established by Napoleon Bonaparte after his victory at the 1805 Battle of Austerlitz on territories between the French Empire at the Rhine river and the German Kingdom of Westphalia.
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany (Granducato di Toscana, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère.
Groningen (Gronings: Grunnen) is the main municipality as well as the capital city of the eponymous province in the Netherlands.
Guadeloupe (Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean.
Guéret (Occitan: Garait) is a commune and the prefecture of the Creuse department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in central France.
Guelders or Gueldres (Gelre, Geldern) is a historical county, later duchy of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the Low Countries.
The Gulf of Morbihan is a natural harbour on the coast of the Département of Morbihan in the south of Brittany, France.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Haut-Rhin (Alsatian: Owerelsàss) is a department in the Grand Est region of France, named after the river Rhine.
Haute-Corse (Corsica suprana) (Upper Corsica) is a department of France consisting of the northern part of the island of Corsica.
Haute-Garonne (Nauta Garona; Upper Garonne) is a department in the southwest of France named after the Garonne river.
Haute-Loire (Naut Léger) is a department in south-central France named after the Loire River.
Haute-Marne is a department in the northeast of France named after the Marne River.
Haute-Saône (Arpitan: Hiôta-Sona) is a French department of the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region named after the Saône River.
Haute-Savoie (Savouè d’Amont or Hiôta-Savouè; Upper Savoy; Obersavoyen or Hochsavoyen; Alta Savoia) is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of south-eastern France, bordering both Switzerland and Italy.
Haute-Vienne is a French department named after the river Vienne.
Hautes-Alpes (Auts Aups) is a department in southeastern France named after the Alps mountain range.
Hautes-Pyrénées (Gascon/Occitan: Nauts Pirenèus / Hauts Pirenèus; Altos Pirineos; Alts Pirineus) is a department in southwestern France.
Hauts-de-Seine (literally Seine Heights) is a department of France.
Hérault (Erau) is a department in southern France named after the Hérault.
The Hérault (Erau) is a river of southern France.
In Swiss history, the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803) represented an early attempt to impose a central authority over Switzerland, which until then had consisted of self-governing cantons united by a loose military alliance (and ruling over subject territories such as Vaud).
Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The Ille is a small river in Brittany, France, right tributary of the river Vilaine.
Ille-et-Vilaine (Il-ha-Gwilen) is a department of France, located in the region of Brittany in the northwest of the country.
Indre is a department in central France named after the river Indre.
The Indre is a long river in central France, left tributary to the river Loire.
Indre-et-Loire is a department in west-central France named after the Indre and the Loire rivers.
The INSEE code is a numerical indexing code used by the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (INSEE) to identify various entities, including communes, départements.
The National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies (Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques), abbreviated INSEE, is the national statistics bureau of France.
Isère (Arpitan: Isera, Occitan: Isèra) is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France named after the river Isère.
The Isère is a river in the Rhône-Alpes region of southeastern France.
ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes are two-letter country codes defined in ISO 3166-1, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), to represent countries, dependent territories, and special areas of geographical interest.
ISO 3166-2 is part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and defines codes for identifying the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
ISO 3166-2:FR is the entry for France in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
Ithaque (French for Ithaca) was one of three short-lived French departments of Greece.
Ivrea (Eporedia) is a town and comune of the Metropolitan City of Turin in the Piedmont region of northwestern Italy.
Jemmape was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Belgium.
Jura is a department in the east of France named after the Jura mountains.
The Jura Mountains (locally; Massif du Jura; Juragebirge; Massiccio del Giura) are a sub-alpine mountain range located north of the Western Alps, mainly following the course of the France–Switzerland border.
Karaikal (kāraikkāl) is a major port city of east coast of India and a municipality in Karaikal district in the Union Territory of Puducherry, India.
The Kingdom of Etruria (Regno di Etruria) was a kingdom between 1801 and 1807 which made up a large part of modern Tuscany.
The Kingdom of Holland (Koninkrijk Holland, Royaume de Hollande) was set up by Napoléon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of SardiniaThe name of the state was originally Latin: Regnum Sardiniae, or Regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae when the kingdom was still considered to include Corsica.
Koblenz (Coblence), spelled Coblenz before 1926, is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine where it is joined by the Moselle.
La Roche-sur-Yon is a commune in the Vendée department in the Pays de la Loire region in western France.
La Rochelle is a city in western France and a seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean.
The Landes (Gascon: Lanas) is a department in southwestern France.
The Landes forest (La forêt des Landes in French) or the Landes of Gascony (las Lanas de Gasconha in the Gascon language), in the historic Gascony natural region of southwestern France now known as Aquitaine, is the largest maritime-pine forest in Europe.
