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Index Devanagari

Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal. [1]

200 relations: Abugida, Allophone, Angika, Anusvara, Apostrophe, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arial, ASCII, Aspirated consonant, Athens, Avagraha, Awadhi language, Āryabhaṭa numeration, Śāradā script, Baraha, Bhili language, Bhojpuri language, Bodo language, Brahmi script, Brahmic scripts, Chalukya dynasty, Chandas (typeface), Chandrabindu, Chhattisgarhi language, Clip font, Collation, Computer keyboard, Consonant cluster, David Pingree, Dental consonant, Deva (Hinduism), Devanagari, Devanagari Braille, Devanagari transliteration, Diacritic, Dogri language, Eastern Nagari script, Elision, Fricative consonant, Ganges, Garhwali language, Garland, Gemination, Google IME, Google transliteration, Government of India, Grapheme, Gujarat, Gujarati alphabet, ..., Gupta script, Gurmukhi script, Guttural, Handwriting, Harvard-Kyoto, Haryanvi language, Himachal Pradesh, Hindi, Homorganic consonant, Hunterian transliteration, Implosive consonant, India, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Indian Script Code for Information Interchange, Indo-Aryan languages, Indonesia, Inherent vowel, Input method, InScript keyboard, International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, International Phonetic Alphabet, ISO 15919, ITRANS, Jha (Indic), Kaithi, Karnataka, Kashmir, Kashmiri language, Keyboard layout, Konkani language, Kutila inscription of Bareilly, Labial consonant, Latin alphabet, Laughter, Letter case, List of writing systems, MacOS, Madhya Pradesh, Magahi language, Mahajani, Maithili language, Manner of articulation, Marathi language, Marwari language, Michael Witzel, Microsoft Windows, Middle Indo-Aryan languages, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, Modi script, Mundari language, Myanmar, Nagari Pracharini Sabha, Nandinagari, Nasal consonant, Nasal vowel, National Library at Kolkata romanisation, Natural language processing, Nāgarī script, Nepal, Nepali language, Newar language, Nuqta, Odia alphabet, Operating system, Orthography, Palatal nasal, Palate, Pali, Patrick Olivelle, Persian language, Phoneme, Phonetics, Pitch-accent language, Place of articulation, Prefix code, Primus inter pares, Proto-Sinaitic script, Punctuation, Raja Sivaprasad, Rajasthani language, Received Pronunciation, Retroflex consonant, Retroflex flap, Retroflex lateral flap, Rigveda, Romanization, Sandhi, Sanskrit, Santali language, Saraiki language, Schwa, Schwa deletion in Indo-Aryan languages, Semivowel, Shakha, Shiksha, Siddhaṃ script, SIL International, Sindhi language, Songtsen Gampo, Sonorant, Speech synthesis, Sri Lanka, Stop consonant, Subscript and superscript, Teach Yourself, TeX, Thonmi Sambhota, Tibet, Transliteration, Typographic ligature, Uṣṇīṣa Vijaya Dhāraṇī Sūtra, Ubuntu (operating system), Unicode, Usenet, Uttar Pradesh, Vedas, Vedic Sanskrit, Velar nasal, Verb, Vikram Samvat, Virama, Visarga, Voice (phonetics), Voiced alveolar fricative, Voiced alveolar implosive, Voiced bilabial implosive, Voiced labio-velar approximant, Voiced labiodental fricative, Voiced palatal implosive, Voiced postalveolar fricative, Voiced retroflex stop, Voiced velar fricative, Voiced velar implosive, Voiceless glottal fricative, Voiceless labiodental fricative, Voiceless uvular stop, Voiceless velar fricative, Vowel, Vowel length, WX notation, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. Expand index (150 more) »


An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.

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In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Angika (अंगिका) or Chhika-Chhiki is a language spoken primarily in the Bihar and Jharkhand states of India and the Terai region of Nepal.

