370 relations: Aboriginal Australians, Abrasive blasting, Addax, Aeolian processes, Aestivation, Afghanistan, Agadez, Alaska North Slope, Albedo, All-American Canal, Alluvial fan, Altitude, Ambush predator, Amphibian, Andes, Annual plant, Anostraca, Ant, Antarctica, Antofagasta Region, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Aquifer, Arab Revolt, Arabah, Arabian Desert, Arabian Peninsula, Arable land, Arctic, Argentina, Arid, Arid Lands Information Network, Aridification, Aridisol, Aridity index, Armoured fighting vehicle, Arroyo (creek), Arthropod, Atacama Desert, Australia, Azospirillum brasilense, Baja California, Barchan, Basal metabolic rate, Bedrock, Beetle, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Berbers, Bilma, Black Rock Desert, Bohemia, ..., Bonneville Speedway, Borate minerals, Brine shrimp, Brooks Range, C4 carbon fixation, Cactus, Camel, Camel train, Camouflage, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Canyon, Carapace, Caravan (travellers), Carbon dioxide, Carnivore, Cattle, Central Asia, Cerastes (genus), Chain reaction, Charles Montagu Doughty, Chile, Chilean Coast Range, Chlorophyll, Cobblestone, Colorado Plateau, Colorado River, Comparative physiology, Concertina, Continent, Convergent evolution, Copper, Couch's spadefoot toad, Crassulacean acid metabolism, Cream-colored courser, Crotalus cerastes, Cryptobiosis, Cuticle, Cyclorana platycephala, David Faiman, Death Valley, Denudation, Depression (geology), Desert farming, Desert greening, Desert island, Desert lark, Desert pavement, Desert rain frog, Desert varnish, Desertec, Desertification, Deserts of Australia, Dik-dik, Diurnal temperature variation, Domestic yak, Dormancy, Drip irrigation, Drought, Dry lake, Dry valley, Dune, Dust Bowl, Dust devil, Dust storm, Early Muslim conquests, Earth, Ecclesiastical Latin, Ecophysiology, Ectotherm, Edwards Air Force Base, Egypt, El Alamein, Emperor penguin, Erg (landform), Erosion, Eulimnadia texana, Euphorbia, Eurasian Steppe, Evaporation, Evaporite, Evapotranspiration, Evolutionary physiology, Exfoliation joint, Explosive material, Fat, Feces, Fertilizer, Flash flood, Fluvial, Fly, Fog, Fossil water, French language, Freya Stark, Front line, Gerbil, Germination, Gertrude Bell, Ghawar Field, Glacier, Global Environment Outlook, Goat, Gobi Desert, Gold, Grand Canyon, Grant's gazelle, Great American Desert, Great Basin Desert, Great Man-Made River, Great Salt Lake, Great Victoria Desert, Groundwater, Gypsum, Hamada, Hardpan, Heat shock protein, Hemiboreal, Herbivore, Himalayas, Hohokam, Horn of Africa, Horned lizard, Humboldt Current, Hunter-gatherer, Ice age, Ice sheet, Imperial Valley, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas, Iran, Iron, Irrigation, Israel, Italian language, Italian Libya, Ivory, Jerboa, Kalahari Desert, Kangaroo rat, Katabatic wind, Köppen climate classification, Kharga Oasis, Kingdom of Hejaz, Kunlun Mountains, Lake, Lake Bonneville, Land mine, Landscape, Laser, Laterite, Leaching (pedology), Least weasel, Lichen, List of deserts, List of deserts by area, List of North American deserts, Lizard, Llama, Locust, Mammal, Marco Polo, Marine layer, Mars, Mars Exploration Rover, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Mediterranean Sea, Megathermal, Meltwater, Mesquite, Metabolic water, Metamorphosis, Metaphor, Millipede, Mineral, Mojave Desert, Mojave Solar Park, Montane ecosystems, Mosaic, Mount Kilimanjaro, Mountain range, Muammar Gaddafi, Namibia, Negev, Nile, Nitrogen fixation, Nocturnality, Nomad, Nomadic pastoralism, Northern Mexico, Notostraca, Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System, Oasis, Ore, Orographic lift, Oryx, Ottoman Empire, Outback, Patagonian Desert, Pebble, Permafrost, Peru, Peveril Meigs, Phoenix, Arizona, Photosynthesis, Plain, Plant cuticle, Plate tectonics, Polar desert, Portuguese language, Precipitation, Predation, Pronghorn, Pumice, Pupa, Quaternary, Rail transport, Rain, Rain dust, Rain shadow, Region, Reindeer, Reproduction, Reptile, Rhizobacteria, Robert Frost, Rocky Mountains, Rogers Dry Lake, Romance languages, Saguaro, Sahara, Saharan silver ant, Sahel, Saliva, Salt, Salt lake, Saltation (geology), Saltbush, San people, Sandgrouse, Sandhills (Nebraska), Saturn, Scarification, Scorpion, Semi-arid climate, Seven Pillars of Wisdom, Sevier Lake, Sheep, Sidewinding, Sink (geography), Slavery, Snake, Sodium chloride, Sodium nitrate, Soil crust, Solar energy, Solar power, Solar power in Israel, Solar power plants in the Mojave Desert, Solar System, Sonoran Desert, South Pacific High, Space