Laon is the capital city of the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France, northern France.
Laval is a town in western France, about west-southwest of Paris, and the capital of the Mayenne department.
Léman was a department of the First French Empire.
Lübeck is a city in Schleswig-Holstein, northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany.
Le Mans is a city in France, on the Sarthe River.
Le Puy-en-Velay (Lo Puèi de Velai) is a commune in the Haute-Loire department in south-central France near the Loire river.
Leeuwarden (longname), Stadsfries: Liwwadden) is a city and municipality in Friesland in the Netherlands. It is the provincial capital and seat of the States of Friesland. The municipality has a population of 122,293. The region has been continuously inhabited since the 10th century. It came to be known as Leeuwarden in the early 9th century AD and was granted city privileges in 1435. It is the main economic hub of Friesland, situated in a green and water-rich environment. Leeuwarden is a former royal residence and has a historic city center, many historically relevant buildings, and a large shopping center with squares and restaurants. Leeuwarden was awarded the title European Capital of Culture for 2018. The Elfstedentocht (Eleven Cities Tour), an ice skating tour passing the eleven cities of Friesland, started and finished in Leeuwarden. The following towns and villages within the municipality have populations in excess of 1,000 people: Leeuwarden, Stiens, Grou, Goutum, Wergea, Jirnsum, Reduzum, and Wirdum. The municipality is governed by the mayor Ferd Crone and a coalition of the Labour Party, Christian Democratic Appeal, and GreenLeft.
Liamone was a department of the French island of Corsica between 1793 and 1811.
Liège (Lidje; Luik,; Lüttich) is a major Walloon city and municipality and the capital of the Belgian province of Liège. The city is situated in the valley of the Meuse, in the east of Belgium, not far from borders with the Netherlands (Maastricht is about to the north) and with Germany (Aachen is about north-east). At Liège, the Meuse meets the River Ourthe. The city is part of the sillon industriel, the former industrial backbone of Wallonia. It still is the principal economic and cultural centre of the region. The Liège municipality (i.e. the city proper) includes the former communes of Angleur, Bressoux, Chênée, Glain, Grivegnée, Jupille-sur-Meuse, Rocourt, and Wandre. In November 2012, Liège had 198,280 inhabitants. The metropolitan area, including the outer commuter zone, covers an area of 1,879 km2 (725 sq mi) and had a total population of 749,110 on 1 January 2008. Population of all municipalities in Belgium on 1 January 2008. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. Definitions of metropolitan areas in Belgium. The metropolitan area of Liège is divided into three levels. First, the central agglomeration (agglomeratie) with 480,513 inhabitants (2008-01-01). Adding the closest surroundings (banlieue) gives a total of 641,591. And, including the outer commuter zone (forensenwoonzone) the population is 810,983. Retrieved on 2008-10-19. This includes a total of 52 municipalities, among others, Herstal and Seraing. Liège ranks as the third most populous urban area in Belgium, after Brussels and Antwerp, and the fourth municipality after Antwerp, Ghent and Charleroi.
The Ligurian Republic (Repubblica Ligure) was a short-lived French client republic formed by Napoleon on 14 June 1797.
Lille (Rijsel; Rysel) is a city at the northern tip of France, in French Flanders.
Limoges (Occitan: Lemòtges or Limòtges) is a city and commune, the capital of the Haute-Vienne department and was the administrative capital of the former Limousin region in west-central France.
Lingen is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Lippe was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Germany.
This table lists the 101 French departments in descending order of population, area and population density.
An Imperial abbey (Reichsabtei, Reichskloster, Reichsstift, Reichsgotthaus) was a religious establishment within the Holy Roman Empire which enjoyed the status of imperial immediacy (Reichsunmittelbarkeit) and therefore was answerable directly to the Emperor.
Livorno is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy.
Lleida (Lérida) is a city in the west of Catalonia, Spain.
The Loir is a long river in western France.
Loir-et-Cher is a department in the Centre-Val de Loire region, France.
The Loire (Léger; Liger) is the longest river in France and the 171st longest in the world.
Loire (Lêre; Léger) is a department in the east-central part of France occupying the River Loire's upper reaches.
Loire-Atlantique (formerly Loire-Inférieure) is a department on the west coast of France named after the Loire River and the Atlantic Ocean.
Loiret is a department in north-central France.
The Loiret is a long river in France, a left tributary to the Loire River.
Lons-le-Saunier is a commune and capital of the Jura department in eastern France.
Lot (Òlt) is a department in the southwest of France named after the Lot River.
The Lot,, originally the Olt (Òlt; Oltis), is a river in France.