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Anusvara (Sanskrit: अनुस्वारः) is the diacritic used to mark a type of nasal sound used in a number of Indic scripts.

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The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arial, sometimes marketed or displayed in software as Arial MT, is a sans-serif typeface and set of computer fonts.

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ASCII, abbreviated from American Standard Code for Information Interchange, is a character encoding standard for electronic communication.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

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Avagraha (Symbol: ऽ) symbol used to indicate prodelision of an अ in many Indian languages as shown below.

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Awadhi language

Awadhi (Devanagari: अवधी) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken primarily in the Awadh region of Uttar Pradesh and Terai belt of Nepal.

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Āryabhaṭa numeration

The numeration is a system of numerals based on Sanskrit phonemes.

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Śāradā script

The Śāradā, Sarada or Sharada script is an abugida writing system of the Brahmic family of scripts.

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Baraha is a word processing application for creating documents in Indian languages.

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Bhili language

Bhili (Bhili) is a Western Indo-Aryan language spoken in west-central India, in the region east of Ahmedabad.

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Bhojpuri language

Bhojpuri is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Northern-Eastern part of India and the Terai region of Nepal.

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Bodo language

Boro (बर'), or Mech, is the Sino-Tibetan language spoken primarily by the Boro people of North East India, Nepal and Bengal.

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Brahmi script

Brahmi (IAST) is the modern name given to one of the oldest writing systems used in Ancient India and present South and Central Asia from the 1st millennium BCE.

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Brahmic scripts

The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.

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Chalukya dynasty

The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.

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Chandas (typeface)

Chandas is a Unicode compatible OpenType font for the Devanagari script.

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Chandrabindu (meaning "moon-dot" in Sanskrit, alternatively spelled candrabindu, chandravindu, candravindu, or chôndrobindu) is a diacritic sign with the form of a dot inside the lower half of a circle.

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Chhattisgarhi language

Chhattisgarhi is a language spoken in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh, by 24 million people.

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Clip font

Clip fonts or split fonts are non-Unicode fonts that assign glyphs of Brahmic scripts, such as Devanagari, at code positions intended for glyphs of the Latin script or to produce glyphs not found in Unicode by using its Private Use Area (PUA).

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Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.

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Computer keyboard

In computing, a computer keyboard is a typewriter-style device which uses an arrangement of buttons or keys to act as mechanical levers or electronic switches.

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Consonant cluster

In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.

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David Pingree

David Edwin Pingree (January 2, 1933, New Haven, Connecticut – November 11, 2005, Providence, Rhode Island) was a University Professor, and Professor of History of Mathematics and Classics at Brown University, and one of America's leading historians of the Exact Sciences (primarily Mathematics) in antiquity.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Deva (Hinduism)

Deva (Sanskrit: देव) means "heavenly, divine, anything of excellence", and is also one of the terms for a deity in Hinduism.

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Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.

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Devanagari Braille

Similar braille conventions are used for three languages of India and Nepal that in print are written in Devanagari script: Hindi, Marathi, and Nepali.

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Devanagari transliteration

* There are several methods of transliteration from Devanāgarī to the Roman script (a process known as romanization) which share similarities, although no single system of transliteration has emerged as the standard.

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A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.

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Dogri language

Dogri (डोगरी or), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about five million people in India and Pakistan, chiefly in the Jammu region of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh, but also in northern Punjab, other parts of Jammu and Kashmir, and elsewhere.

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Eastern Nagari script

Eastern Nagari script, Assamese script, Bengali script, Assamese-Bengali script or Purbi script is the basis of the Assamese alphabet and the Bengali alphabet.

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In linguistics, an elision or deletion is the omission of one or more sounds (such as a vowel, a consonant, or a whole syllable) in a word or phrase.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.

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Garhwali language

Garhwali language (गढ़वळि भाख/भासा) is a Central Pahari language belonging to the Northern Zone of Indo-Aryan languages.

