227 relations: A Plus (aplus.com), Acid throwing, Afghanistan, Africa, Agricultural productivity, Aid, Air pollution, Anti-imperialism, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Biodiversity loss, Biomass, Birth rate, Breastfeeding, Bride burning, Bride kidnapping, Bride price, Cambodia, Capital market, Caribbean, Caucasus, Central and Eastern Europe, Central Asia, Charcoal, Child marriage, Civil service, Civil service reform in developing countries, Climate change, Climate change adaptation, Climate justice, Climate Vulnerability Monitor, Cold War, Cold War (1985–1991), Colonialism, Comoros, Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, Corruption, Crop residue, Cuba, Debt, Debt of developing countries, Decolonization, Dependency theory, Developed country, Developed market, Developing country, Development aid, Development theory, Disease, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, ..., Distributed generation, Dowry death, Drinking water, Drought, Dry dung fuel, East Asia, Eastern Bloc, Economic development, Economic stagnation, Economic Vulnerability Index, Education, Effects of global warming, Emerging markets, Emmanuel Macron, Energy poverty, Ethiopia, Euphemism, Eurozone, Extreme weather, Failed state, Female genital mutilation, Fertility, First World, Fishery, Flood, Food security, Fossil fuel, Four Asian Tigers, Fragile state, Frontier markets, Gender equality, Global South, Globalization, Good governance, Green Climate Fund, Greenhouse gas, Gross domestic product, Gross National Happiness, Gross national income, Guinea-Bissau, Habitat destruction, Haiti, Health, Health care, Heavily indebted poor countries, HIV/AIDS, Honor killing, Human Development Index, Human migration, Human resources, Humboldt University of Berlin, Hunger, Hygiene, Improved sanitation, India, Indoor air pollution in developing nations, Industrialisation, Industry, Infection, Informal sector, International development, International Monetary Fund, International organization, Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation, Journal of Contemporary Asia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kofi Annan, Kyrgyzstan, Land reform, Landlocked developing countries, Latin America, Least Developed Countries, Liberation theology, Life expectancy, List of countries by wealth per adult, List of development aid country donors, Lists of countries by GDP per capita, Literacy, Malaria, Malnutrition, Malnutrition in children, Manufacturing, Manure, Marxism, Middle East, Millennium Development Goals, Modernization theory, Mongolia, Myanmar, NATO, Natural disaster, Neglected tropical diseases, Nepal, New Imperialism, Newly industrialized country, North Africa, Nutrition, Obesity, Oceania, Open defecation, Pacific Ocean, Per capita, Political corruption, Political economy, Pollution, Poverty, Poverty reduction, President of France, Renewable energy in developing countries, Sanitation, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sea level rise, Second World, Secondary sector of the economy, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Sierra Leone, Slum, Small Island Developing States, Social change, Social conflict, Solar power, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South African Medical Research Council, South Asia, Southeast Asia, Southern African Customs Union, Soviet Union, Standard of living, Storm surge, Stunted growth, Sub-Saharan Africa, Sudan, Sustainable Development Goal 6, Sustainable Development Goals, Tajikistan, Tertiary sector of the economy, The Gambia, The Guardian, Third World, Three-world model, Toilet, Traffic collision, Transition economy, Tuberculosis, Turkmenistan, Unemployment, UNICEF, United Nations, United Nations Climate Change conference, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations Human Settlements Programme, United Nations Population Fund, United Nations Statistics Division, United States dollar, Urbanization, Uzbekistan, Vanuatu, Violence against women, WASH, Water pollution, Water resource policy, Water resources of China, Waterborne diseases, Western Asia, Women migrant workers from developing countries, Wood, Workforce productivity, World Bank, World Bank high-income economy, World Development Indicators, World Economic Outlook, World economy, World Health Organization, 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference, 2017 United Nations Climate Change Conference. Expand index (177 more) » « Shrink index
A Plus (aplus.com) is a digital media company based in New York City.
Acid throwing, also called an acid attack, a vitriol attack or vitriolage, is a form of violent assault defined as the act of throwing acid or a similarly corrosive substance onto the body of another "with the intention to disfigure, maim, torture, or kill".
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
Agricultural productivity is measured as the ratio of agricultural outputs to agricultural inputs.
In international relations, aid (also known as international aid, overseas aid, foreign aid or foreign assistance) is – from the perspective of governments – a voluntary transfer of resources from one country to another.
Air pollution occurs when harmful or excessive quantities of substances including gases, particulates, and biological molecules are introduced into Earth's atmosphere.
