175 relations: Albert Ganzenmüller, Albert von Maybach, Allied-occupied Germany, Alsace-Lorraine, Anschluss, Ardennes, Arriva, Auschwitz concentration camp, Austria, Austrian Federal Railways, Axle load, Balkan Campaign (World War II), Battle of France, Battle of the Bulge, Bavaria, Bavarian EP 2, Bavarian Group Administration, Bavarian railway signals, Berlin, Berlin Hauptbahnhof, Berlin Ostbahnhof, Berlin–Wrocław railway, Białystok, Bizone, Branch line, Broad-gauge railway, Brunswick State Railway Company, Bundesrat (German Empire), Carniola, Cattle wagon, Chemins de fer de l'Est, Coat of arms of Germany, Commemorative plaque, Covered goods wagon, Czechoslovak State Railways, Czechoslovakia, Dawes Plan, Denmark, Deutsche Bahn, Deutsche Bundesbahn, Deutsche Reichsbahn (East Germany), Deutsche Reichsbahn service ranks, Diesel locomotive, DR locomotive classification, DRG Class 05, DRG Class ET 85, DRG Class SVT 877, DRG locomotive classification, DRG locomotive types, DRG renumbering plan for steam locomotives, ..., East Germany, Einheitsdampflokomotive, Electric locomotive, Extermination camp, Frankfurt, French Third Republic, General Government, Genocide, German Empire, German gold mark, German occupation of Czechoslovakia, German Reich, German reunification, Germany, Grand Duchy of Baden, Grand Duchy of Baden State Railway, Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg Friedrich-Franz Railway, Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, Grand Duchy of Oldenburg State Railways, Great Depression, Greece, Großmarkthalle, Hamburg, Hanover, History of rail transport in Luxembourg, Holding company, Holocaust trains, Hungary, Imperial Railways in Alsace-Lorraine, Internment, Invasion of Poland, Jews, Joint-stock company, Julius Dorpmüller, Kingdom of Bavaria, Kingdom of Prussia, Kingdom of Saxony, Klaipėda Region, Kriegslokomotive, Lausanne Conference of 1932, Länderbahnen, Lübeck-Büchen Railway Company, Light railway, List of DRG locomotives and railcars, Lithuanian Railways, Logistics, Lokalbahn AG, Lothar Gall, Luxembourg, Main line (railway), Mecklenburg, Middle power, Munich Agreement, National Railway Company of Belgium, Nazi Germany, Offenbach am Main, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Weserübung, Otto von Bismarck, Poland, Polish Corridor, Polish State Railways, Potsdam Agreement, Private railway, Prussian Eastern Railway, Prussian-Hessian Railway Company, Rail transport, Rail transport in Germany, Railway divisions in Germany, Railway electrification system, Railway system of the Soviet Union, Railway troops, Raul Hilberg, Red Army, Reich, Reich Ministry of Transport, Reichsautobahn, Reichsmark, Rekonstruktionslokomotive, Rolling stock, Royal Bavarian State Railways, Royal Saxon State Railways, Royal Württemberg State Railways, Ruhr, Russia, Saarland, Schafberg Railway, Schienenzeppelin, Schneeberg Railway, Shoah (film), Sobibór extermination camp, Sovereignty, Soviet occupation zone, Standard-gauge railway, Steam locomotive, Steyr Valley Railway, Strasbourg, Styria (Slovenia), Sudetenland, Swastika, The Holocaust, Track (rail transport), Train, Transport in Germany, Treblinka extermination camp, Trier, University of North Texas, Walchensee Hydroelectric Power Station, War reparations, Württemberg, Württemberg-Baden, Wehrmacht, Weimar Constitution, Weimar Republic, West Berlin, West Germany, Wilhelm Groener, Withdrawal (military), World War I, World War I reparations, World War II, Wrocław, Young Plan, Yugoslav Railways, Yugoslavia. Expand index (125 more) » « Shrink index
Albert Ganzenmüller (born 25 February 1905 in Passau – died 20 March 1996 in Munich) was a German National Socialist and, as the Under-secretary of State at the Reich Transport Ministry (Reichsverkehrsministerium), was involved in the deportation of German Jews.
