308 relations: Absorption (skin), Acute (medicine), Aerosol, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Alliant Techsystems, Alpha decay, Alpha particle, Ammunition, Amsterdam, Analytical chemistry, Anti-tank warfare, Areva NC, Argentina, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Armor-piercing shell, Arsenic, Attica, Australia, Balkan Wars, Basra, Belgium, Bell AH-1 Cobra, Bernard D. Rostker, Beta particle, Biochemistry, Biological half-life, Birth defect, Boeing, Boeing 747, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bosnian War, British Nuclear Fuels Ltd, By-product, Cancer, CANDU reactor, Carcinogen, Carcinogenesis, Case study, Central nervous system, Chain reaction, Challenger 1, Challenger 2, Chemical Weapons Convention, Chernobyl, China, China National Nuclear Corporation, Chronic condition, Clearance (pharmacology), Clinical Psychology Review, Cobalt, ..., Cohort study, Combustibility and flammability, Combustion, Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons, Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, Counterweight, Cuba, Dáil Éireann, Density, Dental porcelain, Dentures, Distinction (law), Distribution (pharmacology), Dose (biochemistry), Dosimetry, DSO National Laboratories, El Al, El Al Flight 1862, Electron microscope, Electron paramagnetic resonance, Enriched uranium, Environmental Health Perspectives, Environmental impact of war, Epidemiology, European Committee on Radiation Risk, European Parliament, European Union, External ballistics, Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II, Fallujah, Federal Agency on Atomic Energy (Russia), Fiesta (dinnerware), Finland, Fissile material, Fragmentation (weaponry), France, Frangibility, Gamma ray, Gatling gun, GAU-12 Equalizer, GAU-8 Avenger, Gene, Genetics, Geneva Conventions, Genocide Convention, Geography of Iraq, George Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen, Gold, Greece, Grenade, Gulf War, Half-life, Heart, Heavy metals, Hippocampus, Hugh McManners, Human brain, Human rights, Human sex ratio, Hydrofluoric acid, Immune system, Immunotoxin, Incendiary device, Industrial radiography, Infant mortality, Ingestion, Inhalation, International Atomic Energy Agency, International Coalition to Ban Uranium Weapons, International Court of Justice, International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, International humanitarian law, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, International Journal of Epidemiology, International law, Ionizing radiation, Iraq War, Iridium, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Isotope, Isotope separation, Isotopes of protactinium, Isotopes of thorium, Israel, Jalalabad, Japan, Japan Nuclear Fuel Limited, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Journal of Radiological Protection, Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, Keel, Kidney, Kinetic energy, Kinetic energy penetrator, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Kosovo, Land mine, Latin American Parliament, LAV-25, Lead, Leukemia, Literature review, Liver, Louise Arbour, Lymphoma, Lynn Goldman, M1 Abrams, M197 electric cannon, M2 Bradley, M242 Bushmaster, M61 Vulcan, Mass number, Materiel, McDonnell Douglas, McDonnell Douglas AV-8B Harrier II, MEDACT, Medicine, Conflict and Survival, MEDLINE, Mercury (element), Metal toxicity, Microgram, Ministry of Defence (United Kingdom), Molybdenum, Moratorium (law), Multi-National Force – Iraq, National Academy of Medicine, National Institute of Standards and Technology, NATO, NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, Natural uranium, Neoplasm, Neptunium, Neurology, Neuron, Neurotoxicity, Neurotoxicology and Teratology, Nickel, Non-governmental organization, Norway, Nuclear fission, Nuclear marine propulsion, Nuclear power, Nuclear reactor, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear reprocessing, Nuclear weapon, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Oncology, Operation Anaconda, Operation Tidal Wave II, Osmium, Paducah, Kentucky, Pekka Haavisto, Pen Duick, Persian Gulf, Phalanx CIWS, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Pigment, Plastic, Plutonium, Poison, Polyurethane, Portsmouth, Ohio, Pressurized heavy-water reactor, Projectile, Proteinuria, Protocol I, Radiation, Radiation therapy, Radioactive decay, Radiography, RAND Corporation, Rat, Red Army, Redox, Reproduction, Rhabdomyosarcoma, Rodent, Royal Army Medical Corps, Royal Society, Sabot, Sailing ballast, Sandia National Laboratories, Secretary General of NATO, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Serbia, Shock and awe, Simon Wessely, Skeleton, South African Nuclear Energy Corporation, Soviet Union, Spallation, Spleen, Staballoy, Staining, Stress (biology), Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights, Sweden, T-62, T-64, T-72, T-80, T-90, Tank, Teratology, Terminal ballistics, The BMJ, The Guardian, The Independent, The Observer, The Pentagon, Tissue culture, Titanium, Toxicity, Toxicology, Transuranium element, Traveling wave reactor, Tungsten, United Kingdom, United Nations Charter, United Nations Commission on Human Rights, United Nations Convention against Torture, United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations Security Council, United States, United States Air Force, United States Department of Defense, United States Department of Energy, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, University of Siena, Uranium, Uranium dioxide, Uranium glass, Uranium hexafluoride, Uranium oxide, Uranium trioxide, Uranium-234, Uranium-235, Uranium-236, Uranium-238, Uranyl, Uranyl acetate, Uranyl fluoride, Urenco Group, Vehicle armour, Vitreous enamel, Volvo Ocean Race, Warsaw Pact, Weapon of mass destruction, World Health Organization, Y. K. J. Yeung Sik Yuen, 2003 invasion of Iraq, 30 mm caliber. Expand index (258 more) » « Shrink index
Skin absorption is a route by which substances can enter the body through the skin.
In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.
An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) is a federal public health agency within the United States Department of Health and Human Services.
Alliant Techsystems Inc. (ATK) was an American aerospace, defense, and sporting goods company with its headquarters in Arlington County, Virginia, in the United States.
Alpha decay or α-decay is a type of radioactive decay in which an atomic nucleus emits an alpha particle (helium nucleus) and thereby transforms or 'decays' into an atom with a mass number that is reduced by four and an atomic number that is reduced by two.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Ammunition (informally ammo) is the material fired, scattered, dropped or detonated from any weapon.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Analytical chemistry studies and uses instruments and methods used to separate, identify, and quantify matter.
Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.
Areva NC, formerly COGEMA (Compagnie générale des matières nucléaires) is a French company, created in 1976 from the production division of the French government's CEA (English: Atomic Energy Commission).
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) is a triservice laboratory in Bethesda, Maryland, USA, and was chartered by the U.S. Congress in 1961.
An armor-piercing shell, AP for short, is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate armor.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Attica (Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or; or), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Balkan Wars (Balkan Savaşları, literally "the Balkan Wars" or Balkan Faciası, meaning "the Balkan Tragedy") consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
The Bell AH-1 Cobra is a two-blade, single-engine attack helicopter manufactured by Bell Helicopter. It was developed using the engine, transmission and rotor system of the Bell UH-1 Iroquois. A member of the prolific Huey family, the AH-1 is also referred to as the HueyCobra or Snake. The AH-1 was the backbone of the United States Army's attack helicopter fleet, but has been replaced by the AH-64 Apache in Army service. Upgraded versions continue to fly with the militaries of several other nations. The AH-1 twin-engine versions remain in service with United States Marine Corps (USMC) as the service's primary attack helicopter. Surplus AH-1 helicopters have been converted for fighting forest fires.
Bernard Daniel Rostker (born February 1, 1944) was Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Manpower and Reserve Affairs) from 1977 to 1979; Director of the United States Selective Service System from 1979 to 1981; Assistant Secretary of the Navy (Manpower and Reserve Affairs) from 1994 to 1998; Under Secretary of the Army from 1998 to 2000; and Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness in 2000-2001.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
The biological half-life of a biological substance is the time it takes for half to be removed by biological processes when the rate of removal is roughly exponential.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL) was a nuclear energy and fuels company owned by the UK Government.
A by-product is a secondary product derived from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The CANDU, for Canada Deuterium Uranium, is a Canadian pressurized heavy-water reactor design used to generate electric power.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.