Shuttle, Spanish language, Spider, Spring (hydrology), Stenocara dentata, Steppe, Stoma, Subsistence economy, Subtropical ridge, Sun, Supply chain, Suspension (chemistry), Syria, Syrian Desert, T. E. Lawrence, Tabernas Desert, Taklamakan Desert, Tank, Taoudenni, Taproot, Tassili n'Ajjer, Temperature, Tengger Desert, Termite, Tessellation, Thar Desert, The Winter's Tale, Thorny devil, Tibetan Plateau, Timbuktu, Titan (moon), Trade route, Trans-Saharan trade, Tuareg people, Tucson, Arizona, Turkey, United Nations Environment Programme, United States Air Force, Uranium, Urine, Utah Lake, Uwe George, Wadi, Water table, Water well, Watt, Weathering, Western Australia, Western Desert Campaign, Western United States, William Shakespeare, Wind, Sand and Stars, Windward and leeward, World War I, World War II, Xerocole, Xerophyte, Yellow River, Yemen. Expand index (320 more) » « Shrink index
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
Abrasive blasting, more commonly known as sandblasting, is the operation of forcibly propelling a stream of abrasive material against a surface under high pressure to smooth a rough surface, roughen a smooth surface, shape a surface or remove surface contaminants.
The addax (Addax nasomaculatus), also known as the white antelope and the screwhorn antelope, is an antelope of the genus Addax, that lives in the Sahara desert.
Aeolian processes, also spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets).
Aestivation or æstivation (from aestas, summer, but also spelled estivation in American English) is a state of animal dormancy, similar to hibernation, characterized by inactivity and a lowered metabolic rate, that is entered in response to high temperatures and arid conditions.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agadez, formerly spelled Agades, is the largest city in central Niger, with a population of 118,244 (2012 census).
The Alaska North Slope is the region of the U.S. state of Alaska located on the northern slope of the Brooks Range along the coast of two marginal seas of the Arctic Ocean, the Chukchi Sea being on the western side of Point Barrow, and the Beaufort Sea on the eastern.
Albedo (albedo, meaning "whiteness") is the measure of the diffuse reflection of solar radiation out of the total solar radiation received by an astronomical body (e.g. a planet like Earth).
The All-American Canal is an 80-mile (130 km) long aqueduct, located in southeastern California.
An alluvial fan is a fan- or cone-shaped deposit of sediment crossed and built up by streams.
Altitude or height (sometimes known as depth) is defined based on the context in which it is used (aviation, geometry, geographical survey, sport, atmospheric pressure, and many more).
Ambush predators or sit-and-wait predators are carnivorous animals or other organisms, such as some nematophagous fungi and carnivorous plants, that capture or trap prey by stealth or by strategy (typically not conscious strategy), rather than by speed or by strength.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies.
Anostraca is one of the four orders of crustaceans in the class Branchiopoda; its members are also known as fairy shrimp.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
The Antofagasta Region (Región de Antofagasta.) is one of Chile's fifteen first-order administrative divisions.
Antoine Marie Jean-Baptiste Roger, comte de Saint-Exupéry (29 June 1900 – 31 July 1944) was a French writer, poet, aristocrat, journalist, and pioneering aviator.
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock, rock fractures or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt).
The Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya; Arap İsyanı) or Great Arab Revolt (الثورة العربية الكبرى, al-Thawra al-‘Arabiyya al-Kubrā) was officially initiated by Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, at Mecca on June 10, 1916 (9 Sha'ban of the Islamic calendar for that year) although his sons ‘Ali and Faisal had already initiated operations at Medina starting on 5 June with the aim of securing independence from the ruling Ottoman Turks and creating a single unified Arab state stretching from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen.
The Arabah (وادي عربة, Wādī ʻAraba), or Arava/Aravah (הָעֲרָבָה, HaAravah, lit. "desolate and dry area"), as it is known by its respective Arabic and Hebrew names, is a geographic area south of the Dead Sea basin, which forms part of the border between Israel to the west and Jordan to the east.
The Arabian Desert is a vast desert wilderness in Western Asia.