Arnold Heinrich Albert von Maybach (29 November 1822 – 20 January 1904) was a German lawyer, politician and railway manager.
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
The Ardennes (L'Ardenne; Ardennen; L'Årdene; Ardennen; also known as the Ardennes Forest or Forest of Ardennes) is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins.
Arriva is a multinational public transport company headquartered in Sunderland, Tyne and Wear, United Kingdom.
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Austrian Federal Railways (German: Österreichische Bundesbahnen or ÖBB, formerly the Bundesbahn Österreich or BBÖ) is the national railway system of Austria, and the administrator of Liechtenstein's railways.
The axle load of a wheeled vehicle is the total weight felt by the roadway for all wheels connected to a given axle.
The Balkan Campaign of World War II began with the Italian invasion of Greece on 28 October 1940.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
The electric locomotives of Bavarian Class EP 2 were in light passenger train service in Germany for almost 50 years.
The Bavarian Group Administration or Gruppenverwaltung Bayern was a largely autonomous railway administration within the Deutsche Reichsbahn (German Imperial Railways) between the two world wars.
The Royal Bavarian State Railways had their own Bavarian railway signals for decades until they were gradually replaced by Deutsche Reichsbahn semaphore signals following the merger of all the German state railways into the newly created Deutsche Reichseisenbahnen in 1920.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Berlin Hauptbahnhof (English: Berlin Central Station) is the main railway station in Berlin, Germany.
Berlin Ostbahnhof (German for Berlin East railway station) is a main line railway station in Berlin, Germany.
The Berlin–Wrocław railway (Niederschlesisch-Märkische Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft, roughly translating as "Lower Silesian-Marcher Railway", NME) was a German private railway that connected Berlin (then capital of the March of Brandenburg, Mark Brandenburg) and Wrocław (in Lower Silesia, then part of Prussia, and called Breslau in German, now in Poland).
Białystok (Bielastok, Balstogė, Belostok, Byalistok) is the largest city in northeastern Poland and the capital of the Podlaskie Voivodeship.
The Bizone or Bizonia was the combination of the American and the British occupation zones on 1 January 1947 during the occupation of Germany after World War II.
A branch line is a secondary railway line which branches off a more important through route, usually a main line.
A broad-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge broader than the standard-gauge railways.
The Brunswick State Railway Company (Braunschweigische Landes-Eisenbahn-Gesellschaft) or BLE was a railway company in the Duchy of Brunswick, a former German state centred on the city of Brunswick (German: Braunschweig).
The Bundesrat ("Union Council") of the German Empire was, at least in theory, the highest authority of the Empire.
Carniola (Slovene, Kranjska; Krain; Carniola; Krajna) was a historical region that comprised parts of present-day Slovenia.
A cattle wagon is an everyday expression for a railway wagon designed to carry livestock, and is also called a stock car.
The Compagnie des chemins de fer de l'Est (CF de l'Est), often referred to simply as the Est company, was an early French railway company.
The coat of arms of Germany displays a black eagle with a red beak, tongue and feet on a golden field, which is blazoned: Or, an eagle displayed sable beaked langued and membered gules.
A commemorative plaque, or simply plaque, or in other places referred to as a historical marker or historic plaque, is a plate of metal, ceramic, stone, wood, or other material, typically attached to a wall, stone, or other vertical surface, and bearing text or an image in relief, or both, to commemorate one or more persons, an event, a former use of the place, or some other thing.
A covered goods wagon or van is a railway goods wagon which is designed for the transportation of moisture-susceptible goods and therefore fully enclosed by sides and a fixed roof.