In the social sciences and life sciences, a case study is a research method involving an up-close, in-depth, and detailed examination of a subject of study (the case), as well as its related contextual conditions.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
The FV4030/4 Challenger 1 is a British main battle tank (MBT) used by the British Army from 1983 to the mid-1990s, when it was superseded by the Challenger 2.
The FV4034 Challenger 2 (MOD designation "CR2") is a British main battle tank (MBT) in service with the armies of the United Kingdom and Oman.
The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an arms control treaty that outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.
Chernobyl or Chornobyl (Chornobyl′,;; Charnobyl′) is a city in the restricted Chernobyl Exclusion Zone situated in the Ivankiv Raion of northern Kiev Oblast, near Ukraine's border with Belarus.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC) is a state-owned entity founded in 1955 in Beijing.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
In pharmacology, the clearance is a pharmacokinetic measurement of the volume of plasma from which a substance is completely removed per unit time; the usual units are mL/min.
Clinical Psychology Review is an academic journal that reviews the field of clinical psychology.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
A cohort study is a particular form of longitudinal study that sample a cohort (a group of people who share a defining characteristic, typically those who experienced a common event in a selected period, such as birth or graduation), performing a cross-section at intervals through time.
Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
The United Nations Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW or CCWC), concluded at Geneva on October 10, 1980, and entered into force in December 1983, seeks to prohibit or restrict the use of certain conventional weapons which are considered excessively injurious or whose effects are indiscriminate.
The Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material was adopted on 26 October 1979 in Vienna, Austria.
A counterweight is a weight that, by exerting an opposite force, provides balance and stability of a mechanical system.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Dental porcelain (also known as dental ceramic) is a dental material used by dental technicians to create biocompatible lifelike dental restorations, such as crowns, bridges, and veneers.
Dentures (also known as false teeth) are prosthetic devices constructed to replace missing teeth; they are supported by the surrounding soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity.
Distinction is a principle under international humanitarian law governing the legal use of force in an armed conflict, whereby belligerents must distinguish between combatants and civilians.
Distribution in pharmacology is a branch of pharmacokinetics which describes the reversible transfer of a drug from one location to another within the body.
A dose is a measured quantity of a medicine, nutrient, or pathogen which is delivered as a unit.
Radiation dosimetry in the fields of health physics and radiation protection is the measurement, calculation and assessment of the ionizing radiation dose absorbed by the human body.
DSO National Laboratories (DSO) is the national defense research agency of Singapore.
El Al Israel Airlines Ltd. (TASE: ELAL), trading as El Al (אל על, "To the Skies" or "Skywards", إل-عال), is the flag carrier of Israel.
On 4 October 1992, El Al Flight 1862, a Boeing 747 cargo aircraft of the state-owned Israeli airline El Al, crashed into the Groeneveen and Klein-Kruitberg flats in the Bijlmermeer (colloquially "Bijlmer") neighbourhood (part of Amsterdam-Zuidoost) of Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.
Enriched uranium is a type of uranium in which the percent composition of uranium-235 has been increased through the process of isotope separation.
Environmental Health Perspectives (EHP) is a peer-reviewed journal published monthly with support from the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS).
Study of the environmental impact of war focuses on the modernization of warfare and its increasing effects on the environment.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution (who, when, and where) and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations.
The European Committee on Radiation Risk (ECRR) is an informal committee formed in 1997 following a meeting by the European Green Party at the European Parliament to review the Council of Europe's directive 96/29Euratom, issued in May of the previous year.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
External ballistics or exterior ballistics is the part of ballistics that deals with the behavior of a projectile in flight.
The Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II is a single-seat, twin turbofan engine, straight wing jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force (USAF).
FallujahSometimes also transliterated as Falluja, Fallouja, or Falowja (الفلوجة, Iraqi pronunciation) is a city in the Iraqi province of Al Anbar, located roughly west of Baghdad on the Euphrates.