Lot-et-Garonne (Òlt e Garona) is a department in the southwest of France named after the Lot and Garonne rivers.
Lozère (Losera) is a department in the region of Occitanie in southern France near the Massif Central.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg, Luxembourg, Luxemburg), also known as Luxembourg City (Stad Lëtzebuerg or d'Stad, Ville de Luxembourg, Stadt Luxemburg, Luxemburg-Stadt), is the capital city of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg (also named "Luxembourg"), and the country's most populous commune.
Lyon (Liyon), is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France.
Metropolitan Lyon (métropole de Lyon), also known as Grand Lyon (i.e. "Greater Lyon"), is a French territorial collectivity located in the east-central region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes.
Lys was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Belgium.
Maastricht (Limburgish: Mestreech; French: Maestricht; Spanish: Mastrique) is a city and a municipality in the southeast of the Netherlands.
Mahé, natively known as Mayyazhi, is a small town at the mouth of the Mahé River and is surrounded on all sides by the State of Kerala.
The Maine is a river, a tributary of the Loire, long, in the Maine-et-Loire département in France.
Maine-et-Loire is a department of the Loire Valley in west-central France, in the Pays de la Loire region.
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
Mamoudzou (Shimaore Comorian: Momoju) is the capital of the French overseas region and department of Mayotte, in the Indian Ocean.
Manche is a French department in Normandy (Normandie), named for the English Channel, which is known as La Manche, literally "the sleeve", in French, that borders its north and west shores and part of its east shore.
Marc-René de Voyer de Paulmy d'Argenson (13 December 1623 – 1 May 1700), seigneur d'Argenson et de Vueil-le-Mesnil, comte de Rouffiac, was a French knight, politician and diplomat.
Marengo was a department of the French Consulate and of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
Marne is a department in north-eastern France named after the river Marne (Matrona in Roman times) which flows through the department.
The Marne (la Marne) is a river in France, an eastern tributary of the Seine in the area east and southeast of Paris.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
Martinique is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea, with a land area of and a population of 385,551 inhabitants as of January 2013.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Mayenne is a department in northwest France named after the Mayenne River.
The Mayenne is a long river in western France principally located in the French region of Pays de la Loire.
Mayotte (Mayotte,; Shimaore: Maore,; Mahori) is an insular department and region of France officially named the Department of Mayotte (French: Département de Mayotte).
Mâcon, historically anglicized as Mascon, is a small city in east-central France.
Médéa (Lemdiyyet, المدية al-Madiya), population 123,535 (1998 census) is the capital city of Médéa Province, Algeria.
Médéa is a former French département in Algeria which existed between 1957 and 1962.
Méditerranée was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
Münster (Low German: Mönster; Latin: Monasterium, from the Greek μοναστήριον monastērion, "monastery") is an independent city (Kreisfreie Stadt) in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.
Melun is a commune in the Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region in north-central France.
Mende is a commune and prefecture of the department of Lozère and of the region of Occitanie in southern France.
Mer-Égée (French for Aegean Sea) was one of three short-lived French departments of Greece.
Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole), also known as European France or Mainland France, is the part of France in Europe.
Metz (Lorraine Franconian pronunciation) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle and the Seille rivers.
Meurthe is a former department of France created in 1790.
The Meurthe is a river in north-eastern France, right tributary to the river Moselle.
Meurthe-et-Moselle is a department in the Grand Est region of France, named after the Meurthe and Moselle rivers.
The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.
Meuse is a department in northeast France, named after the River Meuse.
Meuse-Inférieure ("Lower Meuse"; or Beneden-Maas) was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Belgium, Netherlands and Germany.
Middelburg is a city and municipality in the south-western Netherlands serving as the capital of the province of Zeeland.
Miscellaneous left (divers gauche, DVG) in France refers to left-wing candidates who are not members of a large party.
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
Mons (Bergen; Mont; Mont) is a Walloon city and municipality, and the capital of the Belgian province of Hainaut.
Mont Lozère (Mont Losera) is the highest peak in the Cévennes, a subrange of the Massif Central in France.
Mont-Blanc was a department of the First French Empire.
Mont-de-Marsan (Gascon: Lo Mont de Marçan) is a commune and capital of the Landes department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.
Mont-Terrible was one of the 130 departments of Napoleonic France, with its capital at Porrentruy.
Mont-Tonnerre was a department of the First French Republic and later the First French Empire in present-day Germany.
Montauban (Montalban) is a commune in the Tarn-et-Garonne department in the Occitanie region in southern France.
Montenotte was a department of the French Consulate and of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.
Montserrat was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Spain, named after the mountain of Montserrat.
Morbihan (Mor-Bihan) is a department in Brittany, situated in the northwest of France.