Czechoslovak State Railways (in Czech Československé státní dráhy, ČSD) was the state-owned railway company of Czechoslovakia.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
The Dawes Plan (as proposed by the Dawes Committee, chaired by Charles G. Dawes) was an initial plan in 1924 to resolve the World War I reparations that Germany had to pay, which had strained diplomacy following World War I and the Treaty of Versailles.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
Deutsche Bahn AG (abbreviated as DB, DB AG or DBAG) is a German railway company.
The Deutsche Bundesbahn or DB (German Federal Railway) was formed as the state railway of the newly established Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) on 7 September 1949 as a successor of the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft (DRG).
The Deutsche Reichsbahn or DR (German Reich Railways) was the operating name of state owned railways in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany), and after German reunification until 31 December 1993.
Since its beginning until the year 1991, service rank was a permanent element of service with the Deutsche Reichsbahn, whether as a civil servant or as an employee.
A diesel locomotive is a type of railway locomotive in which the prime mover is a diesel engine.
The DR locomotive classification scheme in East Germany in the initial post-war period used the DRG system, consisting of a class number (Baureihennummer) followed by a serial number (Ordnungsnummer).
The Deutsche Reichsbahn's Class 05 was a German class of three express passenger steam locomotives of 4-6-4 wheel arrangement in the Whyte notation, or 2'C2' in the UIC notation used in continental Europe.
The DRG Class ET 85 was a German electric motor coach with the Deutsche Reichsbahn and, later, the Deutsche Bundesbahn.
The DRG Class SVT 877 Hamburg Flyer – sometimes also Flying Hamburger or in German Fliegender Hamburger – was Germany's first fast diesel train, and is credited with establishing the fastest regular railway connection in the world in its time.
The DRG locomotive classification system was developed by the German Imperial Railway Company or Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft (DRG), which was formed in 1924 following the merger of the German state railways (Länderbahnen) in 1920.
The locomotive type (Gattungszeichen) of a German steam locomotive was a secondary classification system introduced after 1924 by the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft (DRG) and comprised four parts.
In 1922 the Deutsche Reichsbahn began to develop a renumbering plan to standardize the numbering of steam locomotives that had been taken over from the state railways (Länderbahnen).
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The German term Einheitsdampflokomotive, sometimes shortened to Einheitslokomotive or Einheitslok, means standard steam locomotive and refers to the steam engines built in Germany after 1925 under the direction of the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft.
An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electricity from overhead lines, a third rail or on-board energy storage such as a battery or a supercapacitor.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
Frankfurt, officially the City of Frankfurt am Main ("Frankfurt on the Main"), is a metropolis and the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
The General Government (Generalgouvernement, Generalne Gubernatorstwo, Генеральна губернія), also referred to as the General Governorate, was a German zone of occupation established after the joint invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in 1939 at the onset of World War II.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Goldmark (officially just Mark, sign: ℳ) was the currency used in the German Empire from 1873 to 1914.
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, formerly being part of German-Austria known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.
Deutsches Reich was the official name for the German nation state from 1871 to 1945 in the German language.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
The Grand Duchy of Baden (Großherzogtum Baden) was a state in the southwest German Empire on the east bank of the Rhine.
The Grand Duchy of Baden was an independent state in what is now southwestern Germany until the creation of the German Empire in 1871.
The Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg Friedrich-Franz Railway (Großherzoglich Mecklenburgische Friedrich-Franz-Eisenbahn or M.F.F.E.) was the state railway company in Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
The Grand Duchy of Oldenburg (also known as Holstein-Oldenburg) was a grand duchy within the German Confederation, North German Confederation and German Empire which consisted of three widely separated territories: Oldenburg, Eutin and Birkenfeld.