Anti-imperialism in political science and international relations is a term used in a variety of contexts, usually by nationalist movements who want to secede from a larger polity (usually in the form of an empire, but also in a multi-ethnic sovereign state) or as a specific theory opposed to capitalism in Marxist–Leninist discourse, derived from Vladimir Lenin's work Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
Loss of biodiversity or biodiversity loss is the extinction of species (human, plant or animal) worldwide, and also the local reduction or loss of species in a certain habitat.
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
Bride burning or bride-burning is a form of domestic violence practiced in countries located on or around the Indian subcontinent.
Bride kidnapping, also known as marriage by abduction or marriage by capture, is a practice in which a man abducts the woman he wishes to marry.
Bride price, bridewealth, or bride token, is money, property, or other form of wealth paid by a groom or his family to the family of the woman he will be married or is just about to marry.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Central and Eastern Europe, abbreviated CEE, is a term encompassing the countries in Central Europe (the Visegrád Group), the Baltic states, and Southeastern Europe, usually meaning former communist states from the Eastern bloc (Warsaw Pact) in Europe.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Child marriage is a formal marriage or informal union entered into by an individual before reaching a certain age, specified by several global organizations such as UNICEF as minors under the age of 18.
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
Civil service reform is a deliberate action to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, professionalism, representativity and democratic character of a civil service, with a view to promoting better delivery of public goods and services, with increased accountability.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
Climate change adaptation is a response to global warming and climate change, that seeks to reduce the vulnerability of social and biological systems to relatively sudden change and thus offset the effects of global warming.
Climate justice is a term used for framing global warming as an ethical and political issue, rather than one that is purely environmental or physical in nature.
The Climate Vulnerability Monitor (CVM) is an independent global assessment of the effect of climate change on the world’s populations brought together by panels of key international authorities.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Cold War period of 1985–1991 began with the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev as leader of the Soviet Union.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The Comoros (جزر القمر), officially the Union of the Comoros (Comorian: Udzima wa Komori, Union des Comores, الاتحاد القمري), is a sovereign archipelago island nation in the Indian Ocean located at the northern end of the Mozambique Channel off the eastern coast of Africa between northeastern Mozambique and northwestern Madagascar.
The Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention) is a Council of Europe convention against violence against women and domestic violence which was opened for signature on 11 May 2011, in Istanbul, Turkey.
Corruption is a form of dishonesty undertaken by a person entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire personal benefit.
There are two types of agricultural crop residues.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Debt is when something, usually money, is owed by one party, the borrower or debtor, to a second party, the lender or creditor.
The debt of developing countries refers to the external debt incurred by governments of developing countries, generally in quantities beyond the governments' ability to repay.
Decolonization (American English) or decolonisation (British English) is the undoing of colonialism: where a nation establishes and maintains its domination over one or more other territories.
Dependency theory is the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
In investing, a developed market is a country that is most developed in terms of its economy and capital markets.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Development aid or development cooperation (also development assistance, technical assistance, international aid, overseas aid, official development assistance (ODA), or foreign aid) is financial aid given by governments and other agencies to support the economic, environmental, social, and political development of developing countries.
Development theory is a collection of theories about how desirable change in society is best achieved.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Distributed generation, also distributed energy, on-site generation (OSG) or district/decentralized energy is electrical generation and storage performed by a variety of small, grid-connected devices referred to as distributed energy resources (DER).
Dowry deaths are deaths of women who are murdered or driven to suicide by continuous harassment and torture by husbands and in-laws in an effort to extort an increased dowry.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
A drought is a period of below-average precipitation in a given region, resulting in prolonged shortages in the water supply, whether atmospheric, surface water or ground water.
Dry dung fuel (or dry manure fuel) is animal feces that has been dried in order to be used as a fuel source.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Economic stagnation is a prolonged period of slow economic growth (traditionally measured in terms of the GDP growth), usually accompanied by high unemployment.
"Economic vulnerability index" is one of the criteria used by the United Nations Committee for Development Policy, an advisory body to the United Nations Economic and Social Council in the identification of Least Developed Countries.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases.
An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.
Emmanuel Jean-Michel Frédéric Macron (born 21 December 1977) is a French politician serving as President of France and ex officio Co-Prince of Andorra since 14 May 2017.
Energy poverty is lack of access to modern energy services.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
A euphemism is a generally innocuous word or expression used in place of one that may be found offensive or suggest something unpleasant.
Extreme weather includes unexpected, unusual, unpredictable, severe or unseasonal weather; weather at the extremes of the historical distribution—the range that has been seen in the past.
A failed state is a political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government no longer function properly (see also fragile state and state collapse).
Female genital mutilation (FGM), also known as female genital cutting and female circumcision, is the ritual cutting or removal of some or all of the external female genitalia.