Ministry for Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation and Federal Agency on Atomic Energy (or Rosatom), were a Russian federal executive body in 1992-2008 (as Federal Ministry in 1992-2004 and as Federal Agency in 2004-2008).
Fiesta, often called Fiestaware, is a line of ceramic glazed dinnerware manufactured and marketed by the Homer Laughlin China Company of Newell, West Virginia since its introduction in 1936, with a hiatus from 1973 to 1985.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
In nuclear engineering, fissile material is material capable of sustaining a nuclear fission chain reaction.
Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery or mortar shell, rocket, missile, bomb, grenade, etc.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
A material is said to be frangible if through deformation it tends to break up into fragments, rather than deforming elastically and retaining its cohesion as a single object.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
The Gatling gun is one of the best-known early rapid-fire spring loaded, hand cranked weapons and a forerunner of the modern machine gun.
The General Dynamics GAU-12/U Equalizer is a five-barrel 25 mm Gatling-type rotary cannon.
The General Electric GAU-8/A Avenger is a 30 mm hydraulically driven seven-barrel Gatling-type autocannon that is typically mounted in the United States Air Force's Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Original document as PDF in single pages, 1864 The Geneva Conventions comprise four treaties, and three additional protocols, that establish the standards of international law for humanitarian treatment in war.
The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on 9 December 1948 as General Assembly Resolution 260.
The geography of Iraq is diverse and falls into five main regions: 1.
George Islay MacNeill Robertson, Baron Robertson of Port Ellen, (born 12 April 1946) is a British Labour Party politician who was the tenth Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation from 1999 to 2004; he succeeded Javier Solana in that position.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
A grenade is a small weapon typically thrown by hand.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
Hugh McManners is a musician and a writer: a guitarist and songwriter, an author, and a campaigner for medical research to help war veterans.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
In anthropology and demography, the human sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
An immunotoxin is a man-made protein that consists of a targeting portion linked to a toxin.
Incendiary weapons, incendiary devices or incendiary bombs are weapons designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using fire (and sometimes used as anti-personnel weaponry), that use materials such as napalm, thermite, magnesium powder, chlorine trifluoride, or white phosphorus.
Industrial radiography is a method of non-destructive testing where many types of manufactured components can be examined to verify the internal structure and integrity of the specimen.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Ingestion is the consumption of a substance by an organism.
Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when oxygen from the air enters the lungs.
The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is an international organization that seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy, and to inhibit its use for any military purpose, including nuclear weapons.
The International Coalition to Ban Uranium Weapons (ICBUW) is a global coalition of 160 groups in 33 countries.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
International Court of Justice advisory opinion on the Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons
Legality of the Threat or Use of Nuclear Weapons is a landmark international law case, where the International Court of Justice gave an advisory opinion stating that there is no source of law, customary or treaty, that explicitly prohibits the possession or even use of nuclear weapons.
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).
The International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by MDPI.
The International Journal of Epidemiology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal covering research in epidemiology.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Iridium is a chemical element with symbol Ir and atomic number 77.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes.
Protactinium (91Pa) has no stable isotopes.
Although thorium (90Th) has 6 naturally occurring isotopes, none of these isotopes are stable; however, one isotope, 232Th, is relatively stable, with a half-life of 1.405×1010 years, considerably longer than the age of the Earth, and even slightly longer than the generally accepted age of the universe.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Jalālābād, or Dzalalabad, formerly called Ādīnapūr as documented by the 7th-century Xuanzang, is a city in eastern Afghanistan.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd.
The Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health is a peer-reviewed public health journal that covers all aspects of epidemiology and public health.
Journal of Radiological Protection is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering radiobiological research on all aspects of radiological protection, including non-ionizing as well as ionizing radiations.
The Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine is an open peer-reviewed medical journal.
On boats and ships, the keel is either of two parts: a structural element that sometimes resembles a fin and protrudes below a boat along the central line, or a hydrodynamic element.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.
A kinetic energy penetrator (KEP, KE weapon, long-rod penetrator or LRP) is a type of ammunition designed to penetrate vehicle armour.