The Moselle (la Moselle,; Mosel; Musel) is a river flowing through France, Luxembourg, and Germany.
Moselle is the most populous department in Lorraine, in the east of France, and is named after the river Moselle, a tributary of the Rhine, which flows through the western part of the department.
Mostaganem (Mustɣanem; مستغانم) is a port city in and capital of Mostaganem province, in the northwest of Algeria.
Moulins (Molins) is a commune in central France, capital of the Allier department.
The Mounts of Cantal (or Volcanoes of Cantal; Monts du Cantal) are a mountainous massif in the mid-west of the Massif Central, France, made up of the remnants of the largest stratovolcano of Europe, which was formed from 13 million years ago and last erupted approximately 2 million years ago.
The Movement for France (Mouvement pour la France), abbreviated to MPF, is a French conservative and soft Eurosceptic political party, founded on 20 November 1994, with a marked regional stronghold in the Vendée.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
Namur (Dutch:, Nameur in Walloon) is a city and municipality in Wallonia, Belgium.
Namur (Dutch:, Nameur) is a province of Wallonia, one of the three regions of Belgium.
Nancy (Nanzig) is the capital of the north-eastern French department of Meurthe-et-Moselle, and formerly the capital of the Duchy of Lorraine, and then the French province of the same name.
Nanterre is a commune in the Hauts-de-Seine department, the western suburbs of Paris.
Nantes (Gallo: Naunnt or Nantt) is a city in western France on the Loire River, from the Atlantic coast.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The National Constituent Assembly (Assemblée nationale constituante) was formed from the National Assembly on 9 July 1789 during the first stages of the French Revolution.
Nîmes (Provençal Occitan: Nimes) is a city in the Occitanie region of southern France.
Neuenhaus is a town in the district of Grafschaft Bentheim in Lower Saxony, and is the seat of a like-named collective municipality Neuenhaus.
Nevers (Latin: Noviodunum, later Nevirnum and Nebirnum) is the prefecture of the Nièvre department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in central France.
Nièvre is a department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in the centre of France named after the River Nièvre.
The Nièvre is a river in central France, a right tributary of the Loire.
Nice (Niçard Niça, classical norm, or Nissa, nonstandard,; Nizza; Νίκαια; Nicaea) is the fifth most populous city in France and the capital of the Alpes-Maritimes département.
Niort is a commune in the Deux-Sèvres department in western France.
Nord (North; Noorderdepartement) is a department in the far north of France.
North is one of the four compass points or cardinal directions.
Oise is a department in the north of France.
The Oise is a river of Belgium and France, flowing for from its source in the Belgian province of Hainaut, south of Chimay.
The Old Swiss Confederacy (Modern German: Alte Eidgenossenschaft; historically Eidgenossenschaft, after the Reformation also République des Suisses, Res publica Helvetiorum "Republic of the Swiss") was a loose confederation of independent small states (cantons, German or) within the Holy Roman Empire.
Ombrone was a department of the First French Empire in modern-day Italy.
Oran (وَهران, Wahrān; Berber language: ⵡⴻⵂⵔⴰⵏ, Wehran) is a major coastal city located in the north-west of Algeria.
Oran is a former French département in Algeria existing from 1848 until 1962.
Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 111 kilometres (69 miles) southwest of Paris.
Orne is a department in the northwest of France, named after the river Orne.
The Orne (Ptolemeus Olina) is a river in Normandy, within northwestern France.
Osnabrück (Ossenbrügge; archaic Osnaburg) is a city in the federal state of Lower Saxony in north-west Germany.
Ouargla (Berber: Wargren or Wargla, ورجلان، ورقلة, old Berber name: Wareglan) is the capital city of Ouargla Province in the Sahara Desert in southern Algeria.
Ourthe (also spelled Ourte at the time) was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Germany and Belgium.
Overijssel (Dutch Low Saxon: Oaveriessel) is a province of the Netherlands in the central-eastern part of the country.
The French overseas collectivities (collectivité d'outre-mer or COM), like the French regions, are first-order administrative divisions of France.
An overseas department (département d’outre-mer or DOM) is a department of France that is outside metropolitan France.
Overseas France (France d'outre-mer) consists of all the French-administerd territories outside the European continent.
Palatine Zweibrücken, or the County Palatine of Zweibrücken, is a former state of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Papal States, officially the State of the Church (Stato della Chiesa,; Status Ecclesiasticus; also Dicio Pontificia), were a series of territories in the Italian Peninsula under the direct sovereign rule of the Pope, from the 8th century until 1870.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Parma (Pärma) is a city in the northern Italian region of Emilia-Romagna famous for its prosciutto (ham), cheese, architecture, music and surrounding countryside.