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A garland is a decorative wreath or cord (typically used at festive occasions) which can be hung round a person's neck or on inanimate objects like Christmas trees.

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Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.

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Google IME

Google IME is a set of typing tools (input method editors) by Google for 22 languages, including Amharic, Arabic, Bengali, Chinese, Greek, Gujarati, Hindi, Japanese, Kannada, Malayalam, Marathi, Nepali, Persian, Punjabi, Russian, Sanskrit, Serbian, Tamil, Telugu, Tigrinya, and Urdu.

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Google transliteration

Google transliteration (formerly Google Indic Transliteration) is a transliteration typing service for Hindi and other languages.

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Government of India

The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.

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In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.

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Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.

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Gujarati alphabet

The Gujarati script (ગુજરાતી લિપિ Gujǎrātī Lipi) is an abugida, like all Nagari writing systems, and is used to write the Gujarati and Kutchi languages.

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Gupta script

The Gupta script (sometimes referred to as Gupta Brahmi Script or Late Brahmi Script)Sharma, Ram.

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Gurmukhi script

Gurmukhi (Gurmukhi (the literal meaning being "from the Guru's mouth"): ਗੁਰਮੁਖੀ) is a Sikh script modified, standardized and used by the second Sikh Guru, Guru Angad (1563–1606).

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Guttural speech sounds are those with a primary place of articulation near the back of the oral cavity.

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Handwriting is the writing done with a writing instrument, such as a pen or pencil, in the hand.

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The Harvard-Kyoto Convention is a system for transliterating Sanskrit and other languages that use the Devanāgarī script into ASCII.

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Haryanvi language

Haryanvi (हरियाणवी or हरयाणवी) is a language of the Western Hindi group.

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Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh (literally "snow-laden province") is a Indian state located in North India.

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Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.

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Homorganic consonant

In phonetics, a homorganic consonant (from homo- "same" and organ "(speech) organ") is a consonant sound articulated in the same place of articulation as another.

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Hunterian transliteration

The Hunterian transliteration system is the "national system of romanization in India" and the one officially adopted by the Government of India.

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Implosive consonant

Implosive consonants are a group of stop consonants (and possibly also some affricates) with a mixed glottalic ingressive and pulmonic egressive airstream mechanism.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur (also known as IIT Kanpur or IITK) is a public engineering institution located in Kanpur, Uttar Pradesh.

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Indian Script Code for Information Interchange

Indian Script Code for Information Interchange (ISCII) is a coding scheme for representing various writing systems of India.

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Indo-Aryan languages

The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Inherent vowel

An inherent vowel is part of an abugida (or alphasyllabary) script.

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Input method

An input method (or input method editor, commonly abbreviated IME) is an operating system component or program that allows any data, such as keyboard strokes or mouse movements, to be received as input.

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InScript keyboard

InScript (short for Indian Script) is the decreed standard keyboard layout for Indian scripts using a standard 104- or 105-key layout.

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International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration

The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (I.A.S.T.) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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ISO 15919

ISO 15919 "Transliteration of Devanagari and related Indic scripts into Latin characters" is one of a series of international standards for romanization.

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The "Indian languages TRANSliteration" (ITRANS) is an ASCII transliteration scheme for Indic scripts, particularly for Devanagari script.

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Jha (Indic)

Jha is the ninth consonant of Indic abugidas.

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Kaithi, also called "Kayathi" or "Kayasthi", is a historical script used widely in parts of North India, primarily in the former Awadh and Bihar.

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Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.

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Kashmir is the northernmost geographical region of the Indian subcontinent.

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Kashmiri language

Kashmiri (کأشُر), or Koshur (pronounced kọ̄šur or kạ̄šur) is a language from the Dardic subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley and Chenab Valley of Jammu and Kashmir.

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Keyboard layout

A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard.

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Konkani language

Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages and is spoken along the South western coast of India.