The Arabian Peninsula, simplified Arabia (شِبْهُ الْجَزِيرَةِ الْعَرَبِيَّة, ‘Arabian island’ or جَزِيرَةُ الْعَرَب, ‘Island of the Arabs’), is a peninsula of Western Asia situated northeast of Africa on the Arabian plate.
Arable land (from Latin arabilis, "able to be plowed") is, according to one definition, land capable of being ploughed and used to grow crops.
The Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
Arid Lands Information Network (ALIN) is a Kenya-based non-governmental organisation that seeks to exchange ideas and experiences among "grassroots change agents".
Aridification is the process of a region becoming increasingly dry.
Aridisols (or desert soils) are a soil order in USA soil taxonomy.
An aridity index (AI) is a numerical indicator of the degree of dryness of the climate at a given location.
An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.
An arroyo ("brook"), also called a wash, is a dry creek, stream bed or gulch that temporarily or seasonally fills and flows after sufficient rain.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
The Atacama Desert (Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America (primarily in Chile), covering a 1000-km (600-mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Azospirillum brasilense is a bacterium.
Baja CaliforniaSometimes informally referred to as Baja California Norte (North Lower California) to distinguish it from both the Baja California Peninsula, of which it forms the northern half, and Baja California Sur, the adjacent state that covers the southern half of the peninsula.
A barchan or barkhan dune, (from Kazakh бархан), is a crescent-shaped dune.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.
In geology, bedrock is the lithified rock that lies under a loose softer material called regolith at the surface of the Earth or other terrestrial planets.
Beetles are a group of insects that form the order Coleoptera, in the superorder Endopterygota.
Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU), (אוניברסיטת בן-גוריון בנגב, Universitat Ben-Guriyon baNegev) is a public research university in Beersheba, Israel.
Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
Bilma is an oasis town and commune in north east Niger with a population of 4,016 people.
The Black Rock Desert is a semi-arid region (in the Great Basin shrub steppe eco-region), of lava beds and playa, or alkali flats, situated in the Black Rock Desert–High Rock Canyon Emigrant Trails National Conservation Area, a silt playa north of Reno, Nevada that encompasses more than of land and contains more than of historic trails.
Bohemia (Čechy;; Czechy; Bohême; Bohemia; Boemia) is the westernmost and largest historical region of the Czech lands in the present-day Czech Republic.
Bonneville Speedway is an area of the Bonneville Salt Flats near Wendover, Utah, that is marked out for motor sports.
The borate minerals are minerals which contain a borate anion group.
Artemia is a genus of aquatic crustaceans also known as brine shrimp.
The Brooks Range (Athabaskan Gwazhał) is a mountain range in far northern North America stretching some from west to east across northern Alaska into Canada's Yukon Territory.
C4 carbon fixation or the Hatch-Slack pathway is a photosynthetic process in some plants.
A cactus (plural: cacti, cactuses, or cactus) is a member of the plant family Cactaceae,Although the spellings of botanical families have been largely standardized, there is little agreement among botanists as to how these names are to be pronounced.
A camel is an even-toed ungulate in the genus Camelus that bears distinctive fatty deposits known as "humps" on its back.
A camel train or caravan is a series of camels carrying passengers and/or goods on a regular or semi-regular service between points.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.
A canyon (Spanish: cañón; archaic British English spelling: cañon) or gorge is a deep cleft between escarpments or cliffs resulting from weathering and the erosive activity of a river over geologic timescales.
A carapace is a dorsal (upper) section of the exoskeleton or shell in a number of animal groups, including arthropods, such as crustaceans and arachnids, as well as vertebrates, such as turtles and tortoises.
Caravans A caravan (from کاروان) is a group of people traveling together, often on a trade expedition.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
Cattle—colloquially cows—are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Cerastes is a genus of small, venomous vipers found in the deserts and semi-deserts of northern North Africa eastward through Arabia and Iran.
A chain reaction is a sequence of reactions where a reactive product or by-product causes additional reactions to take place.
Charles Montagu Doughty (19 August 1843 – 20 January 1926) was an English poet, writer, explorer, adventurer and traveller born in Theberton Hall near Saxmundham, Suffolk and educated at private schools in Laleham and Elstree, and at a school for the Royal Navy, Portsmouth.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Chilean Coastal Range (Cordillera de la Costa) is a mountain range that runs from north to south along the Pacific coast of South America parallel to the Andean Mountains, extending from Morro de Arica in the north to Taitao Peninsula, where it ends at the Chile Triple Junction, in the south.
Chlorophyll (also chlorophyl) is any of several related green pigments found in cyanobacteria and the chloroplasts of algae and plants.