Pas-de-Calais is a department in northern France named after the French designation of the Strait of Dover, which it borders ('pas' meaning passage).
Pau is a commune on the northern edge of the Pyrenees, and capital of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques Département in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, France.
Périgueux (Peireguers or Periguers) is a commune in the Dordogne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.
Pô was a department of the French Consulate and of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
Perpignan (Perpinyà) is a city, a commune, and the capital of the Pyrénées-Orientales department in southern France.
Poitiers is a city on the Clain river in west-central France.
Pontoise is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France.
Porrentruy (Poérreintru, Pruntrut) is a Swiss municipality and seat of the district of the same name located in the canton of Jura.
A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, Eircode, PIN Code or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes including spaces or punctuation, included in a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail.
Postal codes were introduced in France in 1964, when La Poste introduced automated sorting.
A prefect (préfet) in France is the State's representative in a department or region.
A prefecture (préfecture) in France may refer to.
The preserved counties of Wales are the current areas used in Wales for the ceremonial purposes of lieutenancy and shrievalty.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some secular principality and sovereignty.
The Prince-Bishopric of Basel (Fürstbistum Basel) was an ecclesiastical principality within the Holy Roman Empire, ruled from 1032 by Prince-Bishops with their seat at Basel, and from 1528 until 1792 at Porrentruy, and thereafter at Schliengen.
The Bishopric of Münster was an ecclesiastical principality in the Holy Roman Empire, located in the northern part of today's North Rhine-Westphalia and western Lower Saxony.
The Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück (Hochstift Osnabrück) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire from 1225 until 1803.
The Principality of Stavelot-Malmedy was an ecclesiastical principality of the Holy Roman Empire.
Privas (Privàs) is a commune of France, capital of the Ardèche department.
The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the department (French: département) system superseded provinces.
There are currently twelve provinces of the Netherlands, representing the administrative layer between the national government and the local municipalities, with responsibility for matters of subnational or regional importance.
Puducherry district, formerly Pondicherry district is one of the four districts of the union territory of Puducherry in southern India.
Puigcerdà (informally:,; Puigcerdá) is the capital of the Catalan comarca of Cerdanya, in the province of Girona, Catalonia, northern Spain, near the Segre River and on the border with France (it abuts directly onto the French town of Bourg-Madame).
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
Puy de Dôme ((Auvergnat Puèi Domat, Puèi de Doma) is a large lava dome and one of the youngest volcanoes in the Chaîne des Puys region of Massif Central in central France. This chain of volcanoes including numerous cinder cones, lava domes, and maars is far from the edge of any tectonic plate. Puy de Dôme is approximately from Clermont-Ferrand. The Puy-de-Dôme département (with hyphens) is named after the volcano.
Puy-de-Dôme ((Auvergnat: lo Puèi de Doma or lo Puèi Domat) is a department in the centre of France named after the famous dormant volcano, the Puy de Dôme. Inhabitants were called Puydedomois until December 2005. With effect from Spring 2006, in response to a letter writing campaign, the name used for the inhabitants was changed by the Puy-de-Dôme General Council to Puydômois, and this is the name that has since then been used in all official documents and publications.
Pyrénées-Atlantiques (Gascon: Pirenèus-Atlantics; Pirinio Atlantiarrak or Pirinio Atlantikoak) is a department in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, in southwestern France.
Pyrénées-Orientales (Pirineus Orientals; Pirenèus Orientals; "Eastern Pyrenees") is a department of southern France adjacent to the northern Spanish frontier and the Mediterranean Sea.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
Quimper (Breton: Kemper, Latin: Civitas Aquilonia or Corisopitum) is a commune and capital of the Finistère department of Brittany in northwestern France.
The Radical Party of the Left (Parti radical de gauche, PRG) was a social-liberal political party in France.
The République des Sept-Dizains (German Republik der Sieben Zenden "Republic of the Seven Tithings") was a state in the Upper Valais, in what is now the Swiss canton of Valais, during the Early Modern period.
Réunion (La Réunion,; previously Île Bourbon) is an island and region of France in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar and southwest of Mauritius.
Rees is a town in the district of Cleves in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
France is divided into 18 administrative regions (région), including 13 metropolitan regions and 5 overseas regions.
The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.
René-Louis de Voyer de Paulmy, Marquis d'Argenson (18 October 169426 January 1757) was a French statesman.
Rennes (Roazhon,; Gallo: Resnn) is a city in the east of Brittany in northwestern France at the confluence of the Ille and the Vilaine.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Rhône (Le Rhône; Rhone; Walliser German: Rotten; Rodano; Rôno; Ròse) is one of the major rivers of Europe and has twice the average discharge of the Loire (which is the longest French river), rising in the Rhône Glacier in the Swiss Alps at the far eastern end of the Swiss canton of Valais, passing through Lake Geneva and running through southeastern France.
