213 relations: Accrual, Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses, Amaranth Advisors, American International Group, Arbitrage, Aristotle, Asset, Asset-backed security, Bank for International Settlements, Barings Bank, Basis swap, Basket (finance), Berkshire Hathaway, Bilateral netting, Binary option, Binomial options pricing model, Black–Scholes model, Blythe Masters, Bond (finance), Bond option, Bucket shop (stock market), Call option, Capital gains tax, Cash flow, CDO-Squared, Cengage, Chicago Board of Trade, Chicago Board Options Exchange, Chicago Mercantile Exchange, Clearing house (finance), CME Group, Collateral (finance), Collateralized debt obligation, Collateralized mortgage obligation, Commercial mortgage-backed security, Commodity, Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000, Commodity Futures Trading Commission, Commodity swap, Congressional Budget Office, Contract, Counterparty, Coupon (bond), Credit default option, Credit default swap, Credit derivative, Credit event, Credit rating agency, Credit risk, Credit-linked note, ..., Currency future, Currency swap, Dōjima Rice Exchange, Debt, Default (finance), Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation, Derivative (finance), Derivatives market, Discounting, Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, Dow Jones Industrial Average, Equity derivative, Equity swap, Eurex Exchange, European Market Infrastructure Regulation, Event of default, Exchange (organized market), Exchange rate, Exchange-traded derivative contract, Exotic derivative, Exotic option, Expected value, Expiration (options), Face value, Fannie Mae, Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Federal Reserve System, Finance, Financial crisis of 2007–2008, Financial engineering, Financial instrument, Financial risk management, Financial Stability Board, Financial Times, Floating interest rate, Foreign exchange derivative, Foreign exchange option, Forward contract, Forward exchange rate, Forward price, Forward rate agreement, Frank Partnoy, Freddie Mac, Futures contract, Futures exchange, Gary Gensler, Government-sponsored enterprise, Great Hanshin earthquake, Hedge (finance), Hedge fund, IBM, Index fund, Inflation derivative, Insurable interest, Insurance, Intercontinental Exchange, Interest rate, Interest rate cap and floor, Interest rate derivative, Interest rate risk, Interest rate swap, International Monetary Fund, International Organization of Securities Commissions, International Swaps and Derivatives Association, Intrinsic value (finance), Investment banking, Investopedia, Investor, J.P. Morgan & Co., Joe Nocera, Journal of Political Economy, Korea Exchange, KOSPI, Level playing field, Leverage (finance), Libor, List of commodities exchanges, Long (finance), Long-Term Capital Management, Margin (finance), Mark Rubinstein, Market abuse, Market participant, Market price, Mary Schapiro, Mason, Ohio, Mathematical finance, McGraw-Hill Education, Metallgesellschaft, Miller, Minority interest, Moneyness, Mortgage loan, Mortgage-backed security, New York Mercantile Exchange, New York Stock Exchange, Nick Leeson, Notional amount, Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, Olive, Option (finance), Option style, Option time value, Over-the-counter (finance), Position (finance), Preferred stock, Principles of Corporate Finance, Profit (accounting), Property derivative, Put option, Raghuram Rajan, Rational pricing, Repurchase agreement, Residential mortgage-backed security, Retained earnings, Revocation, Risk aversion, Securitization, Security (finance), Shipping markets, Short (finance), Singapore, Single-stock futures, Société Générale, Special-purpose entity, Speculation, Spot contract, Spot date, Spot market, Stochastic process, Stock, Strike price, Structured finance, Structured note, Subordinated debt, Subprime mortgage crisis, Swap (finance), Swaption, Systemic risk, Thales of Miletus, The Economist, Tier 1 capital, Tier 2 capital, Total return swap, Trade, Tranche, Transparency (market), Turbo warrant, Underlying, United States, United States Department of Justice, United States Department of the Treasury, Valuation of options, Value date, Warrant (finance), Warren Buffett, Weather derivative, Wheat, World Bank, World Scientific, 2008 Société Générale trading loss, 2009 G20 Pittsburgh summit. Expand index (163 more) » « Shrink index
Accrual (accumulation) of something is, in finance, the adding together of interest or different investments over a period of time.
In banking, the Allowance for Loan and Lease Losses (ALLL), formerly known as the reserve for bad debts, is a calculated reserve that financial institutions establish in relation to the estimated credit risk within the institution’s assets.