Fertility is the natural capability to produce offspring.
The concept of First World originated during the Cold War and included countries that were generally aligned with NATO and opposed to the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
Food security is a condition related to the availability of food supply, group of people such as (ethnicities, racial, cultural and religious groups) as well as individuals' access to it.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
The Four Asian Tigers, Four Asian Dragons or Four Little Dragons, are the economies of Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea and Taiwan, which underwent rapid industrialization and maintained exceptionally high growth rates (in excess of 7 percent a year) between the early 1960s (mid-1950s for Hong Kong) and 1990s.
A fragile state is a low-income country characterized by weak state capacity and/or weak state legitimacy leaving citizens vulnerable to a range of shocks.
A frontier market is a type of developing country which is more developed than the least developing countries, but too small to be generally considered an emerging market.
Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
The Global South is a term that has been emerging in transnational and postcolonial studies to refer to what may also be called the "Third World" (i.e., Africa, Latin America, and the developing countries in Asia), "developing countries," "less developed countries," and "less developed regions." It can also include poorer "southern" regions of wealthy "northern" countries.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
Good governance is an indeterminate term used in the international development literature to describe how public institutions conduct public affairs and manage public resources.
The Green Climate Fund (GCF) is a fund established within the framework of the UNFCCC to assist developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gross National Happiness (also known by the acronym: GNH) is a philosophy that guides the government of Bhutan.
The gross national income (GNI) is the total domestic and foreign output claimed by residents of a country, consisting of gross domestic product (GDP), plus factor incomes earned by foreign residents, minus income earned in the domestic economy by nonresidents (Todaro & Smith, 2011: 44) (all figures in millions of US dollars).
Guinea-Bissau, officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau (República da Guiné-Bissau), is a sovereign state in West Africa.
Habitat destruction is the process in which natural habitat is rendered unable to support the species present.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
The heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) are a group of 37 developing countries with high levels of poverty and debt overhang which are eligible for special assistance from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank.
Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
An honor killing or shame killing is the murder of a member of a family, due to the perpetrators' belief that the victim has brought shame or dishonor upon the family, or has violated the principles of a community or a religion, usually for reasons such as refusing to enter an arranged marriage, being in a relationship that is disapproved by their family, having sex outside marriage, becoming the victim of rape, dressing in ways which are deemed inappropriate, engaging in non-heterosexual relations or renouncing a faith.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Human migration is the movement by people from one place to another with the intentions of settling, permanently or temporarily in a new location.
Human resources are the people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, or economy.
The Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, abbreviated HU Berlin), is a university in the central borough of Mitte in Berlin, Germany.
In politics, humanitarian aid, and social science, hunger is a condition in which a person, for a sustained period, is unable to eat sufficient food to meet basic nutritional needs.
Hygiene is a set of practices performed to preserve health.
Improved sanitation is a term used to categorize types or levels of sanitation for monitoring purposes.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indoor air pollution in developing nations is a significant form of indoor air pollution (IAP) that is little known to those in the developed world.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
International development or global development is a wide concept concerning level of development on an international scale.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
An international organization is an organization with an international membership, scope, or presence.
The Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation by WHO and UNICEF is the official United Nations mechanism tasked with monitoring progress towards the Sustainable Development Goal Number 6 (SDG6) since 2016.
The Journal of Contemporary Asia (JCA) is a peer-reviewed academic journal in the field of Asian studies.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kofi Atta Annan (born 8 April 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1997 to December 2006.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Land reform (also agrarian reform, though that can have a broader meaning) involves the changing of laws, regulations or customs regarding land ownership.
Landlocked developing countries (LLDC) are developing countries that are landlocked.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
The Least Developed Countries (LDCs) is a list of developing countries that, according to the United Nations, exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world.
Liberation theology is a synthesis of Christian theology and Marxist socio-economic analyses that emphasizes social concern for the poor and the political liberation for oppressed peoples.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
This is a list of countries of the world by wealth per adult, published annually by Credit Suisse's Global Wealth Databook.
This is a list of countries by spending on development aid.
There are two articles listing countries according to their per capita GDP.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Malnutrition in children is common globally and may result in both short and long term irreversible negative health outcomes.
Manufacturing is the production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools, chemical and biological processing, or formulation.
Manure is organic matter, mostly derived from animal feces except in the case of green manure, which can be used as organic fertilizer in agriculture.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
A natural disaster is a major adverse event resulting from natural processes of the Earth; examples include floods, hurricanes, tornadoes, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis, and other geologic processes.