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Kutila inscription of Bareilly

The Kutila inscription of Bareilly is an inscription in the Kutila script (कुटिल लिपि) dating to 992 CE that provides crucial evidence in tracing the shared descent of the Devanagari and Bengali scripts of Northern and Eastern India from the predecessor Gupta script.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Latin alphabet

The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.

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Laughter is a physical reaction in humans consisting typically of rhythmical, often audible contractions of the diaphragm and other parts of the respiratory system.

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Letter case

Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.

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List of writing systems

This is a list of writing systems (or scripts), classified according to some common distinguishing features.

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macOS (previously and later) is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001.

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Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh (MP;; meaning Central Province) is a state in central India.

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Magahi language

The Magahi language, also known as Magadhi, is a language spoken in Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal states of eastern India.

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Mahajani is a Laṇḍā mercantile script that was historically used in northern India for writing accounts and financial records in Hindi, Punjabi, and Marwari.

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Maithili language

Maithili (Maithilī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in the Bihar and Jharkhand states of India and is one of the 22 recognised Indian languages.

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Manner of articulation

In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.

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Marathi language

Marathi (मराठी Marāṭhī) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken predominantly by the Marathi people of Maharashtra, India.

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Marwari language

Marwari (Mārwāṛī; also rendered Marwadi, Marvadi) is a Rajasthani language spoken in the Indian state of Rajasthan.

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Michael Witzel

Michael Witzel (born July 18, 1943) is a German-American philologist and academic.

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Microsoft Windows

Microsoft Windows is a group of several graphical operating system families, all of which are developed, marketed, and sold by Microsoft.

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Middle Indo-Aryan languages

The Middle Indo-Aryan languages (or Middle Indic languages, sometimes conflated with the Prakrits, which are a stage of Middle Indic) are a historical group of languages of the Indo-Aryan family.

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Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology

The Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY) is a part of the Union Government of the Republic of India.

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Modi script

Modi (मोडी,,; also Mudiya) is a script used to write the Marathi language, which is the primary language spoken in the state of Maharashtra, India.

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Mundari language

Mundari (Muɳɖa) is a Munda language of the Austroasiatic language family spoken by the Munda people in eastern India (primarily Assam and Jharkhand), Bangladesh, and Nepal.

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Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.

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Nagari Pracharini Sabha

The Nagari Pracharini Sabha (Society for Promotion of Nagari), also known as Kashi Nagari Pracharini Sabha, was an organization founded in 1893 at the Queen's College, Varanasi for the promotion of the Devanagari script over the more common Kaithi script.

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Nandinagari is a Brahmic script derived from Nāgarī script which appeared in the 7th century AD.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Nasal vowel

A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the nose as well as the mouth, such as the French vowel.

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National Library at Kolkata romanisation

The National Library at Kolkata romanisation transliterationSee p 24-26 for table comparing Indic languages, and p 33-34 for Devanagari alphabet listing.

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Natural language processing

Natural language processing (NLP) is an area of computer science and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.

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Nāgarī script

The Nāgarī script is the ancestor of Devanagari, Nandinagari and other variants, and was first used to write Prakrit and Sanskrit.

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Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

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Nepali language

Nepali known by endonym Khas-kura (खस कुरा) is an Indo-Aryan language of the sub-branch of Eastern Pahari.

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Newar language

Newar or Newari, also known as Nepal Bhasa (नेपाल भाषा), is a Sino-Tibetan language spoken by the Newar people, the indigenous inhabitants of Nepal Mandala, which consists of the Kathmandu Valley and surrounding regions in Nepal.

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Nuqtā (Hindi-Urdu नुक़्ता, نقطہ, from Arabic nuqta نقطة "dot," or "period."), also spelled Nuktā, is a term for a diacritic mark that was introduced in Devanāgari and some other Indian scripts to represent sounds not present in the original scripts.

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Odia alphabet

The Odia script (ଓଡ଼ିଆ ଲେଖନୀ ଶୈଳୀ), also known as the Odia script, is a Brahmic script used to write the Odia language.