Amaranth Advisors LLC was an American multi-strategy hedge fund founded by Nicholas Maounis and headquartered in Greenwich, Connecticut.
American International Group, Inc., also known as AIG, is an American multinational finance and insurance corporation with operations in more than 80 countries and jurisdictions.
In economics and finance, arbitrage is the practice of taking advantage of a price difference between two or more markets: striking a combination of matching deals that capitalize upon the imbalance, the profit being the difference between the market prices.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
In financial accounting, an asset is an economic resource.
An asset-backed security (ABS) is a security whose income payments and hence value are derived from and collateralized (or "backed") by a specified pool of underlying assets.
The Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks".
Barings Bank was a British merchant bank based in London, and the world's second oldest merchant bank (after Berenberg Bank).
A basis swap is an interest rate swap which involves the exchange of two floating rate financial instruments.
In finance, a basket is a group of several securities created for the purpose of simultaneous buying or selling.
Berkshire Hathaway Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Omaha, Nebraska, United States.
Bilateral netting is a legally enforceable arrangement between a bank and a counterparty that creates a single legal obligation covering all included individual contracts.
A binary option is a financial option in which the payoff is either some fixed monetary amount or nothing at all.
In finance, the binomial options pricing model (BOPM) provides a generalizable numerical method for the valuation of options.
The Black–Scholes or Black–Scholes–Merton model is a mathematical model for the dynamics of a financial market containing derivative investment instruments.
Blythe Masters (born 22 March 1969) is a former executive at JPMorgan Chase.
In finance, a bond is an instrument of indebtedness of the bond issuer to the holders.
In finance, a bond option is an option to buy or sell a bond at a certain price on or before the option expiry date.
As defined by the U.S. Supreme Court, a bucket shop is "an establishment, nominally for the transaction of a stock exchange business, or business of similar character, but really for the registration of bets, or wagers, usually for small amounts, on the rise or fall of the prices of stocks, grain, oil, etc., there being no transfer or delivery of the stock or commodities nominally dealt in." A person who engages in the practice is referred to as a bucketeer and the practice is sometimes referred to as bucketeering.
A call option, often simply labeled a "call", is a financial contract between two parties, the buyer and the seller of this type of option.
A capital gains tax (CGT) is a tax on capital gains, the profit realized on the sale of a non-inventory asset that was greater than the amount realized on the sale.
A cash flow describes a real or virtual movement of money.
CDO-Squared is a collateralized debt obligations backed primarily by the tranches issued by other CDOs.
Cengage is an educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets worldwide.
The Chicago Board of Trade (CBOT), established on April 3, 1848, is one of the world's oldest futures and options exchanges.
The Chicago Board Options Exchange, located at 400 South LaSalle Street in Chicago, is the largest U.S. options exchange with annual trading volume that hovered around 1.27 billion contracts at the end of 2014.
The Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) (often called "the Chicago Merc", or "the Merc") is an American financial and commodity derivative exchange based in Chicago and located at 20 S. Wacker Drive.
A clearing house is a financial institution formed to facilitate the exchange (i.e., clearance) of payments, securities, or derivatives transactions.
CME Group Inc. (Chicago Mercantile Exchange & Chicago Board of Trade) is an American financial market company operating an options and futures exchange.
In lending agreements, collateral is a borrower's pledge of specific property to a lender, to secure repayment of a loan.
A collateralized debt obligation (CDO) is a type of structured asset-backed security (ABS).
A collateralized mortgage obligation (CMO) is a type of complex debt security that repackages and directs the payments of principal and interest from a collateral pool to different types and maturities of securities, thereby meeting investor needs.
Commercial mortgage-backed securities (CMBS) are a type of mortgage-backed security backed by commercial mortgages rather than residential real estate.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
The Commodity Futures Modernization Act of 2000 (CFMA) is United States federal legislation that officially ensured modernized regulation of financial products known as over-the-counter derivatives.
The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC) is an independent agency of the US government created in 1974, that regulates futures and option markets.
A commodity swap is a type of swap agreement whereby a floating (or market or spot) price based on an underlying commodity is traded for a fixed price over a specified period.
The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) is a federal agency within the legislative branch of the United States government that provides budget and economic information to Congress.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
A counterparty (sometimes contraparty) is a legal entity, unincorporated entity, or collection of entities to which an exposure to financial risk might exist.
