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# Descriptive statistics

A descriptive statistic (in the count noun sense) is a summary statistic that quantitatively describes or summarizes features of a collection of information, while descriptive statistics in the mass noun sense is the process of using and analyzing those statistics. 

## Average

In colloquial language, an average is a middle or typical number of a list of numbers.

Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.

## Box plot

In descriptive statistics, a box plot or boxplot is a method for graphically depicting groups of numerical data through their quartiles.

## Central tendency

In statistics, a central tendency (or measure of central tendency) is a central or typical value for a probability distribution.

## Comorbidity

In medicine, comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional diseases or disorders co-occurring with (that is, concomitant or concurrent with) a primary disease or disorder; in the countable sense of the term, a comorbidity (plural comorbidities) is each additional disorder or disease.

## Conditional probability distribution

In probability theory and statistics, given two jointly distributed random variables X and Y, the conditional probability distribution of Y given X is the probability distribution of Y when X is known to be a particular value; in some cases the conditional probabilities may be expressed as functions containing the unspecified value x of X as a parameter.

## Correlation and dependence

In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.

## Count noun

In linguistics, a count noun (also countable noun) is a noun that can be modified by a numeral and that occurs in both singular and plural forms, and that co-occurs with quantificational determiners like every, each, several, etc.

## Covariance

In probability theory and statistics, covariance is a measure of the joint variability of two random variables.

## Demography

Demography (from prefix demo- from Ancient Greek δῆμος dēmos meaning "the people", and -graphy from γράφω graphō, implies "writing, description or measurement") is the statistical study of populations, especially human beings.

## Exploratory data analysis

In statistics, exploratory data analysis (EDA) is an approach to analyzing data sets to summarize their main characteristics, often with visual methods.

## Frequency distribution

In statistics, a frequency distribution is a list, table or graph that displays the frequency of various outcomes in a sample.

Grading in education is the process of applying standardized measurements of varying levels of achievement in a course.

## Histogram

A histogram is an accurate representation of the distribution of numerical data.

## Information

Information is any entity or form that provides the answer to a question of some kind or resolves uncertainty.

## Kurtosis

In probability theory and statistics, kurtosis (from κυρτός, kyrtos or kurtos, meaning "curved, arching") is a measure of the "tailedness" of the probability distribution of a real-valued random variable.

## Mass noun

In linguistics, a mass noun, uncountable noun, or non-count noun is a noun with the syntactic property that any quantity of it is treated as an undifferentiated unit, rather than as something with discrete subsets.

## Mean

In mathematics, mean has several different definitions depending on the context.

## Median

The median is the value separating the higher half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half.

## Methods in Molecular Biology

Methods in Molecular Biology is a book series published by Humana Press that covers molecular biology research methods and protocols.

## Mode (statistics)

The mode of a set of data values is the value that appears most often.

## Nonparametric statistics

Nonparametric statistics is the branch of statistics that is not based solely on parameterized families of probability distributions (common examples of parameters are the mean and variance).

## Normal distribution

In probability theory, the normal (or Gaussian or Gauss or Laplace–Gauss) distribution is a very common continuous probability distribution.

## Pearson correlation coefficient

In statistics, the Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC, pronounced), also referred to as Pearson's r, the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (PPMCC) or the bivariate correlation, is a measure of the linear correlation between two variables X and Y. It has a value between +1 and −1, where 1 is total positive linear correlation, 0 is no linear correlation, and −1 is total negative linear correlation.

## Percentage

In mathematics, a percentage is a number or ratio expressed as a fraction of 100.

## Prediction

A prediction (Latin præ-, "before," and dicere, "to say"), or forecast, is a statement about a future event.

## Probability theory

Probability theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with probability.

## Quantitative research

In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques.

## Quartile

A quartile is a type of quantile.

## Range (statistics)

In statistics, the range of a set of data is the difference between the largest and smallest values.

## Sample (statistics)

In statistics and quantitative research methodology, a data sample is a set of data collected and/or selected from a statistical population by a defined procedure.

## Sample size determination

Sample size determination is the act of choosing the number of observations or replicates to include in a statistical sample.

## Scatter plot

A scatter plot (also called a scatterplot, scatter graph, scatter chart, scattergram, or scatter diagram) is a type of plot or mathematical diagram using Cartesian coordinates to display values for typically two variables for a set of data.

## Skewness

In probability theory and statistics, skewness is a measure of the asymmetry of the probability distribution of a real-valued random variable about its mean.

## Spearman's rank correlation coefficient

In statistics, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient or Spearman's rho, named after Charles Spearman and often denoted by the Greek letter \rho (rho) or as r_s, is a nonparametric measure of rank correlation (statistical dependence between the rankings of two variables).

## Standard deviation

In statistics, the standard deviation (SD, also represented by the Greek letter sigma σ or the Latin letter s) is a measure that is used to quantify the amount of variation or dispersion of a set of data values.

## Standard score

In statistics, the standard score is the signed number of standard deviations by which the value of an observation or data point differs from the mean value of what is being observed or measured.

## Statistical dispersion

In statistics, dispersion (also called variability, scatter, or spread) is the extent to which a distribution is stretched or squeezed.

## Statistical inference

Statistical inference is the process of using data analysis to deduce properties of an underlying probability distribution.

## Statistical population

In statistics, a population is a set of similar items or events which is of interest for some question or experiment.

## Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

## Stem-and-leaf display

A stem-and-leaf display or stem-and-leaf plot is a device for presenting quantitative data in a graphical format, similar to a histogram, to assist in visualizing the shape of a distribution.

## Summary statistics

In descriptive statistics, summary statistics are used to summarize a set of observations, in order to communicate the largest amount of information as simply as possible.

## Univariate analysis

Univariate analysis is perhaps the simplest form of statistical analysis.

## Variance

In probability theory and statistics, variance is the expectation of the squared deviation of a random variable from its mean.

## References

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