Cobblestone is a natural building material based on cobble-sized stones, and is used for pavement roads, streets, and buildings.
The Colorado Plateau, also known as the Colorado Plateau Province, is a physiographic and desert region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States.
The Colorado River is one of the principal rivers of the Southwestern United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Rio Grande).
Comparative physiology is a subdiscipline of physiology that studies and exploits the diversity of functional characteristics of various kinds of organisms.
A concertina is a free-reed musical instrument, like the various accordions and the harmonica.
A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.
Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Couch's spadefoot toad or Couch's spadefoot (Scaphiopus couchii) is a species of North American spadefoot toad (family Scaphiopodidae).
Crassulacean acid metabolism, also known as CAM photosynthesis, is a carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions.
The cream-colored courser (Cursorius cursor) is a wader in the pratincole and courser family, Glareolidae.
The sidewinder (Crotalus cerastes), also known as the horned rattlesnake and sidewinder rattlesnake,Wright AH, Wright AA.
Cryptobiosis is an ametabolic state of life entered by an organism in response to adverse environmental conditions such as desiccation, freezing, and oxygen deficiency.
A cuticle, or cuticula, is any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection.
Cyclorana platycephala (formerly Litoria platycephala) is a frog common to most Australian states.
David Faiman (born 1944 in the United Kingdom) is an Israeli engineer and physicist.
Death Valley is a desert valley located in Eastern California, in the northern Mojave Desert bordering the Great Basin Desert.
In geology, denudation involves the processes that cause the wearing away of the Earth's surface by moving water, by ice, by wind and by waves, leading to a reduction in elevation and in relief of landforms and of landscapes.
A depression in geology is a landform sunken or depressed below the surrounding area.
Desert farming is the practice of developing agriculture in deserts.
Desert greening is the process of man-made reclamation of deserts for ecological reasons (biodiversity), farming and forestry, but also for reclamation of natural water systems and other ecological systems that support life.
A deserted island or uninhabited island is an island that is not permanently populated by humans.
The desert lark (Ammomanes deserti) breeds in deserts and semi-deserts from Morocco to western India.
A desert pavement, also called reg (in the western Sahara), serir (eastern Sahara), gibber (in Australia), or saï (central Asia) is a desert surface covered with closely packed, interlocking angular or rounded rock fragments of pebble and cobble size.
The desert rain frog (Breviceps macrops) is a species of frog in the family Brevicipitidae.
Desert varnish or rock varnish is an orange-yellow to black coating found on exposed rock surfaces in arid environments.
DESERTEC was a large-scale project supported by a foundation of the same name and the consortium Dii (Desertec industrial initiative) created in Germany as a limited liability company (GmbH).
Desertification is a type of land degradation in which a relatively dry area of land becomes increasingly arid, typically losing its bodies of water as well as vegetation and wildlife.
Named deserts of Australia cover, or 18% of the Australian mainland.
A dik-dik is the name for any of four species of small antelope in the genus Madoqua that live in the bushlands of eastern and southern Africa.
In meteorology, diurnal temperature variation is the variation between a high temperature and a low temperature that occurs during the same day.
The domestic yak (Bos grunniens) is a long-haired domesticated bovid found throughout the Himalayan region of the Indian subcontinent, the Tibetan Plateau and as far north as Mongolia and Russia.
Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped.
Drip irrigation is a type of micro-irrigation system that has the potential to save water and nutrients by allowing water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, either from above the soil surface or buried below the surface.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
A dry lake is either a basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body, which disappeared when evaporation processes exceeded recharge.
A dry valley may develop on many kinds of permeable rock, such as limestone and chalk, or sandy terrains that do not regularly sustain surface water flow.
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.
The Dust Bowl, also known as the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the American and Canadian prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion (the Aeolian processes) caused the phenomenon.
A dust devil is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a metre wide and a few metres tall) to large (more than 10 metres wide and more than 1000 metres tall).
A dust storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Ecclesiastical Latin, also called Liturgical Latin or Church Latin, is the form of Latin that is used in the Roman and the other Latin rites of the Catholic Church, as well as in the Anglican Churches, Lutheran Churches, Methodist Churches, and the Western Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church, for liturgical purposes.
Ecophysiology (from Greek οἶκος, oikos, "house(hold)"; φύσις, physis, "nature, origin"; and -λογία, -logia), environmental physiology or physiological ecology is a biological discipline that studies the adaptation of an organism's physiology to environmental conditions.
An ectotherm (from the Greek ἐκτός (ektós) "outside" and θερμός (thermós) "hot"), is an organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in controlling body temperature.
Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) is a United States Air Force installation located in Kern County in southern California, about northeast of Lancaster and east of Rosamond.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
El Alamein (العلمين.,, literally "the two worlds") is a town in the northern Matrouh Governorate of Egypt.