A coupon payment on a bond is the annual interest payment that the bondholder receives from the bond's issue date until it matures.
In finance, a default option, credit default swaption or credit default option is an option to buy protection (payer option) or sell protection (receiver option) as a credit default swap on a specific reference credit with a specific maturity.
A credit default swap (CDS) is a financial swap agreement that the seller of the CDS will compensate the buyer in the event of a debt default (by the debtor) or other credit event.
In finance, a credit derivative refers to any one of "various instruments and techniques designed to separate and then transfer the credit risk"The Economist Passing on the risks 2 November 1996 or the risk of an event of default of a corporate or sovereign borrower, transferring it to an entity other than the lender or debtholder.
A credit event occurs when a person or organization defaults on a significant transaction.
A credit rating agency (CRA, also called a ratings service) is a company that assigns credit ratings, which rate a debtor's ability to pay back debt by making timely interest payments and the likelihood of default.
A credit risk is the risk of default on a debt that may arise from a borrower failing to make required payments.
A credit linked note (CLN) is a form of funded credit derivative.
A currency future, also known as an FX future or a foreign exchange future, is a futures contract to exchange one currency for another at a specified date in the future at a price (exchange rate) that is fixed on the purchase date; see Foreign exchange derivative.
In finance, a currency swap (more typically termed a cross-currency swap (XCS)) is an interest rate derivative (IRD).
The Dōjima Rice Exchange (堂島米市場, Dōjima kome ichiba, 堂島米会所, Dōjima kome kaisho), located in Osaka, was the center of Japan's system of rice brokers, which developed independently and privately in the Edo period and would be seen as the forerunners to a modern banking system.
Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.
In finance, default is failure to meet the legal obligations (or conditions) of a loan, for example when a home buyer fails to make a mortgage payment, or when a corporation or government fails to pay a bond which has reached maturity.
The Depository Trust & Clearing Corporation (DTCC) is an American post-trade financial services company providing clearing and settlement services to the financial markets.
In finance, a derivative is a contract that derives its value from the performance of an underlying entity.
The derivatives market is the financial market for derivatives, financial instruments like futures contracts or options, which are derived from other forms of assets.
Discounting is a financial mechanism in which a debtor obtains the right to delay payments to a creditor, for a defined period of time, in exchange for a charge or fee.
The Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (commonly referred to as Dodd–Frank) was signed into United States federal law by US President Barack Obama on July 21, 2010.
The Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA), or simply the Dow, is a stock market index that shows how 30 large, publicly owned companies based in the United States have traded during a standard trading session in the stock market.
In finance, an equity derivative is a class of derivatives whose value is at least partly derived from one or more underlying equity securities.
An equity swap is a financial derivative contract (a swap) where a set of future cash flows are agreed to be exchanged between two counterparties at set dates in the future.
Eurex Exchange is an international exchange which primarily offers trading in European based derivatives and it is the largest European futures and options market.
The European Market Infrastructure Regulation (EMIR) is a body of European legislation for the regulation of over-the-counter derivatives.
Default is the occurrence of an event or circumstance against which a party to a contract seeks protection.
An exchange, or bourse also known as a trading exchange or trading venue, is an organized market where (especially) tradable securities, commodities, foreign exchange, futures, and options contracts are sold and bought.
In finance, an exchange rate is the rate at which one currency will be exchanged for another.
Exchange-traded derivative contracts are standardized derivative contracts such as futures and options contracts that are transacted on an organized futures exchange.
An exotic derivative, in finance, is a derivative which is more complex than commonly traded "vanilla" products.
In finance, an exotic option is an option which has features making it more complex than commonly traded vanilla options.
In probability theory, the expected value of a random variable, intuitively, is the long-run average value of repetitions of the experiment it represents.
In finance, the expiration date of an option contract is the last date on which the holder of the option may exercise it according to its terms.
The face value is the value of a coin, stamp or paper money, as printed on the coin, stamp or bill itself by the issuing authority.
The Federal National Mortgage Association (FNMA), commonly known as Fannie Mae, is a United States government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) and, since 1968, a publicly traded company.
The Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council (FFIEC) is a formal U.S. government interagency body composed of five banking regulators that is "empowered to prescribe uniform principles, standards, and report forms to promote uniformity in the supervision of financial institutions".
The Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago (informally the Chicago Fed) is one of twelve regional Reserve Banks that, along with the Board of Governors in Washington, D.C., make up the nation's central bank.
The Federal Reserve System (also known as the Federal Reserve or simply the Fed) is the central banking system of the United States of America.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
The financial crisis of 2007–2008, also known as the global financial crisis and the 2008 financial crisis, is considered by many economists to have been the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s.
Financial engineering is a multidisciplinary field involving financial theory, methods of engineering, tools of mathematics and the practice of programming.
Financial instruments are monetary contracts between parties.
Financial risk management is the practice of economic value in a firm by using financial instruments to manage exposure to risk: operational risk, credit risk and market risk, foreign exchange risk, shape risk, volatility risk, liquidity risk, inflation risk, business risk, legal risk, reputational risk, sector risk etc.
The Financial Stability Board (FSB) is an international body that monitors and makes recommendations about the global financial system.
The Financial Times (FT) is a Japanese-owned (since 2015), English-language international daily newspaper headquartered in London, with a special emphasis on business and economic news.
A floating interest rate, also known as a variable or adjustable rate, refers to any type of debt instrument, such as a loan, bond, mortgage, or credit, that does not have a fixed rate of interest over the life of the instrument.
A foreign exchange derivative is a financial derivative whose payoff depends on the foreign exchange rate(s) of two (or more) currencies.
In finance, a foreign exchange option (commonly shortened to just FX option or currency option) is a derivative financial instrument that gives the right but not the obligation to exchange money denominated in one currency into another currency at a pre-agreed exchange rate on a specified date.
In finance, a forward contract or simply a forward is a non-standardized contract between two parties to buy or to sell an asset at a specified future time at a price agreed upon today, making it a type of derivative instrument.
The forward exchange rate (also referred to as forward rate or forward price) is the exchange rate at which a bank agrees to exchange one currency for another at a future date when it enters into a forward contract with an investor.
The forward price (or sometimes forward rate) is the agreed upon price of an asset in a forward contract.
In finance, a forward rate agreement (FRA) is an interest rate derivative (IRD).
Frank Partnoy is the George E. Barrett Professor of Law and Finance and is the founding director of the Center on Corporate and Securities Law at the University of San Diego. He is one of the world’s leading experts on the complexities of modern finance and financial market regulation. He worked as a derivatives structurer at Morgan Stanley and CS First Boston during the mid-1990s and wrote, a best-selling book about his experiences there.
The Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation (FHLMC), known as Freddie Mac, is a public government-sponsored enterprise (GSE), headquartered in Tysons Corner, Virginia.
In finance, a futures contract (more colloquially, futures) is a standardized forward contract, a legal agreement to buy or sell something at a predetermined price at a specified time in the future.
A futures exchange or futures market is a central financial exchange where people can trade standardized futures contracts; that is, a contract to buy specific quantities of a commodity or financial instrument at a specified price with delivery set at a specified time in the future.
Gary Gensler (born October 18, 1957) served as the 11th chairman of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission under President Barack Obama from May 26, 2009 to January 3, 2014.
A government-sponsored enterprise (GSE) is a type of financial services corporation created by the United States Congress.
The, or Kobe earthquake, occurred on January 17, 1995 at 05:46:53 JST (January 16 at 20:46:53 UTC) in the southern part of Hyōgo Prefecture, Japan, known as Hanshin.
A hedge is an investment position intended to offset potential losses or gains that may be incurred by a companion investment.
A hedge fund is an investment fund that pools capital from accredited individuals or institutional investors and invests in a variety of assets, often with complex portfolio-construction and risk-management techniques.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
An index fund (also index tracker) is a mutual fund or exchange-traded fund (ETF) designed to follow certain preset rules so that the fund can a specified basket of underlying investments.
In finance, inflation derivative (or inflation-indexed derivatives) refers to an over-the-counter and exchange-traded derivative that is used to transfer inflation risk from one counterparty to another.
Insurable interest, It exists when an insured person derives a financial or other kind of benefit from the continuous existence, without impairment or damage, of the insured object (or in the case of a person, their continued survival).
Insurance is a means of protection from financial loss.
Intercontinental Exchange is an American company that owns exchanges for financial and commodity markets, and operates 23 regulated exchanges and marketplaces.