Rhône (Rôno) is a French department located in the central Eastern region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes.
Rhône-et-Loire was a department of France whose prefecture (capital) was Lyon.
Rhin-et-Moselle was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Germany.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
Rodez is a small city and commune in the South of France, about 150 km northeast of Toulouse.
Rodrigues (Île Rodrigues) is a autonomous outer island of the Republic of Mauritius in the Indian Ocean, about east of Mauritius.
Roer was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Germany and the Netherlands.
The Archdiocese of Cologne (Archidioecesis Coloniensis; Erzbistum Köln) is an archdiocese of the Catholic Church in western North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
The Roman Catholic Diocese of Liège (Dioecesis Leodiensis) is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Belgium.
The Roman Catholic diocese of Trier, in English traditionally known by its French name of Treves, is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic church in Germany.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rome was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
Rouen (Frankish: Rodomo; Rotomagus, Rothomagus) is a city on the River Seine in the north of France.
Saïda (سعيدة) is the capital city of Saïda Province, Algeria.
The Saône (La Saône; Arpitan Sona, Arar) is a river of eastern France.
Saône-et-Loire (Arpitan: Sona-et-Lêre) is a French department, named after the Saône and the Loire rivers between which it lies.
Saint Lucia (Sainte-Lucie) is a sovereign island country in the West Indies in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean.
Saint Pierre and Miquelon, officially the Overseas Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité d'Outre-mer de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon), is a self-governing territorial overseas collectivity of France, situated in the northwestern Atlantic Ocean near the Newfoundland and Labrador province of Canada.
Saint-Étienne (Sant-Etiève; Saint Stephen) is a city in eastern central France, in the Massif Central, southwest of Lyon in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, on the trunk road that connects Toulouse with Lyon.
Saint-Brieuc (Breton: Sant-Brieg, Gallo: Saent-Berioec) is a commune in the Côtes-d'Armor department in Brittany in northwestern France.
Saint-Denis (or unofficially Saint-Denis de la Réunion for disambiguation) is the préfecture (administrative capital) of the French overseas region and department of Réunion, in the Indian Ocean.
Saint-Lô is a commune in north-western France, the capital of the Manche department in the region of Normandy.
Saint-Pierre is the capital of the French overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, off the coast of Newfoundland in Canada.
Sambre-et-Meuse was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Belgium.
Sarre was a department created by the First French Republic and now part of Germany and Belgium.
Sarthe is a French department situated in the Grand-Ouest of the country.
The Sarthe is a long river in western France.
Savoie (Arpitan: Savouè, Italian: Savoia, English: Savoy) is a French department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region of the French Alps.
Savona (Ligurian: Sann-a is a seaport and comune in the west part of the northern Italian region of Liguria, capital of the Province of Savona, in the Riviera di Ponente on the Mediterranean Sea. Savona used to be one of the chief seats of the Italian iron industry, having iron-works and foundries, shipbuilding, railway workshops, engineering shops, and a brass foundry. One of the most celebrated former inhabitants of Savona was the navigator Christopher Columbus, who farmed land in the area while chronicling his journeys. 'Columbus's house', a cottage situated in the Savona hills, lay between vegetable crops and fruit trees. It is one of several residences in Liguria associated with Columbus.
Savoy (Savouè,; Savoie; Savoia) is a cultural region in Western Europe.
Sègre was a former department of the First French Empire in present-day Spain and Andorra, named after the river Segre.
Sègre-Ter was a department of France created in Spain on 7 March 1813 by merging the departments of Sègre and Ter.
The Sèvre Nantaise is a river in western France, a left-bank tributary to the Loire.
The Sèvre Niortaise is a long river in western France, flowing into the Atlantic Ocean.
Sésia was a department of the French Consulate and of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
Setif (Berber: Ẓḍif or Sṭif, سطيف, Sitifis) is an Algerian city and the capital of the Stif Province, it is one of the most important cities of eastern Algeria and the country as a whole, since it is considered the trade capital of the country.
Sétif is a former French département in Algeria which existed between 1957 and 1962.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Seine was a department of France encompassing Paris and its immediate suburbs.
Seine-et-Marne is a French department, named after the Seine and Marne rivers, and located in the Île-de-France region.
Seine-et-Oise was a département of France encompassing the western, northern, and southern parts of the metropolitan area of Paris.
Seine-Maritime is a department of France in the Normandy region of northern France.
italic is a French department located in the italic region.