The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica.
An erg (also sand sea or dune sea, or sand sheet if it lacks dunes) is a broad, flat area of desert covered with wind-swept sand with little or no vegetative cover.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Eulimnadia texana, the Texas clam shrimp or desert shrimp, is an interesting creature in the family Limnadiidae.
Euphorbia is a very large and diverse genus of flowering plants, commonly called spurge, in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae).
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land and ocean surface to the atmosphere.
Evolutionary physiology is the study of physiological evolution, which is to say, the manner in which the functional characteristics of individuals in a population of organisms have responded to selection across multiple generations during the history of the population.
Exfoliation joints or sheet joints are surface-parallel fracture systems in rock, and often leading to erosion of concentric slabs.
An explosive material, also called an explosive, is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential energy that can produce an explosion if released suddenly, usually accompanied by the production of light, heat, sound, and pressure.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas: washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins.
In geography and geology, fluvial processes are associated with rivers and streams and the deposits and landforms created by them.
True flies are insects of the order Diptera, the name being derived from the Greek δι- di- "two", and πτερόν pteron "wings".
Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.
Fossil water or paleowater is an ancient body of water that has been contained in some undisturbed space, typically groundwater in an aquifer, for millennia.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Dame Freya Madeline Stark DBE (31 January 18939 May 1993), was a Anglo-Italian explorer and travel writer.
A front line (alternative forms: front-line or frontline) in military terminology is the position(s) closest to the area of conflict of an armed force's personnel and equipment, generally referring to maritime or land forces.
A gerbil is a small mammal of the subfamily Gerbillinae in the order Rodentia.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell, CBE (14 July 1868 – 12 July 1926) was an English writer, traveller, political officer, administrator, and archaeologist who explored, mapped, and became highly influential to British imperial policy-making due to her knowledge and contacts, built up through extensive travels in Greater Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and Arabia.
Ghawar (Arabic: الغوار) is an oil field located in Al-Ahsa Governorate, Eastern Province, Saudi Arabia.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Global Environment Outlook (GEO) is a series of reports on the environment issued periodically by the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP).
The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.
The Gobi Desert is a large desert region in Asia.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The Grand Canyon (Hopi: Ongtupqa; Wi:kaʼi:la, Navajo: Tsékooh Hatsoh, Spanish: Gran Cañón) is a steep-sided canyon carved by the Colorado River in Arizona, United States.
The Grant's gazelle (Nanger granti) is a species of gazelle distributed from northern Tanzania to South Sudan and Ethiopia, and from the Kenyan coast to Lake Victoria.
The term Great American Desert was used in the 19th century to describe the western part of the Great Plains east of the Rocky Mountains in North America to about the 100th meridian.
The Great Basin Desert is part of the Great Basin between the Sierra Nevada and the Wasatch Range.
The Great Man-Made River (GMR, النهر الصناعي العظيم) is a network of pipes that supplies water to the Sahara in Libya, from the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System fossil aquifer.
The Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt water lake in the Western Hemisphere, and the eighth-largest terminal lake in the world.
The Great Victoria Desert, an interim Australian bioregion, is a sparsely populated desert area in Western Australia and South Australia.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
A hamada (Arabic, حمادة ḥammāda) is a type of desert landscape consisting of high, largely barren, hard rocky plateaus, where most of the sand has been removed by deflation.
In soil science, agriculture and gardening, Hardpan or Ouklip is a dense layer of soil, usually found below the uppermost topsoil layer.
Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions.
Hemiboreal means halfway between the temperate and subarctic (or boreal) zones.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
The Himalayas, or Himalaya, form a mountain range in Asia separating the plains of the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau.
The Hohokam were an ancient Native American culture centered in the present US state of Arizona.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
Horned lizards (Phrynosoma), also known as horny toads or horntoads, are a genus of North American lizards and the type genus of the subfamily Phrynosomatinae.
The Humboldt Current, also called the Peru Current, is a cold, low-salinity ocean current that flows north along the western coast of South America.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
The Imperial Valley lies in California's Imperial County.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The International Center for Agriculture Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), a member of the CGIAR, supported by the CGIAR Fund, is a non-profit agricultural research institute that aims to improve the livelihoods of the resource-poor across the world’s dry areas.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya.
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
The jerboa (from جربوع) forms the bulk of the membership of the family Dipodidae.
The Kalahari Desert is a large semi-arid sandy savanna in Southern Africa extending for, covering much of Botswana, parts of Namibia and regions of South Africa.
Kangaroo rats, small rodents of genus Dipodomys, are native to western North America.