An interest rate is the amount of interest due per period, as a proportion of the amount lent, deposited or borrowed (called the principal sum).
An interest rate cap is a type of interest rate derivative in which the buyer receives payments at the end of each period in which the interest rate exceeds the agreed strike price.
In finance, an interest rate derivative (IRD) is a derivative whose payments are determined through calculation techniques where the underlying benchmark product is an interest rate, or set of different interest rates.
Interest rate risk is the risk that arises for bond owners from fluctuating interest rates.
In finance, an interest rate swap (IRS) is an interest rate derivative (IRD).
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Organisation of Securities Commissions (IOSCO) is an association of organisations that regulate the world’s securities and futures markets.
The International Swaps and Derivatives Association (ISDA) is a trade organization of participants in the market for over-the-counter derivatives.
In finance, intrinsic value refers to the value of a company, stock, currency or product determined through fundamental analysis without reference to its market value.
An investment bank is typically a private company that provides various finance-related and other services to individuals, corporations, and governments such as raising financial capital by underwriting or acting as the client's agent in the issuance of securities.
Investopedia is a privately owned website based in New York City that focuses on investing education and financial news.
An investor is a person that allocates capital with the expectation of a future financial return.
J.P. Morgan & Co. is a commercial and investment banking institution founded by J. P. Morgan in 1871.
Joseph "Joe" Nocera (born May 6, 1952 in Providence, Rhode Island) is an American business journalist and author.
The Journal of Political Economy is a bimonthly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the University of Chicago Press.
Korea Exchange (KRX) is the sole securities exchange operator in South Korea.
The Korea Composite Stock Price Index or KOSPI (코스피지수) is the index of all common stocks traded on the Stock Market Division—previously, Korea Stock Exchange—of the Korea Exchange.
In commerce, a level playing field is a concept about fairness, not that each player has an equal chance to succeed, but that they all play by the same set of rules.
In finance, leverage (sometimes referred to as gearing in the United Kingdom and Australia) is any technique involving the use of borrowed funds in the purchase of an asset, with the expectation that the after tax income from the asset and asset price appreciation will exceed the borrowing cost.
The London Inter-bank Offered Rate is the average of interest rates estimated by each of the leading banks in London that it would be charged were it to borrow from other banks.
A commodities exchange is an exchange where various commodities and derivatives products are traded.
In finance, a long position in a financial instrument, means the holder of the position owns a positive amount of the instrument.
Long-Term Capital Management L.P. (LTCM) was a hedge fund management firmA financial History of the United States Volume II: 1970–2001, Jerry W. Markham, Chapter 5: "Bank Consolidation", M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 2002 based in Greenwich, Connecticut that used absolute-return trading strategies combined with high financial leverage.
In finance, margin is collateral that the holder of a financial instrument has to deposit with a counterparty (most often their broker or an exchange) to cover some or all of the credit risk the holder poses for the counterparty.
Mark Edward Rubinstein is a leading financial economist and financial engineer.
Market abuse may arise in circumstances where financial market investors have been unreasonably disadvantaged, directly or indirectly, by others who.
The term market participant is another term for economic agent, an actor and more specifically a decision maker in a model of some aspect of the economy.
In economics, market price is the economic price for which a good or service is offered in the marketplace.
Mary L. Schapiro (born June 19, 1955) served as the 29th Chair of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC).
Mason is a city in southwestern Warren County, Ohio, United States, approximately from downtown Cincinnati.
Mathematical finance, also known as quantitative finance, is a field of applied mathematics, concerned with mathematical modeling of financial markets.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
Metallgesellschaft AG was formerly one of Germany's largest industrial conglomerates based in Frankfurt.
A miller is a person who operates a mill, a machine to grind a cereal crop to make flour.
In accounting, minority interest (or non-controlling interest) is the portion of a subsidiary corporation's stock that is not owned by the parent corporation.
In finance, moneyness is the relative position of the current price (or future price) of an underlying asset (e.g., a stock) with respect to the strike price of a derivative, most commonly a call option or a put option.
A mortgage loan, or simply mortgage, is used either by purchasers of real property to raise funds to buy real estate, or alternatively by existing property owners to raise funds for any purpose, while putting a lien on the property being mortgaged.
A mortgage-backed security (MBS) is a type of asset-backed security that is secured by a mortgage or collection of mortgages.