The Grand Duchy of Oldenburg Railway (Großherzoglich Oldenburgische Eisenbahn or GOE) was the railway company that was run as a state railway for the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg (Großherzogtum Oldenburg), part of the German Empire.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Großmarkthalle (Wholesale Market Hall), in Ostend (East End), Frankfurt am Main, was the city's main wholesale market, especially for fruit and vegetables.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
The history of rail transport in Luxembourg began in 1846 and continues to the present day.
A holding company is a company that owns other companies' outstanding stock.
Holocaust trains were railway transports run by the Deutsche Reichsbahn national railway system under the strict supervision of the German Nazis and their allies, for the purpose of forcible deportation of the Jews, as well as other victims of the Holocaust, to the German Nazi concentration, forced labour, and extermination camps.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Kaiserliche Generaldirektion der Eisenbahnen in Elsaß-Lothringen or EL (English: General Directorate of the Imperial Railways in Alsace-Lorraine) were the first railways owned by the German Empire.
Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges, and thus no trial.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
A joint-stock company is a business entity in which shares of the company's stock can be bought and sold by shareholders.
Julius Heinrich Dorpmueller (24 July 1869 – 5 July 1945) was general manager of Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft from 1926 to 1945 and the Reich Minister for Transport from 1937 to 1945.
The Kingdom of Bavaria (Königreich Bayern) was a German state that succeeded the former Electorate of Bavaria in 1805 and continued to exist until 1918.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
The Kingdom of Saxony (Königreich Sachsen), lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Napoleonic through post-Napoleonic Germany.
The Klaipėda Region (Klaipėdos kraštas) or Memel Territory (Memelland or Memelgebiet) was defined by the Treaty of Versailles in 1920 and refers to the most northern part of the German province of East Prussia, when as Memelland it was put under the administration of the Council of Ambassadors.
Kriegslokomotiven (for "war locomotives", singular: Kriegslokomotive) or Kriegsloks were locomotives produced in large numbers during the Second World War under Nazi Germany.
The Lausanne Conference was a 1932 meeting of representatives from Great Britain, Germany, and France that resulted in an agreement to suspend World War I reparations payments imposed on the defeated countries by the Treaty of Versailles.
The Länderbahnen (singular: Länderbahn) were the various state railways of the German Empire in the period from about 1840 to 1920, when they were merged into the Deutsche Reichsbahn after the First World War.
The Lübeck-Büchen Railway (Lübeck-Büchener Eisenbahn, LBE) was a German railway company that built railway lines from Lübeck to Büchen and to Hamburg in the 19th century.
A light railway is a railway built at lower costs and to lower standards than typical "heavy rail": it uses lighter-weight track, and is more steeply graded and tightly curved to reduce civil engineering costs.
The railway vehicle classes covered by this list of DRG locomotives and railbuses belonged to the Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft or DRG (1924–37) and its successor, the Deutsche Reichsbahn or DRB (post 1937).
Lithuanian Railways (Lietuvos geležinkeliai) is the national, state-owned railway company of Lithuania.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
The Lokalbahn AG company (Lokalbahn Aktien-Gesellschaft), or 'LAG' for short, was a private company based in Munich, Bavaria, whose lines of business was the construction and operation of branch lines (the so-called Lokalbahnen or Sekundärbahnen) in Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Lothar Gall (born 3 December 1936 in Lötzen, East Prussia, present day Poland) is a German historian, "one of German liberalism's primary historians".
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
The main line, or mainline in American English, of a railway is a track that is used for through trains or is the principal artery of the system from which branch lines, yards, sidings and spurs are connected.
Mecklenburg (locally, Low German: Mękel(n)borg) is a historical region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal-state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower nor a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
NMBS/SNCB (Nationale Maatschappij der Belgische Spoorwegen, Société nationale des chemins de fer belges, Nationale Gesellschaft der Belgischen Eisenbahnen) is the national railway company of Belgium.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Offenbach am Main is a city in Hesse, Germany, located on the left bank of the river Main and part of the Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Weserübung was the code name for Germany's assault on Denmark and Norway during the Second World War and the opening operation of the Norwegian Campaign.