The Septinsular Republic (Ἑπτάνησος Πολιτεία, Repubblica Settinsulare, جزاييرى صباى موجتميا جومهورو Cezayir-i Seb'a-i Müctemia Cumhuru) was an island republic that existed from 1800 to 1807 under nominal Russian and Ottoman sovereignty in the Ionian Islands.
Seychelles (French), officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles; Creole: Repiblik Sesel), is an archipelago and sovereign state in the Indian Ocean.
Siena (in English sometimes spelled Sienna; Sena Iulia) is a city in Tuscany, Italy.
Simplon was a department of the First French Empire.
Sion (Sitten; Seduno; Sedunum) is a Swiss town, a municipality, and the capital of the canton of Valais and of the district of Sion.
The Socialist Party (Parti socialiste, PS) is a social-democratic political party in France, and the largest party of the French centre-left.
Somme is a department of France, located in the north of the country and named after the Somme river.
The Somme is a river in Picardy, northern France.
The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied then annexed by France (1794–1815).
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The special territories of the European Union are 31 territories of EU member states which, for historical, geographical, or political reasons, enjoy special status within or outside the European Union.
Spoleto (Latin Spoletium) is an ancient city in the Italian province of Perugia in east-central Umbria on a foothill of the Apennines.
Steinfurt is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Strait of Dover or Dover Strait, historically known as the Dover Narrows (pas de Calais - Strait of Calais); Nauw van Kales or Straat van Dover), is the strait at the narrowest part of the English Channel, marking the boundary between the Channel and North Sea, separating Great Britain from continental Europe. The shortest distance across the strait,, is from the South Foreland, northeast of Dover in the English county of Kent, to Cap Gris Nez, a cape near to Calais in the French département of Pas-de-Calais. Between these points lies the most popular route for cross-channel swimmers. The entire strait is within the territorial waters of France and the United Kingdom, but a right of transit passage under the UNCLOS exists allowing unrestricted shipping. On a clear day, it is possible to see the opposite coastline of England from France and vice versa with the naked eye, with the most famous and obvious sight being the white cliffs of Dover from the French coastline and shoreline buildings on both coastlines, as well as lights on either coastline at night, as in Matthew Arnold's poem "Dover Beach".
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Stura was a department of the French Consulate and of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
In France, a subprefecture (sous-préfecture) is the administrative center of a departmental arrondissement that does not contain the prefecture for its department.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
Tanaro was a short-lived department of the French Consulate and of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
Tarbes (Tarba) is a commune in the Hautes-Pyrénées department in the Occitanie region of southwestern France.
Tarn is a French department located in the Occitanie region in the southwest of France named after the Tarn river.
The Tarn (Tarn, Tarnis, possibly meaning 'rapid' or 'walled in') is a long river in southern France (régions Languedoc-Roussillon and Midi-Pyrénées), right tributary of the Garonne.
Tarn-et-Garonne (Occitan: Tarn e Garona) is a department in the southwest of France.
Taro was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
Ter was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Spain, named after the river Ter.
The Territoire de Belfort is a department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France.
A territorial collectivity (or territorial authority, collectivité territoriale, previously collectivité locale) is a chartered subdivision of France, with recognized governing authority.
The Centrists (Les Centristes, LC), formerly known as New Centre (Nouveau Centre, NC) and European Social Liberal Party (Parti Social Libéral Européen, PSLE), is a centre-right political party in France, formed by the members of the Union for French Democracy (UDF) – including 18 of the 29 members of the UDF in the National Assembly) – who did not agree with François Bayrou's decision to found the Democratic Movement (MoDem) and wanted to support the newly elected president Nicolas Sarkozy, continuing the UDF-Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) alliance. The party foundation was announced on 29 May 2007 during a press conference and renamed on 11 December 2016.
The Guianas, sometimes called by the Spanish loan-word Guayanas (Las Guayanas), are a region in north-eastern South America which includes the following three territories.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
Thorn (Thoear) is a town in the municipality of Maasgouw, in the Dutch province of Limburg.
Tiaret (Berber: Tahert or Tihert, ⵜⴰⵀⴻⵔⵜ, i.e. "Lioness"; تاهرت / تيارت) is a major city in central Algeria that gives its name to the wider farming region of Tiaret Province.
Tizi Ouzou or Thizi Wezzu (Berber: Tizi Wezzu or Thizi Wezzu, ⵜⵉⵣⵉ ⵡⴻⵣⵣⵓ, Algerian Arabic: ثيزي وزو) is a city in north central Algeria.
Tlemcen (تلمسان Tlemsan; ⵜⵍⴻⵎⵙⴰⵏ) is a city in north-western Algeria, and the capital of the province of the same name.
Tobago is an autonomous island within the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.