The New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) is a commodity futures exchange owned and operated by CME Group of Chicago.
The New York Stock Exchange (abbreviated as NYSE, and nicknamed "The Big Board"), is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York.
Nicholas William "Nick" Leeson (born 25 February 1967) is a former derivatives broker whose fraudulent, unauthorised speculative trading, for which he was sentenced to prison, caused the spectacular collapse of Barings Bank, the United Kingdom's oldest merchant bank.
The notional amount (or notional principal amount or notional value) on a financial instrument is the nominal or face amount that is used to calculate payments made on that instrument.
The Office of the Comptroller of the Currency (OCC) is an independent bureau within the United States Department of the Treasury that was established by the National Currency Act of 1863 and serves to charter, regulate, and supervise all national banks and thrift institutions and the federal branches and agencies of foreign banks in the United States.
The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
In finance, an option is a contract which gives the buyer (the owner or holder of the option) the right, but not the obligation, to buy or sell an underlying asset or instrument at a specified strike price on a specified date, depending on the form of the option.
In finance, the style or family of an option is the class into which the option falls, usually defined by the dates on which the option may be exercised.
In finance, the time value (TV) (extrinsic or instrumental value) of an option is the premium a rational investor would pay over its current exercise value (intrinsic value), based on the probability it will increase in value before expiry.
Over-the-counter (OTC) or off-exchange trading is done directly between two parties, without the supervision of an exchange.
In finance, a position is the amount of a particular security, commodity or currency held or owned by a person or entity.
Preferred stock (also called preferred shares, preference shares or simply preferreds) is a type of stock which may have any combination of features not possessed by common stock including properties of both an equity and a debt instrument, and is generally considered a hybrid instrument.
Principles of Corporate Finance is a reference work on the corporate finance theory edited by Richard Brealey, Stewart Myers, and Franklin Allen.
Profit, in accounting, is an income distributed to the owner in a profitable market production process (business).
A property derivative is a financial derivative whose value is derived from the value of an underlying real estate asset.
In finance, a put or put option is a stock market device which gives the owner of a put the right, but not the obligation, to sell an asset (the underlying), at a specified price (the strike), by a predetermined date (the expiry or maturity) to a given party (the seller of the put).
Raghuram Govind Rajan (born 3 February 1963) is an Indian economist and an international academic who is the Katherine Dusak Miller Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
Rational pricing is the assumption in financial economics that asset prices (and hence asset pricing models) will reflect the arbitrage-free price of the asset as any deviation from this price will be "arbitraged away".
A repurchase agreement, also known as a repo, RP, or sale and repurchase agreement, is a transaction concluded on a deal date tD between two parties A and B: If positive interest rates are assumed, the repurchase price PF can be expected to be greater than the original sale price PN.
A residential mortgage-backed security (RMBS) is a reference to the general package of financial agreements that typically represents cash yields that are paid to investors and that are supported by cash payments received from homeowners who pay interest and principal according to terms agreed to with their lenders; it is a funding instrument created by the "originator" or "sponsor" of the mortgage loan; without cross-collateralizing individual loans and mortgages (because it would be impossible to receive permission from individual homeowners), it is a funding instrument that pools the cash flow received from individuals and pays these cash receipts out with waterfall priorities that enable investors to become comfortable with the certainty of receipt of cash at any point in time.
The retained earnings of a corporation is the accumulated net income of the corporation that is retained by the corporation at a particular point of time, such as at the end of the reporting period.
Revocation is the act of recall or annulment.
In economics and finance, risk aversion is the behavior of humans (especially consumers and investors), when exposed to uncertainty, in attempting to lower that uncertainty.
Securitization is the financial practice of pooling various types of contractual debt such as residential mortgages, commercial mortgages, auto loans or credit card debt obligations (or other non-debt assets which generate receivables) and selling their related cash flows to third party investors as securities, which may be described as bonds, pass-through securities, or collateralized debt obligations (CDOs).
A security is a tradable financial asset.
The international shipping industry can be divided into four closely related shipping markets, each trading in a different commodity: the freight market, the sale and purchase market, the newbuilding market and the demolition market.