The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) in Daejeon, South Korea was established in 1959 as the sole professional research-oriented institute for nuclear power in South Korea, and has rapidly built a reputation for research and development in various fields.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
The Latin American Parliament (Parlatino) is a regional, permanent organization composed by the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.
The LAV-25 (Light Armored Vehicle) is an eight-wheeled amphibious armored reconnaissance vehicle used by the United States Marine Corps and Canadian Army.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
A literature review or narrative review is one of the two main types of review articles, the other being the systematic review.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Louise Arbour, (born February 10, 1947) is a Canadian lawyer, prosecutor and jurist.
Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).
Lynn R. Goldman (born April 24, 1951) is the Dean of the Milken Institute School of Public Health at George Washington University.
The M1 Abrams is an American third-generation main battle tank named for General Creighton Abrams.
The M197 electric cannon is a three-barreled electric Gatling-type rotary cannon used by the United States military.
The M2 Bradley, or Bradley IFV, is an American infantry fighting vehicle that is a member of the Bradley Fighting Vehicle family.
The M242 Bushmaster is a 25 mm (25×137mm) chain-driven autocannon.
The M61 Vulcan is a hydraulically or pneumatically driven, six-barrel, air-cooled, electrically fired Gatling-style rotary cannon which fires 20 mm rounds at an extremely high rate (typically 6,000 rounds per minute).
The mass number (symbol A, from the German word Atomgewichte (atomic weight), also called atomic mass number or nucleon number, is the total number of protons and neutrons (together known as nucleons) in an atomic nucleus. It determines the atomic mass of atoms. Because protons and neutrons both are baryons, the mass number A is identical with the baryon number B as of the nucleus as of the whole atom or ion. The mass number is different for each different isotope of a chemical element. This is not the same as the atomic number (Z) which denotes the number of protons in a nucleus, and thus uniquely identifies an element. Hence, the difference between the mass number and the atomic number gives the number of neutrons (N) in a given nucleus:. The mass number is written either after the element name or as a superscript to the left of an element's symbol. For example, the most common isotope of carbon is carbon-12, or, which has 6 protons and 6 neutrons. The full isotope symbol would also have the atomic number (Z) as a subscript to the left of the element symbol directly below the mass number:. This is technically redundant, as each element is defined by its atomic number, so it is often omitted.
Materiel, more commonly matériel in US English and also listed as the only spelling in some UK dictionaries (both pronounced, from French matériel meaning equipment or hardware), refers to military technology and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management.
McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturing corporation and defense contractor formed by the merger of McDonnell Aircraft and the Douglas Aircraft Company in 1967.
The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) AV-8B Harrier II is a single-engine ground-attack aircraft that constitutes the second generation of the Harrier Jump Jet family.
Medact is a non-profit organisation and registered charity for and of health professionals.
Medicine, Conflict and Survival is a scholarly publication covering the health aspects of violence and human rights.
MEDLINE (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online, or MEDLARS Online) is a bibliographic database of life sciences and biomedical information.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Metal toxicity or metal poisoning is the toxic effect of certain metals in certain forms and doses on life.
In the metric system, a microgram or microgramme (μg; the recommended symbol in the United States when communicating medical information is mcg) is a unit of mass equal to one millionth of a gram.
The Ministry of Defence (MoD or MOD) is the British government department responsible for implementing the defence policy set by Her Majesty's Government and is the headquarters of the British Armed Forces.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
A moratorium is a delay or suspension of an activity or a law.
The Multi-National Force – Iraq (MNF–I), often referred to as the coalition forces, was a military command during the 2003 invasion of Iraq and much of the ensuing Iraq War, led by the United States of America (Operation Iraqi Freedom), United Kingdom (Operation TELIC), Australia, Spain and Poland, responsible for conducting and handling military operations.
The National Academy of Medicine (NAM), formerly called the Institute of Medicine (IoM), is an American nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia was the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation's (NATO) military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) during the Kosovo War.
Natural uranium (NU, Unat) refers to uranium with the same isotopic ratio as found in nature.
Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.