A katabatic wind (named from the Greek word κατάβασις katabasis, meaning "descending") is the technical name for a drainage wind, a wind that carries high-density air from a higher elevation down a slope under the force of gravity.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
The Kharga Oasis (الخارجة), (meaning "the outer") is the southernmost of Egypt's five western oases.
The Hashemite Kingdom of Hejaz (المملكة الحجازية الهاشمية, Al-Mamlakah al-Ḥijāzyah Al-Hāshimīyah) was a state in the Hejaz region in the Middle East ruled by the Hashemite dynasty.
The Kunlun Mountains (Хөндлөн Уулс, Khöndlön Uuls) are one of the longest mountain chains in Asia, extending more than.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Lake Bonneville was a prehistoric pluvial lake that covered much of the eastern part of North America's Great Basin region.
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
A landscape is the visible features of an area of land, its landforms and how they integrate with natural or man-made features.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
Laterite is a soil and rock type rich in iron and aluminium, and is commonly considered to have formed in hot and wet tropical areas.
In pedology, leaching is the loss of mineral and organic solutes due to very heavy rainfall, high temperature and percolation.
The least weasel (Mustela nivalis), or simply weasel in the UK and much of the world, is the smallest member of the genus Mustela, family Mustelidae and order Carnivora.
A lichen is a composite organism that arises from algae or cyanobacteria living among filaments of multiple fungi in a symbiotic relationship.
This is a list of deserts sorted by the region of the world in which the desert is located.
This is the list of the largest deserts in the world by area.
Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with over 6,000 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica, as well as most oceanic island chains.
The llama (Lama glama) is a domesticated South American camelid, widely used as a meat and pack animal by Andean cultures since the Pre-Columbian era.
Locusts are certain species of short-horned grasshoppers in the family Acrididae that have a swarming phase.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Marco Polo (1254January 8–9, 1324) was an Italian merchant, explorer, and writer, born in the Republic of Venice.
A marine layer is an air mass which develops over the surface of a large body of water such as the ocean or large lake in the presence of a temperature inversion.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars.
The McMurdo Dry Valleys are a row of snow-free valleys in Antarctica located within Victoria Land west of McMurdo Sound.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
In climatology, the term megathermal (or less commonly, macrothermal) is sometimes used as a synonym for "tropical." In order for a particular place to qualify as having a megathermal climate, every single month out of the year must have an average temperature of 18°C or above.
Meltwater is water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice, tabular icebergs and ice shelves over oceans.
Mesquite is a common name for several plants in the genus Prosopis, which contains over 40 species of small leguminous trees.
Metabolic water refers to water created inside a living organism through their metabolism, by oxidizing energy-containing substances in their food.
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.
Millipedes are a group of arthropods that are characterised by having two pairs of jointed legs on most body segments; they are known scientifically as the class Diplopoda, the name being derived from this feature.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America.
The Mojave Solar Park was a solar thermal power facility contracted to be constructed in the Mojave Desert in California.
Montane ecosystems refers to any ecosystem found in mountains.
A mosaic is a piece of art or image made from the assemblage of small pieces of colored glass, stone, or other materials.
Mount Kilimanjaro or just Kilimanjaro, with its three volcanic cones, "Kibo", "Mawenzi", and "Shira", is a dormant volcano in Tanzania.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
The Negev (הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization:; النقب an-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel.
The Nile River (النيل, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: Ḥ'pī and Jtrw; Biblical Hebrew:, Ha-Ye'or or, Ha-Shiḥor) is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa, and is commonly regarded as the longest river in the world, though some sources cite the Amazon River as the longest.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Nomadic pastoralism is a form of pastoralism when livestock are herded in order to find fresh pastures on which to graze.
Northern Mexico (Spanish: el Norte de México), commonly referred as El Norte, is an informal term for the northern cultural and geographical area in Mexico.
The order Notostraca comprises the single family Triopsidae, containing the tadpole shrimp or shield shrimp.
The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System (NSAS) is the world’s largest known fossil water aquifer system.
In geography, an oasis (plural: oases) is an isolated area in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source, such as a pond or small lake.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Orographic lift occurs when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain.
Oryx is a genus consisting of four large antelope species called oryxes.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
The Outback is the vast, remote interior of Australia.
The Patagonian Desert, also known as the Patagonia Desert, Patagonian Steppe, or Magellanic Steppe, is the largest desert in Argentina and is the 8th largest desert in the world by area, occupying 673,000 square kilometers (260,000 mi2).
A pebble is a clast of rock with a particle size of 2 to 64 millimetres based on the Krumbein phi scale of sedimentology.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Peveril Meigs, III, (May 5, 1903 – September 16, 1979) was an American geographer, notable for his studies of arid lands on several continents and in particular for his work on the native peoples and early missions of northern Baja California, Mexico.