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a diverse group of tropical infections which are especially common in low-income populations in developing regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
In historical contexts, New Imperialism characterizes a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Open defecation is the human practice of defecating outside (in the open environment) rather than into a toilet.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
Per capita is a Latin prepositional phrase: per (preposition, taking the accusative case, meaning "by means of") and capita (accusative plural of the noun caput, "head").
Political corruption is the use of powers by government officials or their network contacts for illegitimate private gain.
Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Poverty is the scarcity or the lack of a certain (variant) amount of material possessions or money.
Poverty reduction, or poverty alleviation, is a set of measures, both economic and humanitarian, that are intended to permanently lift people out of poverty.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
Renewable energy technology has sometimes been seen as a costly luxury item by critics, and affordable only in the affluent developed world.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
São Tomé and Príncipe, officially the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, is an island nation in the Gulf of Guinea, off the western equatorial coast of Central Africa.
A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.
The Second World is the former industrial socialist states (formally the Eastern Bloc) largely encompassing territories under the influence of the Soviet Union.
The secondary sector of the economy includes industries that produce a finished, usable product or are involved in construction.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
Sierra Leone, officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, is a country in West Africa.
A slum is a highly populated urban residential area consisting mostly of closely packed, decrepit housing units in a situation of deteriorated or incomplete infrastructure, inhabited primarily by impoverished persons.
Small Island Developing States (SIDS) are a group of small island countries that tend to share similar sustainable development challenges, including small but growing populations, limited resources, remoteness, susceptibility to natural disasters, vulnerability to external shocks, excessive dependence on international trade, and fragile environments.
Social change is an alteration in the social order of a society.
Social conflict is the struggle for agency or power in society.
Solar power is the conversion of energy from sunlight into electricity, either directly using photovoltaics (PV), indirectly using concentrated solar power, or a combination.
Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
The South African Medical Research Council is a para-statal medical research organisation in South Africa.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Southern African Customs Union (SACU) is a customs union among five countries of Southern Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Standard of living refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods, and necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class in a certain geographic area, usually a country.
A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides.
Stunted growth, also known as stunting and nutritional stunting, is a reduced growth rate in human development.
Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sustainable Development Goal 6 (SDG6 or SDG 6), one of 17 Sustainable Development Goals established by the UN in 2015.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are a good collection of 17 global goals set by the United Nations in 2015.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
The terms First World, Second World, and Third World were originally used to divide the world's nations into three categories.
A toilet is a piece of hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces.
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.
A transition economy or transitional economy is an economy which is changing from a centrally planned economy to a market economy.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Climate Change Conferences are yearly conferences held in the framework of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
The United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UN DESA) is part of the United Nations Secretariat and is responsible for the follow-up to major United Nations Summits and Conferences, as well as services to the United Nations Economic and Social Council and the Second and Third Committees of the United Nations General Assembly.
The United Nations Human Settlements Programme (UN–Habitat) is the United Nations agency for human settlements and sustainable urban development.
The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), formerly the United Nations Fund for Population Activities, is a UN organization.
The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), formerly the United Nations Statistical Office, serves under the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) as the central mechanism within the Secretariat of the United Nations to supply the statistical needs and coordinating activities of the global statistical system.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Vanuatu (or; Bislama, French), officially the Republic of Vanuatu (République de Vanuatu, Bislama: Ripablik blong Vanuatu), is a Pacific island nation located in the South Pacific Ocean.
Violence against women (VAW), also known as gender-based violence and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) is, collectively, violent acts that are primarily or exclusively committed against women and girls.
WASH (or Watsan, WaSH) is an acronym that stands for "water, sanitation and hygiene".
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies, usually as a result of human activities.
Water resource policy encompasses the policy-making processes that affect the collection, preparation, use and disposal of water to support human uses and protect environmental quality.
The water resources of China are affected by both severe water shortages and severe water pollution.
Waterborne diseases are conditions caused by pathogenic micro-organisms that are transmitted in water.
Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.
Since the late 20th century, substantial labour migration from developing countries to high-income countries has occurred.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
Workforce productivity is the amount of goods and services that a worker produces in a given amount of time.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
A high-income economy is defined by the World Bank as a country with a gross national income per capita US$12,236 or more in 2016, calculated using the Atlas method.
World Development Indicators (WDI) is the primary World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized international sources.
The World Economic Outlook (WEO) is a survey conducted and published by the International Monetary Fund.
The world economy or global economy is the economy of the world, considered as the international exchange of goods and services that is expressed in monetary units of account (money).
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
The 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference was held in Cancún, Mexico, from 29 November to 10 December 2010.
The 2017 United Nations Climate Change Conference ("COP23") was an international meeting of political leaders, non-state actors and activists to discuss environmental issues.
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