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg (1 April 1815 – 30 July 1898), known as Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890 and was the first Chancellor of the German Empire between 1871 and 1890.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish Corridor (Polnischer Korridor; Pomorze, Korytarz polski), also known as Danzig Corridor, Corridor to the Sea or Gdańsk Corridor, was a territory located in the region of Pomerelia (Pomeranian Voivodeship, eastern Pomerania, formerly part of West Prussia), which provided the Second Republic of Poland (1920–1939) with access to the Baltic Sea, thus dividing the bulk of Germany from the province of East Prussia.
Polskie Koleje Państwowe SA (PKP SA, Polish State Railways, Inc.) is the dominant railway operator in Poland.
The Potsdam Agreement (Potsdamer Abkommen) was the August 1945 agreement between three of the Allies of World War II, the United Kingdom, the United States, and the Soviet Union.
A private railroad is a railroad run by a private business entity (usually a corporation but not need be), as opposed to a railroad run by a public sector.
The Prussian Eastern Railway (Preußische Ostbahn) was the railway in the eastern Kingdom of Prussia until 1918.
The Royal Prussian and Grand-Ducal Hessian State Railways (German: Königlich Preußische und Großherzoglich Hessischen Staatseisenbahnen or K.P.u.G.H.St.E.) was a state-owned network of independent railway divisions in the German states of Prussia and Hesse in the early 20th century.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
, Germany had a railway network of 33,331 km of which 19,983 km were electrified and 18,201 km were double track.
In Germany and Austria, the running of railway services for a railway administration or the regional network of a large railway company was devolved to railway divisions, variously known as Eisenbahndirektionen (ED), Bundesbahndirektionen (BD) or Reichsbahndirektionen (RBD/Rbd).
A railway electrification system supplies electric power to railway trains and trams without an on-board prime mover or local fuel supply.
The Soviet Railways (Russian: Cоветские железные дороги (CЖД)) was the state owned national railway system of the Soviet Union, headquartered in Moscow.
Railway troops are soldiers who are also railway engineers.
Raul Hilberg (June 2, 1926 – August 4, 2007) was an Austrian-born Jewish-American political scientist and historian.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Reich is a German word literally meaning "realm".
The Reich Ministry of Transport (Reichsverkehrsministerium or RVM) was a cabinet-level agency of the German government during the Weimar Republic through the end of the Third Reich (1919–1945).
The Reichsautobahn system was the beginning of the German autobahns under the Third Reich.
The Reichsmark (sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 in West Germany, where it was replaced with the Deutsche Mark, and until 23 June in East Germany when it was replaced by the East German mark.
The German term Rekonstruktionslokomotive (abbreviated to: Rekolokomotive or Rekolok) meant 'reconstruction locomotive' and was introduced in 1957 by the Deutsche Reichsbahn in the GDR.
The term rolling stock in rail transport industry originally referred to any vehicles that move on a railway.
As a nation-state, Germany did not come into being until the creation of the German Empire in 1871 from the various German-speaking states such as Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, Baden and Württemberg.
The Royal Saxon State Railways (Königlich Sächsische Staatseisenbahnen) were the state-owned railways operating in the Kingdom of Saxony from 1869 to 1918.
The Royal Württemberg State Railways (Königlich Württembergischen Staats-Eisenbahnen or K.W.St.E.) were the state railways of the Kingdom of Württemberg (from 1918 the People's State of Württemberg) between 1843 and 1920.
The Ruhr (Ruhrgebiet), or the Ruhr district, Ruhr region, Ruhr area or Ruhr valley, is a polycentric urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saarland (das Saarland,; la Sarre) is one of the sixteen states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Schafberg Railway (Schafbergbahn) is a metre gauge cog railway in Upper Austria and Salzburg leading from Sankt Wolfgang im Salzkammergut up to the Schafberg (1,783 m).