Phoenix is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Arizona.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
In geography, a plain is a flat, sweeping landmass that generally does not change much in elevation.
A plant cuticle is a protecting film covering the epidermis of leaves, young shoots and other aerial plant organs without periderm.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Polar deserts are the regions of the Earth that fall under an Ice cap climate (EF under the Köppen classification).
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
The pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) is a species of artiodactyl mammal indigenous to interior western and central North America.
Pumice, called pumicite in its powdered or dust form, is a volcanic rock that consists of highly vesicular rough textured volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals.
A pupa (pūpa, "doll"; plural: pūpae) is the life stage of some insects undergoing transformation between immature and mature stages.
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
Rain dust or snow dust, traditionally known as muddy rain, red rain, or coloured rain, is a variety of rain (or any other form of precipitation) which contains enough desert dust for the dust to be visible without using a microscope.
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).
In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment (environmental geography).
The reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), also known as the caribou in North America, is a species of deer with circumpolar distribution, native to Arctic, sub-Arctic, tundra, boreal and mountainous regions of northern Europe, Siberia and North America.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Rhizobacteria are root-colonizing bacteria that form symbiotic relationships with many plants.
Robert Lee Frost (March26, 1874January29, 1963) was an American poet.
The Rocky Mountains, also known as the Rockies, are a major mountain range in western North America.
Rogers Dry Lake is an endorheic desert salt pan in the Mojave Desert of Kern County, California.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
The saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) is an arborescent (tree-like) cactus species in the monotypic genus Carnegiea, which can grow to be over tall.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
The Saharan silver ant (Cataglyphis bombycina) is a type of ant that lives in the Sahara Desert.
The Sahel is the ecoclimatic and biogeographic zone of transition in Africa between the Sahara to the north and the Sudanian Savanna to the south.
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water that has a concentration of salts (typically sodium chloride) and other dissolved minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least three grams of salt per litre).
In geology, saltation (from Latin saltus, "leap") is a specific type of particle transport by fluids such as wind or water.
Saltbush can refer to.
Sandgrouse is the common name for Pteroclidae, a family of sixteen species of bird, members of the order Pterocliformes.
The Sandhills, often written Sand Hills, is a region of mixed-grass prairie on grass-stabilized sand dunes in north-central Nebraska, covering just over one quarter of the state.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
Scarifying (also scarification modification) involves scratching, etching, burning / branding, or superficially cutting designs, pictures, or words into the skin as a permanent body modification.
Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Seven Pillars of Wisdom is the autobiographical account of the experiences of British soldier T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia"), while serving as a liaison officer with rebel forces during the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Turks of 1916 to 1918.
Sevier Lake is an intermittent and endorheic lake which lies in the lowest part of the Sevier Desert, Millard County, Utah.
Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are quadrupedal, ruminant mammal typically kept as livestock.
Sidewinding is a type of locomotion unique to caenophidian snakes, used to move across loose or slippery substrates.
A geographic sink is a depression within an endorheic basin where water collects with no visible outlet.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Sodium nitrate is the chemical compound with the formula NaNO3.
Soil crusts are soil surface layers that are distinct from the rest of the bulk soil, often hardened with a platy surface.
Solar energy is radiant light and heat from the Sun that is harnessed using a range of ever-evolving technologies such as solar heating, photovoltaics, solar thermal energy, solar architecture, molten salt power plants and artificial photosynthesis.
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.
The use of solar energy began in Israel in the 1950s with the development by Levi Yissar of a solar water heater to address the energy shortages that plagued the new country.
There are several solar power plants in the Mojave Desert which supply power to the electricity grid.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The Sonoran Desert is a North American desert which covers large parts of the Southwestern United States in Arizona and California and of Northwestern Mexico in Sonora, Baja California, and Baja California Sur.
The South Pacific High is a subtropical anticyclone located in the southeast Pacific Ocean.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spiders (order Araneae) are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom.
A spring is any natural situation where water flows from an aquifer to the Earth's surface.
Stenocara dentata, the long-legged darkling beetle, is an insect of darkling beetle family found in southern Africa.
In physical geography, a steppe (p) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.
In botany, a stoma (plural "stomata"), also called a stomata (plural "stomates") (from Greek στόμα, "mouth"), is a pore, found in the epidermis of leaves, stems, and other organs, that facilitates gas exchange.
A subsistence economy is a non-monetary economy which relies on natural resources to provide for basic needs, through hunting, gathering, and subsistence agriculture.