In finance, a short sale (also known as a short, shorting, or going short) is the sale of an asset (securities or other financial instrument) that the seller does not own.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
In finance, a single-stock future (SSF) is a type of futures contract between two parties to exchange a specified number of stocks in a company for a price agreed today (the futures price or the strike price) with delivery occurring at a specified future date, the delivery date.
Société Générale S.A. (often nicknamed "SocGen" (pronounced "so jenn") in the international financial world) is a French multinational banking and financial services company headquartered in Paris.
A special-purpose entity (SPE; or, in Europe and India, special-purpose vehicle/SPV, or, in some cases in each EU jurisdiction – FVC, financial vehicle corporation) is a legal entity (usually a limited company of some type or, sometimes, a limited partnership) created to fulfill narrow, specific or temporary objectives.
Speculation is the purchase of an asset (a commodity, goods, or real estate) with the hope that it will become more valuable at a future date.
In finance, a spot contract, spot transaction, or simply spot, is a contract of buying or selling a commodity, security or currency for immediate settlement (payment and delivery) on the spot date, which is normally two business days after the trade date.
In finance, the spot date of a transaction is the normal settlement day when the transaction is carried out as soon as practical, i.e. "on the spot".
The spot market or cash market is a public financial market in which financial instruments or commodities are traded for immediate delivery.
--> In probability theory and related fields, a stochastic or random process is a mathematical object usually defined as a collection of random variables.
The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation is constituted of the equity stock of its owners.
In finance, the strike price (or exercise price) of an option is the fixed price at which the owner of the option can buy (in the case of a call), or sell (in the case of a put), the underlying security or commodity.
Structured finance is a sector of finance, specifically Financial law that manages leverage and risk.
A structured note is an over the counter derivative with hybrid security features which combine payoffs from multiple ordinary securities, typically a stock or bond plus a derivative.
In finance, subordinated debt (also known as subordinated loan, subordinated bond, subordinated debenture or junior debt) is debt which ranks after other debts if a company falls into liquidation or bankruptcy.
The United States subprime mortgage crisis was a nationwide banking emergency, occurring between 2007 and 2010, that contributed to the U.S. recession of December 2007 – June 2009.
A swap is a derivative contract where two parties exchange financial instruments.
A swaption is an option granting its owner the right but not the obligation to enter into an underlying swap.
In finance, systemic risk is the risk of collapse of an entire financial system or entire market, as opposed to risk associated with any one individual entity, group or component of a system, that can be contained therein without harming the entire system.
Thales of Miletus (Θαλῆς (ὁ Μιλήσιος), Thalēs; 624 – c. 546 BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, mathematician, and astronomer from Miletus in Asia Minor (present-day Milet in Turkey).
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
Tier 1 capital is the core measure of a bank's financial strength from a regulator's point of view.
Tier 2 capital, or supplementary capital, includes a number of important and legitimate constituents of a bank's capital requirement.
Total return swap, or TRS (especially in Europe), or total rate of return swap, or TRORS, or Cash Settled Equity Swap is a financial contract that transfers both the credit risk and market risk of an underlying asset.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
In structured finance, a tranche is one of a number of related securities offered as part of the same transaction.
In economics, a market is transparent if much is known by many about: What products and services or capital assets are available, market depth (quantity available), what price, and where.
Turbo warrant is a kind of stock option.
In finance, the underlying of a derivative is an asset, basket of assets, index, or even another derivative, such that the cash flows of the (former) derivative depend on the value of this underlying.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The Department of the Treasury (USDT) is an executive department and the treasury of the United States federal government.
In finance, a price (premium) is paid or received for purchasing or selling options.
Value date, in finance, is the date when the value of an asset that fluctuates in price is determined.
In finance, a warrant is a security that entitles the holder to buy the underlying stock of the issuing company at a fixed price called exercise price until the expiry date.
Warren Edward Buffett (born August 30, 1930) is an American business magnate, investor, and philanthropist who serves as the chairman and CEO of Berkshire Hathaway.
Weather derivatives are financial instruments that can be used by organizations or individuals as part of a risk management strategy to reduce risk associated with adverse or unexpected weather conditions.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.
In January 2008, the bank Société Générale lost approximately €4.9 billion closing out positions over three days of trading beginning January 21, 2008, a period in which the market was experiencing a large drop in equity indices.
The 2009 G20 Pittsburgh Summit was the third meeting of the G20 heads of state/heads of government to discuss financial markets and the world economy.
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