Toulon (Provençal: Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm)) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.
Toulouse (Tolosa, Tolosa) is the capital of the French department of Haute-Garonne and of the region of Occitanie.
Tournai (Latin: Tornacum, Picard: Tornai), known in Dutch as Doornik and historically as Dornick in English, is a Walloon municipality of Belgium, southwest of Brussels on the river Scheldt.
Tours is a city located in the centre-west of France.
Trasimène was a department of the First French Empire in present-day Italy.
The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July 1807 in the aftermath of his victory at Friedland.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.
Troyes is a commune and the capital of the department of Aube in north-central France.
Tulle is a commune in central France.
Turin (Torino; Turin) is a city and an important business and cultural centre in northern Italy.
The Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un mouvement populaire; UMP) was a centre-right political party in France that was one of the two major contemporary political parties in France along with the centre-left Socialist Party (PS).
The Union for French Democracy (Union pour la Démocratie Française, UDF) was a centre-right political party in France.
The United States of the Ionian Islands (Inoménon Krátos ton Ioníon Níson, literally "United State of the Ionian Islands"; Stati Uniti delle Isole Ionie) was a state and amical protectorate of the United Kingdom between 1815 and 1864.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The Urban Community of Lyon (Communauté urbaine de Lyon), also known as Grand Lyon (i.e. "Greater Lyon") or by its former acronym COURLY, is the former intercommunal structure gathering the city of Lyon (France) and some of its suburbs.
Utrecht is a province of the Netherlands.
Val-d'Oise is a French department, created in 1968 after the split of the Seine-et-Oise department and located in the Île-de-France region.
Val-de-Marne is a French department, named after the Marne River, located in the Île-de-France region.
Valence (Valença) is a commune in southeastern France, the capital of the Drôme department and within the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region.
Vannes is a commune in the Morbihan department in Brittany in north-western France.
The Var is a department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in Provence in southeastern France.
The Var (Var, Varo, Varus) is a river located in the southeast of France.
The Vaucluse (Vauclusa in classical norm or Vau-Cluso in Mistralian norm) is a department in the southeast of France, named after the famous spring the Fontaine de Vaucluse.
Vehicle registration plates are mandatory number plates used to display the registration mark of a vehicle registered in France.
The Vendée is a department in the Pays-de-la-Loire region in west-central France, on the Atlantic Ocean.
The Vendée is a long river in western France, right tributary to the river Sèvre Niortaise.
The Ionian Islands were an overseas possession of the Republic of Venice from the mid-14th century until the late 18th century.
Vercelli (Vërsèj in Piedmontese), is a city and comune of 46.552 inhabitants (1-1-2017) in the Province of Vercelli, Piedmont, northern Italy.
Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Vesoul is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté located in eastern France.
Vienne is a department in the French region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine.
The Vienne (Vinhana) is one of the most important rivers in south-western France.
The Vilaine (Gwilen) is a river in Brittany, in the west of France.
The Vosges (or; Vogesen), also called the Vosges Mountains, are a range of low mountains in eastern France, near its border with Germany.
Vosges is an eastern department of France named after the Vosges mountain range.
Wesel is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Yanaon or Yanam was a French colony between 1731 and 1954.
Yonne is a French department named after the river Yonne.
The Yonne is a river in France, a left-bank tributary of the Seine.
Yssel-Supérieur ("Upper IJssel") was a department of the First French Empire in the present-day Netherlands.
Yvelines is a French department in the region of Île-de-France.
Zakynthos (Ζάκυνθος, Zákynthos, Zacìnto) or Zante (Τζάντε, Tzánte, Zante; from Venetian), is a Greek island in the Ionian Sea.
Zeelandic Flanders (Zeelandic: Zeêuws-Vlaonderen) is the southernmost region of the province of Zeeland in the south-western Netherlands.
Zuyderzée ("Southern Sea") was a department of the First French Empire in the present-day Netherlands.
Zwolle is a city and municipality in the northeastern Netherlands serving as Overijssel's capital.
This is a list of the 130 departments (départements), the conventional name for the administrative subdivisions of the First French Empire at the height of its territorial extent, circa 1811.
Conseil General, Conseiller General, Conseiller Général, Conseiller général, Departament of France, Departemant (France), Departement, Departement in France, Departement of France, Departements francais, Departements of France, Departements of france, Department (France), Department in France, Department of France, Departments in France, Departments of Frnace, Departments of france, Départemant (France), Département, Département français, Département in France, Département of France, Départements français, Départements of France, Départment in France, Départments of France, French Department, French Departments, French departements, French department, French departments, French départements, General Council of Alsace, General Councils of France, General councils of france, List of departments of France.