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Operating system

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.

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An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

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Palatal nasal

The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages.

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The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and other mammals.

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Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.

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Patrick Olivelle

Patrick Olivelle is an Indologist.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.

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Pitch-accent language

A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.

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Place of articulation

In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).

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Prefix code

A prefix code is a type of code system (typically a variable-length code) distinguished by its possession of the "prefix property", which requires that there is no whole code word in the system that is a prefix (initial segment) of any other code word in the system.

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Primus inter pares

Primus inter pares (Πρῶτος μεταξὺ ἴσων) is a Latin phrase meaning first among equals.

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Proto-Sinaitic script

Proto-Sinaitic, also referred to as Sinaitic, Proto-Canaanite, Old Canaanite, or Canaanite, is a term for both a Middle Bronze Age (Middle Kingdom) script attested in a small corpus of inscriptions found at Serabit el-Khadim in the Sinai Peninsula, Egypt, and the reconstructed common ancestor of the Paleo-Hebrew, Phoenician and South Arabian scripts (and, by extension, of most historical and modern alphabets).

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Punctuation (formerly sometimes called pointing) is the use of spacing, conventional signs, and certain typographical devices as aids to the understanding and correct reading of handwritten and printed text, whether read silently or aloud.

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Raja Sivaprasad

Raja Śivaprasāda or Sivaprasad C.S.I Sitara-e-Hind ("Star of India") (1823–23 May 1895) was an Indian scholar, linguist and historian.

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Rajasthani language

Rajasthani (Devanagari: राजस्थानी) refers to a group of Indo-Aryan languages spoken primarily in the state of Rajasthan and adjacent areas of Haryana, Punjab, Gujarat, and Madhya Pradesh in India.

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Received Pronunciation

Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.

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Retroflex consonant

A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.

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Retroflex flap

The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Retroflex lateral flap

The retroflex lateral flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.

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Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.

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SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.

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Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Santali language

Santali (Ol Chiki:; Eastern Nagari: সাঁওতালি) is a language in the Munda subfamily of Austroasiatic languages, related to Ho and Mundari, spoken mainly in the Indian states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.

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Saraiki language

Saraiki (سرائیکی, also spelt Siraiki, or less often Seraiki) is an Indo-Aryan language of the Lahnda (Western Punjabi) group, spoken in the south-western half of the province of Punjab in Pakistan.

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In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.

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Schwa deletion in Indo-Aryan languages

Schwa deletion, or schwa syncope, is a phenomenon that sometimes occurs in Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Kashmiri, Punjabi, Gujarati, Maithili and several other Indo-Aryan languages with schwas that are implicit in their written scripts.

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In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.

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A shakha (Sanskrit, "branch" or "limb"), is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school.

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Shiksha (शिक्षा IAST) is a Sanskrit word, which means "instruction, lesson, learning, study of skill".

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Siddhaṃ script

, also known in its later evolved form as Siddhamātṛkā, is a script used for writing Sanskrit from c. 550 – c. 1200.

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SIL International

SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a U.S.-based, worldwide, Christian non-profit organization, whose main purpose is to study, develop and document languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.

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Sindhi language

Sindhi (سنڌي, सिन्धी,, ਸਿੰਧੀ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the historical Sindh region, spoken by the Sindhi people.

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Songtsen Gampo

Songtsen Gampo (569–649?/605–649?) was the 33rd Tibetan king and founder of the Tibetan Empire, and is traditionally credited with the introduction of Buddhism to Tibet, influenced by his Nepali and Chinese queens, as well as being the unifier of what were previously several Tibetan kingdoms.

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In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.

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Speech synthesis

Speech synthesis is the artificial production of human speech.

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Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්‍රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Subscript and superscript

A subscript or superscript is a character (number, letter or symbol) that is (respectively) set slightly below or above the normal line of type.

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Teach Yourself

Teach Yourself is currently an imprint of Hodder Education, formerly by the English Universities Press, that specializes in self-instruction books.

