75 relations: Airy disk, Angle of view, Angular resolution, Aperture, Autofocus, Bokeh, Camera angle, Canon EOS, Cardinal point (optics), Chemical-mechanical planarization, Cinematography, Circle of confusion, CombineZ, Deconvolution, Deep focus, Defocus aberration, Demosaicing, Depth of focus, Depth-of-field adapter, Diffraction, Digital image processing, Digital single-lens reflex camera, Entrance pupil, Exit pupil, F-number, Film format, Film plane, Focal length, Focus (optics), Focus stacking, Frazier lens, Gaussian optics, Harmonic mean, Helicon Focus, Horror film, Hyperfocal distance, Illuminance, Image sensor format, Integrated circuit, Light field, Light-field camera, Macro photography, Magnification, Melodrama, Micrometre, Miniature faking, Miosis, Moritz von Rohr, Motion blur, Noise reduction, ..., Numerical aperture, Optical aberration, Optical axis, Optical transfer function, Optics, Paraxial approximation, Perspective distortion (photography), Photolithography, Portrait, Pupil magnification, Rayleigh length, Scheimpflug principle, Semiconductor, Shallow focus, Smartphone, Spherical aberration, Tessina, Thin lens, Tilted plane focus, Unsharp masking, View camera, Wafer (electronics), Wavefront coding, 16 mm film, 35 mm film. Expand index (25 more) » « Shrink index
In optics, the Airy disk (or Airy disc) and Airy pattern are descriptions of the best focused spot of light that a perfect lens with a circular aperture can make, limited by the diffraction of light.
In photography, angle of view (AOV) describes the angular extent of a given scene that is imaged by a camera.
Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.
In optics, an aperture is a hole or an opening through which light travels.
An autofocus (or AF) optical system uses a sensor, a control system and a motor to focus on an automatically or manually selected point or area.
In photography, bokeh (— also sometimes pronounced as) is the aesthetic quality of the blur produced in the out-of-focus parts of an image produced by a lens.
The camera angle marks the specific location at which the movie camera or video camera is placed to take a shot.
Canon EOS (Electro-Optical System) is an autofocus single-lens reflex camera (SLR) camera series produced by Canon Inc..
In Gaussian optics, the cardinal points consist of three pairs of points located on the optical axis of a rotationally symmetric, focal, optical system.
Chemical mechanical polishing/planarization is a process of smoothing surfaces with the combination of chemical and mechanical forces.
Cinematography (also called Direction of Photography) is the science or art of motion-picture photography by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as film stock.
In optics, a circle of confusion is an optical spot caused by a cone of light rays from a lens not coming to a perfect focus when imaging a point source.
CombineZ is Free software image processing software package for creating extended depth of field images.
In mathematics, deconvolution is an algorithm-based process used to reverse the effects of convolution on recorded data.
Deep focus is a photographic and cinematographic technique using a large depth of field.
In optics, defocus is the aberration in which an image is simply out of focus.
A demosaicing (also de-mosaicing, demosaicking or debayering) algorithm is a digital image process used to reconstruct a full color image from the incomplete color samples output from an image sensor overlaid with a color filter array (CFA).
Depth of focus is a lens optics concept that measures the tolerance of placement of the image plane (the film plane in a camera) in relation to the lens.
A depth-of-field adapter (often shortened to DOF adapter) is used to achieve shallow depth of field on a video camera whose fixed lens or interchangeable lens selection is limited or economically prohibitive at providing such effect.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
In computer science, Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.
A digital single-lens reflex camera (also called digital SLR or DSLR) is a digital camera that combines the optics and the mechanisms of a single-lens reflex camera with a digital imaging sensor, as opposed to photographic film.
In an optical system, the entrance pupil is the optical image of the physical aperture stop, as 'seen' through the front of the lens system.
In optics, the exit pupil is a virtual aperture in an optical system.
The f-number of an optical system (such as a camera lens) is the ratio of the system's focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil.
A film format is a technical definition of a set of standard characteristics regarding image capture on photographic film, for either stills or filmmaking.
A film plane is the area inside any camera or image taking device with a lens and film or digital sensor upon which the lens creates the focused image.
The focal length of an optical system is a measure of how strongly the system converges or diverges light.
In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge.
Focus stacking (also known as focal plane merging and z-stacking or focus blending) is a digital image processing technique which combines multiple images taken at different focus distances to give a resulting image with a greater depth of field (DOF) than any of the individual source images.
The Frazier lens is a special camera lens designed by Australian photographer Jim Frazier.
Gaussian optics is a technique in geometrical optics that describes the behaviour of light rays in optical systems by using the paraxial approximation, in which only rays which make small angles with the optical axis of the system are considered.