Neptunium is a chemical element with symbol Np and atomic number 93.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
Neurotoxicology and Teratology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering research on the toxicological effects of chemical and physical agents on the nervous system.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, nuclear fission is either a nuclear reaction or a radioactive decay process in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts (lighter nuclei).
Nuclear marine propulsion is propulsion of a ship or submarine with heat provided by a nuclear power plant.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is an independent agency of the United States government tasked with protecting public health and safety related to nuclear energy.
Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from spent nuclear fuel.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Oak Ridge is a city in Anderson and Roane counties in the eastern part of the U.S. state of Tennessee, about west of Knoxville.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
Operation Anaconda took place in early March 2002.
Operation Tidal Wave II is a US-led coalition military operation commenced on or about 21 October 2015 against oil transport, refining and distribution facilities and infrastructure under the control of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
Osmium (from Greek ὀσμή osme, "smell") is a chemical element with symbol Os and atomic number 76.
Paducah is a home rule-class city in and the county seat of McCracken County, Kentucky, United States.
Pekka Olavi Haavisto (born 23 March 1958 in Helsinki) is a Finnish politician and minister representing the Green League.
The Pen Duick yachts are ocean racing yachts from the 1960s and 1970s.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
The Phalanx CIWS (pronounced "sea-whiz") is a close-in weapon system for defense against antiship missiles, helicopters, etc.
Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Plutonium is a radioactive chemical element with symbol Pu and atomic number 94.
In biology, poisons are substances that cause disturbances in organisms, usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when an organism absorbs a sufficient quantity.
Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.
Portsmouth is a city in and the county seat of Scioto County, Ohio, United States.
A pressurized heavy-water reactor (PHWR) is a nuclear reactor, commonly using natural uranium as its fuel, that uses heavy water (deuterium oxide D2O) as its coolant and neutron moderator.
A projectile is any object thrown into space (empty or not) by the exertion of a force.
Proteinuria is the presence of excess proteins in the urine.
Protocol I is a 1977 amendment protocol to the Geneva Conventions relating to the protection of victims of international conflicts, where "armed conflicts in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination, alien occupation or racist regimes" are to be considered international conflicts.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
Rats are various medium-sized, long-tailed rodents in the superfamily Muroidea.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
Rhabdomyosarcoma, or RMS, is an aggressive and highly malignant form of cancer that develops from skeletal (striated) muscle cells that have failed to fully differentiate.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
The Royal Army Medical Corps (RAMC) is a specialist corps in the British Army which provides medical services to all Army personnel and their families, in war and in peace.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
A sabot is a structural device used in firearm or cannon ammunition to keep a sub-caliber flight projectile, such as a relatively small bullet or arrow-type projectile, in the center of the barrel when fired, if the bullet has a significantly smaller diameter than the bore diameter of the weapon used.
Ballast is used in sailboats to provide moment to resist the lateral forces on the sail.
The Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), managed and operated by the National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia (a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International), is one of three National Nuclear Security Administration research and development laboratories.
The Secretary General of NATO (Secrétaire général de l'OTAN) is an international diplomat who serves as the chief civil servant of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Shock and awe (technically known as rapid dominance) is a tactic based on the use of overwhelming power and spectacular displays of force to paralyze the enemy's perception of the battlefield and destroy its will to fight.
Sir Simon Charles Wessely (born 23 December 1956) is a British psychiatrist.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa) was established as a public company by the Republic of South Africa Nuclear Energy Act in 1999 and is wholly owned by the State.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spallation is a process in which fragments of material (spall) are ejected from a body due to impact or stress.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Staballoy is the name of two different classes of metal alloys, one class typically used for munitions and a different class developed for drilling rods.
Staining is an auxiliary technique used in microscopy to enhance contrast in the microscopic image.
Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.
The Sub-Commission on the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights (before 1999, known as the Sub-Commission on Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities) was a think tank of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
The T-62 is a Soviet main battle tank that was first introduced 1961.
The T-64 is a Soviet second-generation main battle tank introduced in the early 1960s.