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TeX (see below), stylized within the system as TeX, is a typesetting system (or "formatting system") designed and mostly written by Donald Knuth and released in 1978.

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Thonmi Sambhota

Thonmi Sambhota (Thönmi Sambhoṭa, aka Tonmi Sambhodha;, Tib. ཐོན་མི་སམྦྷོ་ཊ་, Wyl. thon mi sam+b+ho Ta; b. seventh cent.) is traditionally regarded as the inventor of the Tibetan script and author of the Sum cu pa and Rtags kyi 'jug pa in the 7th century AD.

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Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.

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Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).

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Typographic ligature

In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.

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Uṣṇīṣa Vijaya Dhāraṇī Sūtra

The Uṣṇīṣa Vijaya Dhāraṇī sūtra (Sanskrit) is a Mahayana sutra from India.

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Ubuntu (operating system)

Ubuntu (stylized as ubuntu) is a free and open source operating system and Linux distribution based on Debian.

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Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.

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Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers.

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Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh (IAST: Uttar Pradeś) is a state in northern India.

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The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.

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Vedic Sanskrit

Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.

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Velar nasal

The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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Vikram Samvat

Vikram Samvat (विक्रम सम्वत्, विक्रम सम्वत्) (abbreviated as V.S. (or VS) or B.S. (or BS))) (also called the Bikrami calendar or sometimes just Hindu calendar) is the historical Hindu calendar of India and Nepal. It uses lunar months and solar sidereal years. It is used as the official calendar in Nepal.

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Virama (्) is a generic term for the diacritic in many Brahmic scripts, ்including Devanagari and Eastern Nagari script, used to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter.

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Visarga (IAST) (विसर्गः) meaning "sending forth, discharge".

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voiced alveolar fricative

The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds.

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Voiced alveolar implosive

The voiced alveolar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced bilabial implosive

A voiced bilabial implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced labio-velar approximant

The voiced labio-velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages, including English.

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Voiced labiodental fricative

The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced palatal implosive

The voiced palatal implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced postalveolar fricative

Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative, the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiced retroflex fricative, and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative.

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Voiced retroflex stop

The voiced retroflex stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced velar fricative

The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages.

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Voiced velar implosive

The voiced velar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless glottal fricative

The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.

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Voiceless labiodental fricative

The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in a number of spoken languages.

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Voiceless uvular stop

The voiceless uvular stop or voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless velar fricative

The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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WX notation

WX notation is a transliteration scheme for representing Indian languages in ASCII.

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0 (zero) is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.

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1 (one, also called unit, unity, and (multiplicative) identity) is a number, numeral, and glyph.

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2 (two) is a number, numeral, and glyph.

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3 (three) is a number, numeral, and glyph.

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4 (four) is a number, numeral, and glyph.

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5 (five) is a number, numeral, and glyph.

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6 (six) is the natural number following 5 and preceding 7.

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7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8.

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8 (eight) is the natural number following 7 and preceding 9.

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9 (nine) is the natural number following and preceding.

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Dev nagari, Deva (script), Deva nagari, Devanaagarii, Devanagaari, Devanagari (script), Devanagari Conjuncts, Devanagari alphabet, Devanagari conjuncts, Devanagari language, Devanagari script, Devanagiri, Devanagri, Devangari, Devangari alphabet, Devanāgarī, Deva·nāgarī, Devingari, Devnagari, Devnagari script, Devnagri, Devnagri script, Dēvanāgarī, Hindi alphabet, Hindi orthography, Hindi script, ISO 15924:Deva, Nagari, Nagri script, Note on Devanagari transliteration, Sanskrit script, Shiro rekha, Shirorekha, , अं, , , , , , , , , , , , , , घे, , , , , , , देवनागरी, , , , , , , , , , , , व्ह, , , , , ि, , , , , , , , , , , , , .


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devanagari

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