The subtropical ridge, also known as the subtropical high or horse latitudes, is a significant belt of atmospheric high pressure situated around the latitudes of 30°N in the Northern Hemisphere and 30°S in the Southern Hemisphere.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A supply chain is a system of organizations, people, activities, information, and resources involved in moving a product or service from supplier to customer.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Desert (بادية الشام, Bâdiyat aş-Şâm), also known as the Hamad, is a combination of steppe and desert covering of the Middle East, including parts of south-eastern Syria, northeastern Jordan, northern Saudi Arabia, and western Iraq.
Colonel Thomas Edward Lawrence, (16 August 1888 – 19 May 1935) was a British archaeologist, military officer, diplomat, and writer.
The Tabernas Desert (Desierto de Tabernas) is one of Spain's semi-deserts, located within Spain's southeastern province of Almería.
The Taklamakan Desert (Xiao'erjing: تَاكْلامَاقًا شَاموْ; تەكلىماكان قۇملۇقى; Такәламаган Шамә), also spelled "Taklimakan" and "Teklimakan", is a desert in southwest Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, northwest China.
A tank is an armoured fighting vehicle designed for front-line combat, with heavy firepower, strong armour, tracks and a powerful engine providing good battlefield maneuverability.
Taoudenni (also Taoudeni, Taoudénit, Taudeni, Tawdenni) is a remote salt mining center in the desert region of northern Mali, north of Timbuktu.
A taproot is a large, central, and dominant root from which other roots sprout laterally.
Tassili n'Ajjer (Tasili n Ajjer, طاسيلي ناجر; "Plateau of the Rivers") is a national park in the Sahara desert, located on a vast plateau in south-east Algeria.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
The Tengger Desert (Тэнгэр цөл) is an arid natural region that covers about 36,700 km2 and is mostly in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region in China.
Termites are eusocial insects that are classified at the taxonomic rank of infraorder Isoptera, or as epifamily Termitoidae within the cockroach order Blattodea.
A tessellation of a flat surface is the tiling of a plane using one or more geometric shapes, called tiles, with no overlaps and no gaps.
The Thar Desert, also known as the Great Indian Desert, is a large arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent that covers an area of and forms a natural boundary between India and Pakistan.
The Winter's Tale is a play by William Shakespeare originally published in the First Folio of 1623.
The Thorny Devil (Moloch horridus) is an Australian lizard, also known as the mountain devil, the thorny lizard, or the moloch.
The Tibetan Plateau, also known in China as the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau or the Qing–Zang Plateau or Himalayan Plateau, is a vast elevated plateau in Central Asia and East Asia, covering most of the Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai in western China, as well as part of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Timbuktu, also spelt Tinbuktu, Timbuctoo and Timbuktoo (Tombouctou; Koyra Chiini: Tumbutu), is an ancient city in Mali, situated north of the Niger River.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
Trans-Saharan trade requires travel across the Sahara (north and south) to reach sub-Saharan Africa from the North African coast, Europe, to the Levant.
The Tuareg people (also spelt Twareg or Touareg; endonym: Kel Tamasheq, Kel Tagelmust) are a large Berber ethnic confederation.
Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Utah Lake is a shallow freshwater lake in the U.S. state of Utah.
Uwe George (born April 1, 1940, in Kiel, Germany) is a prize-winning German documentary film maker, science editor and writer.
Wadi (wādī; ואדי), alternatively wād (وَاد), is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley.
The water table is the upper surface of the zone of saturation.
A water well is an excavation or structure created in the ground by digging, driving, boring, or drilling to access groundwater in underground aquifers.
The watt (symbol: W) is a unit of power.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
The Western Desert Campaign (Desert War), took place in the deserts of Egypt and Libya and was the main theatre in the North African Campaign during the Second World War.
The Western United States, commonly referred to as the American West, the Far West, or simply the West, traditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
Wind, Sand and Stars (French title: Terre des hommes) is a memoir by the French aristocrat aviator-writer Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, and a winner of several literary awards.
Windward is the direction upwind from the point of reference, alternatively the direction from which the wind is coming.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
A xerocole, commonly referred to as a desert animal, is an animal adapted to live in the desert.
A xerophyte (from Greek ξηρός xeros dry, φυτόν phuton plant) is a species of plant that has adaptations to survive in an environment with little liquid water, such as a desert or an ice- or snow-covered region in the Alps or the Arctic.
The Yellow River or Huang He is the second longest river in Asia, after the Yangtze River, and the sixth longest river system in the world at the estimated length of.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
Animals in deserts, Arid Region, Desert Region, Desert basin, Desert enviroment, Desert fauna, Desert flora, Desert flowers, Desertic, Deserts, Evolution of deserts, Hot desert, Hot deserts, Sunny country, Temperate Desert, Temperate desert, The Desert, 🏜.