78 relations: Allometry, Animal, Arabidopsis thaliana, Ascidiacea, Asexual reproduction, Axolotl, Blastocyst, Blastoderm, Blastula, Body plan, Caenorhabditis elegans, Cambium, Cell (biology), Cell growth, Cell potency, Cell signaling, Cellular differentiation, Chromatin, Cleavage (embryo), Cotyledon, Cytoplasmic determinant, Drosophila melanogaster, Ectoderm, Embryo, Embryogenesis, Embryology, Emergence, Endoderm, Enhancer (genetics), Evolutionary developmental biology, Fertilisation, Fish development, Gastrulation, Gene regulatory network, Germ layer, Germination, Gravitropism, Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, Human development (biology), Hydra (genus), Hydrotropism, Meristem, Mesoderm, Metamorphosis, Model organism, Morphogenesis, Myogenin, NeuroD, Notch signaling pathway, Ontogeny, ..., Organogenesis, Organoid, Phototropism, Placenta, Planarian, Plant, Plant anatomy, Plant evolutionary developmental biology, Plant hormone, Plant physiology, Promoter (genetics), Regeneration (biology), Regional differentiation, Salamander, Schmidtea mediterranea, Scott F. Gilbert, Sea urchin, Secondary growth, Seed, Signal transduction, Stem cell, Teratology, Thigmotropism, Transcription factor, Vascular plant, Xenopus, Zebrafish, Zygote. Expand index (28 more) » « Shrink index
Allometry is the study of the relationship of body size to shape, anatomy, physiology and finally behaviour, first outlined by Otto Snell in 1892, by D'Arcy Thompson in 1917 in On Growth and Form and by Julian Huxley in 1932.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Arabidopsis thaliana, the thale cress, mouse-ear cress or arabidopsis, is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia and Africa.
Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians or sea squirts) is a paraphyletic class in the subphylum Tunicata of sac-like marine invertebrate filter feeders.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
The axolotl (from āxōlōtl) also known as a Mexican salamander (Ambystoma mexicanum) or a Mexican walking fish, is a neotenic salamander, closely related to the tiger salamander.
The blastocyst is a structure formed in the early development of mammals.
A blastoderm (germinal disc, blastodisc) is a single layer of embryonic epithelial tissue that makes up the blastula.
The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals.
A body plan, Bauplan (German plural Baupläne), or ground plan is a set of morphological features common to many members of a phylum of animals.
Caenorhabditis elegans is a free-living (not parasitic), transparent nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, that lives in temperate soil environments.
A cambium (plural cambia or cambiums), in botany, is a tissue layer that provides partially undifferentiated cells for plant growth.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency.
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.
Chromatin is a complex of macromolecules found in cells, consisting of DNA, protein, and RNA.
In embryology, cleavage is the division of cells in the early embryo.
A cotyledon ("seed leaf" from Latin cotyledon, from Greek: κοτυληδών kotylēdōn, gen.: κοτυληδόνος kotylēdonos, from κοτύλη ''kotýlē'' "cup, bowl") is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant, and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "The primary leaf in the embryo of the higher plants (Phanerogams); the seed-leaf." Upon germination, the cotyledon may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling.
Cytoplasmic determinants are special molecules which play a very important role during oocyte maturation, in the female's ovary.
Drosophila melanogaster is a species of fly (the taxonomic order Diptera) in the family Drosophilidae.
Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Embryogenesis is the process by which the embryo forms and develops.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.
Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
In genetics, an enhancer is a short (50–1500 bp) region of DNA that can be bound by proteins (activators) to increase the likelihood that transcription of a particular gene will occur.
Evolutionary developmental biology (informally, evo-devo) is a field of biological research that compares the developmental processes of different organisms to infer the ancestral relationships between them and how developmental processes evolved.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
The development of fishes is unique in some specific aspects compared to the development of other animals.
Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula.
A gene (or genetic) regulatory network (GRN) is a collection of molecular regulators that interact with each other and with other substances in the cell to govern the gene expression levels of mRNA and proteins.
A germ layer is a primary layer of cells that form during embryogenesis.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
Gravitropism (also known as geotropism) is a coordinated process of differential growth by a plant or fungus in response to gravity pulling on it.
HNF4 (Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 4) is a nuclear receptor protein mostly expressed in the liver, gut, kidney, and pancreatic beta cells that is critical for liver development.
Human development is the process of growing to maturity.
Hydra is a genus of small, fresh-water organisms of the phylum Cnidaria and class Hydrozoa.
Hydrotropism (hydro- "water"; tropism "involuntary orientation by an organism, that involves turning or curving as a positive or negative response to a stimulus") is a plant's growth response in which the direction of growth is determined by a stimulus or gradient in water concentration.
A meristem is the tissue in most plants containing undifferentiated cells (meristematic cells), found in zones of the plant where growth can take place.
In all bilaterian animals, the mesoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.
Myogenin (myogenic factor 4), also known as MYOG, is a gene.
NeuroD, also called Beta2, is a basic helix loop helix transcription factor expressed in certain parts of brain, beta pancreatic cells and enteroendocrine cells.
The Notch signaling pathway is a highly conserved cell signaling system present in most multicellular organisms.
Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.
In animal development, organogenesis is the phase of embryonic development that starts at the end of gastrulation and goes until birth.
An organoid is a miniaturized and simplified version of an organ produced in vitro in three dimensions that shows realistic micro-anatomy.
Phototropism is the growth of an organism which responds to a light stimulus.
The placenta is an organ that connects the developing fetus to the uterine wall to allow nutrient uptake, thermo-regulation, waste elimination, and gas exchange via the mother's blood supply; to fight against internal infection; and to produce hormones which support pregnancy.
A planarian is one of many flatworms of the Turbellaria class.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant anatomy or phytotomy is the general term for the study of the internal structure of plants.
Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) refers to the study of developmental programs and patterns from an evolutionary perspective.
Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth.
Plant physiology is a subdiscipline of botany concerned with the functioning, or physiology, of plants.
In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene.
In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage.
In the field of developmental biology, regional differentiation is the process by which different areas are identified in the development of the early embryo.
Salamanders are a group of amphibians typically characterized by a lizard-like appearance, with slender bodies, blunt snouts, short limbs projecting at right angles to the body, and the presence of a tail in both larvae and adults.
Schmidtea mediterranea is a freshwater triclad that lives in southern Europe and Tunisia.
Scott Frederick Gilbert (born 1949) is an American developmental biologist.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
In botany, secondary growth is the growth that results from cell division in the cambia or lateral meristems and that causes the stems and roots to thicken, while primary growth is growth that occurs as a result of cell division at the tips of stems and roots, causing them to elongate, and gives rise to primary tissue.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalyzed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response.
Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
Thigmotropism is a directional growth movement which occurs as a mechanosensory response to a touch stimulus.
In molecular biology, a transcription factor (TF) (or sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from DNA to messenger RNA, by binding to a specific DNA sequence.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Xenopus (Gk., ξενος, xenos.
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a freshwater fish belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae) of the order Cypriniformes.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.