In mathematics, the harmonic mean (sometimes called the subcontrary mean) is one of several kinds of average, and in particular one of the Pythagorean means.
Helicon Focus is a proprietary commercial digital image processing tool, first released in 2003, developed and published by Helicon Soft Limited.
A horror film is a film that seeks to elicit a physiological reaction, such as an elevated heartbeat, through the use of fear and shocking one’s audiences.
In optics and photography, hyperfocal distance is a distance beyond which all objects can be brought into an "acceptable" focus.
In photometry, illuminance is the total luminous flux incident on a surface, per unit area.
Note: If you came here to get a quick understanding of numbers like 1/2.3, skip ahead to table of sensor formats and sizes.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
The light field is a vector function that describes the amount of light flowing in every direction through every point in space.
A light field camera, also known as plenoptic camera, captures information about the light field emanating from a scene; that is, the intensity of light in a scene, and also the direction that the light rays are traveling in space.
Macro photography (or photomacrography or macrography, and sometimes macrophotography), is extreme close-up photography, usually of very small subjects and living organisms like insects, in which the size of the subject in the photograph is greater than life size (though macrophotography technically refers to the art of making very large photographs).
Magnification is the process of enlarging the appearance, not physical size, of something.
A melodrama is a dramatic work in which the plot, which is typically sensational and designed to appeal strongly to the emotions, takes precedence over detailed characterization.
The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".
Miniature faking, also known as diorama effect or diorama illusion, is a process in which a photograph of a life-size location or object is made to look like a photograph of a miniature scale model.
Miosis is excessive constriction of the pupil.
Moritz von Rohr (4 April 1868 – 20 June 1940) was an optical scientist at Carl Zeiss in Jena, Germany.
Motion blur is the apparent streaking of moving objects in a photograph or a sequence of frames, such as a film or animation.
Noise reduction is the process of removing noise from a signal.
In optics, the numerical aperture (NA) of an optical system is a dimensionless number that characterizes the range of angles over which the system can accept or emit light.
Aberration in optics refers to a defect in a lens such that light is not focused to a point, but is spread out over some region of space, and hence an image formed by a lens with aberration is blurred or distorted, with the nature of the distortion depending on the type of aberration.
An optical axis is a line along which there is some degree of rotational symmetry in an optical system such as a camera lens or microscope.
The optical transfer function (OTF) of an optical system such as a camera, microscope, human eye, or projector specifies how different spatial frequencies are handled by the system.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
In geometric optics, the paraxial approximation is a small-angle approximation used in Gaussian optics and ray tracing of light through an optical system (such as a lens).
In photography and cinematography, perspective distortion is a warping or transformation of an object and its surrounding area that differs significantly from what the object would look like with a normal focal length, due to the relative scale of nearby and distant features.
Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate.
A portrait is a painting, photograph, sculpture, or other artistic representation of a person, in which the face and its expression is predominant.
The pupil magnification of an optical system is the ratio of the diameter of the exit pupil to the diameter of the entrance pupil.
In optics and especially laser science, the Rayleigh length or Rayleigh range is the distance along the propagation direction of a beam from the waist to the place where the area of the cross section is doubled.
The Scheimpflug principle is a geometric rule that describes the orientation of the plane of focus of an optical system (such as a camera) when the lens plane is not parallel to the image plane.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
Shallow focus is a photographic and cinematographic technique incorporating a small depth of field.
A smartphone is a handheld personal computer with a mobile operating system and an integrated mobile broadband cellular network connection for voice, SMS, and Internet data communication; most, if not all, smartphones also support Wi-Fi.
Spherical aberration is an optical effect observed in an optical device (lens, mirror, etc.) that occurs due to the increased refraction of light rays when they strike a lens or a reflection of light rays when they strike a mirror near its edge, in comparison with those that strike close to the centre.
The Tessina (officially created by Arnold Siegrist) is a high-quality 35 mm camera patented by Austrian chemical engineer Dr.
In optics, a thin lens is a lens with a thickness (distance along the optical axis between the two surfaces of the lens) that is negligible compared to the radii of curvature of the lens surfaces.
"Tilted plane photography" is a method of employing focus as a descriptive, narrative or symbolic artistic device.
Unsharp masking (USM) is an image sharpening technique, often available in digital image processing software.
A view camera is a large format camera in which the lens forms an inverted image on a ground glass screen directly at the plane of the film.
A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells.
In optics and signal processing, wavefront coding refers to the use of a phase modulating element in conjunction with deconvolution to extend the depth of field of a digital imaging system such as a video camera.
16 mm film is a historically popular and economical gauge of film.
35 mm film (millimeter) is the film gauge most commonly used for motion pictures and chemical still photography (see 135 film).