The T-72 is a Soviet second-generation main battle tank that entered production in 1971.
The T-80 is a third-generation main battle tank (MBT) designed and manufactured in the Soviet Union.
The T-90 is a third-generation Russian battle tank that entered service in 1993.
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Terminal ballistics (also known as wound ballistics), a sub-field of ballistics, is the study of the behavior and effects of a projectile when it hits and transfers its energy to a target.
The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
Tissue culture is the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
The transuranium elements (also known as transuranic elements) are the chemical elements with atomic numbers greater than 92 (the atomic number of uranium).
A traveling-wave reactor (TWR) is a type of nuclear fission reactor that can convert fertile material into usable fuel through nuclear transmutation, in tandem with the burnup of fissile material.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) of 1945 is the foundational treaty of the United Nations, an intergovernmental organization.
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.
The Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (commonly known as the United Nations Convention against Torture (UNCAT)) is an international human rights treaty, under the review of the United Nations, that aims to prevent torture and other acts of cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment around the world.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a cabinet-level department of the United States Government concerned with the United States' policies regarding energy and safety in handling nuclear material.
The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
The University of Siena (Università degli Studi di Siena, abbreviation: UNISI) in Siena, Tuscany is one of the oldest and first publicly funded universities in Italy.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Uranium dioxide or uranium(IV) oxide (2), also known as urania or uranous oxide, is an oxide of uranium, and is a black, radioactive, crystalline powder that naturally occurs in the mineral uraninite.
Uranium glass is glass which has had uranium, usually in oxide diuranate form, added to a glass mix before melting for coloration.
Uranium hexafluoride, referred to as "hex" in the nuclear industry, is a compound used in the uranium enrichment process that produces fuel for nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
Uranium oxide is an oxide of the element uranium.
Uranium trioxide (UO3), also called uranyl oxide, uranium(VI) oxide, and uranic oxide, is the hexavalent oxide of uranium.
Uranium-234 is an isotope of uranium.
Uranium-235 (235U) is an isotope of uranium making up about 0.72% of natural uranium.
Uranium-236 is an isotope of uranium that is neither fissile with thermal neutrons, nor very good fertile material, but is generally considered a nuisance and long-lived radioactive waste.
Uranium-238 (238U or U-238) is the most common isotope of uranium found in nature, with a relative abundance of 99%.
The uranyl ion is an oxycation of uranium in the oxidation state +6, with the chemical formula.
Uranyl acetate (UO2(CH3COO)2·2H2O) is the acetate salt of uranyl and is a yellow-green crystalline solid made up of yellow-green rhombic crystals and has a slight acetic odor.
Uranyl fluoride (UO2F2), a compound of uranium, is an intermediate in the conversion of uranium hexafluoride UF6 to an uranium oxide or metal form and is a direct product of the reaction of UF6 with moisture in the air.
The Urenco Group is a nuclear fuel company operating several uranium enrichment plants in Germany, the Netherlands, United States, and United Kingdom.
Military vehicles are commonly armoured (or armored; see spelling differences) to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets, missiles or shells, protecting the personnel inside from enemy fire.
Vitreous enamel, also called porcelain enamel, is a material made by fusing powdered glass to a substrate by firing, usually between.
The Volvo Ocean Race (formerly the Whitbread Round the World Race) is a yacht race around the world, held every three years.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Bernard Yeung Kam John Yeung Sik Yuen GOSK (born 1 January 1947) was the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of Mauritius.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
The 30 mm caliber is a specific size of autocannon ammunition.
DOT-E 9649, Depeleted uranium, Depletalloy, Depleted Uranium, Depleted uranim shells, Depleted uranium (Health and environmental issues), Depleted uranium ammunition, Depleted uranium bomb, Depleted uranium shells, Depleted uranium/Alternate, Depleted uranium/Staging, Depleted uranium/Temp, Depleted uranium/basic, Health and enviromental effects of depleted uranium, Health and environmental effects of depleted uranium, Incendiary projectile weapons, Magnox Depleted Uranium, Q metal, Q-metal, Spent uranium.