The Schienenzeppelin or rail zeppelin was an experimental railcar which resembled a Zeppelin airship in appearance.
The Schneeberg Railway (Schneebergbahn) is a local railway line in Lower Austria running from Wiener Neustadt to the Hochschneeberg mountain.
Shoah is a 1985 French documentary film about the Holocaust, directed by Claude Lanzmann.
Sobibór (or Sobibor) was a Nazi German extermination camp built and operated by the SS near the railway station of Sobibór during World War II, within the semi-colonial territory of General Government of the occupied Second Polish Republic.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Occupation Zone (Sovetskaya okkupatsionnaya zona Germanii, "Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany") was the area of central Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II.
A standard-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge of.
A steam locomotive is a type of railway locomotive that produces its pulling power through a steam engine.
The Steyr Valley Railway (Steyrtalbahn) was a narrow gauge railway in Upper Austria, which ran along the valley of the River Steyr from Garsten through Steyr, Grünburg and Molln to Klaus, with a branchline to Sierning and Bad Hall.
Strasbourg (Alsatian: Strossburi; Straßburg) is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.
Styria (Štajerska), also Slovenian Styria (Slovenska Štajerska) or Lower Styria (Spodnja Štajerska; Untersteiermark), is a traditional region in northeastern Slovenia, comprising the southern third of the former Duchy of Styria.
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety; Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans.
The swastika (as a character 卐 or 卍) is a geometrical figure and an ancient religious icon from the cultures of Eurasia, where it has been and remains a symbol of divinity and spirituality in Indian religions, Chinese religions, Mongolian and Siberian shamanisms.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The track on a railway or railroad, also known as the permanent way, is the structure consisting of the rails, fasteners, railroad ties (sleepers, British English) and ballast (or slab track), plus the underlying subgrade.
A train is a form of transport consisting of a series of connected vehicles that generally runs along a rail track to transport cargo or passengers.
As a densely populated country in a central location in Europe and with a developed economy, Germany has a dense and modern transport infrastructure.
Treblinka was an extermination camp, built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Trier (Tréier), formerly known in English as Treves (Trèves) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle.
The University of North Texas (UNT) is a public research institution in Denton with programs in natural, formal, and social sciences, engineering, liberal arts, fine arts, performing arts, humanities, public policy, graduate professional education, and post-doc research.
The Walchensee Power Plant (Walchenseekraftwerk) is a hydroelectric power station in Bavaria, Germany.
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
Württemberg is a historical German territory.
Württemberg-Baden was a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Constitution of the German Reich (Die Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs), usually known as the Weimar Constitution (Weimarer Verfassung) was the constitution that governed Germany during the Weimar Republic era (1919–1933).
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
Karl Eduard Wilhelm Groener (22 November 1867 – 3 May 1939) was a German soldier and politician.
A withdrawal is a type of military operation, generally meaning retreating forces back while maintaining contact with the enemy.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War I reparations were compensation imposed during the Paris Peace Conference upon the Central Powers following their defeat in the First World War by the Allied and Associate Powers.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrocław (Breslau; Vratislav; Vratislavia) is the largest city in western Poland.
The Young Plan was a program for settling German reparations debts after World War I written in August 1929 and formally adopted in 1930.
Yugoslav Railways (Jugoslavenske željeznice; Југословенски железници, Jugoslovenski železnici; Југословенске железнице, Jugoslovenske železnice; Jugoslovanske železnice), with standard acronym JŽ (ЈЖ in Cyrillic), was the state railway company of Yugoslavia, operational from the 1920s to the 1990s.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Deutsche Reichsbahn (1920-1945), Deutsche Reichsbahn (1920–1945), Deutsche Reichsbahn (1920–1949), Deutsche Reichsbahn Gesellschaft, Deutsche Reichsbahn-Gesellschaft, Deutsche Reichsbahngesellschaft, Deutsche Reichseisenbahnen, German State Railway, Reichsbahn.