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Index Devonian

The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya. [1]

161 relations: Acritarch, Actinopterygii, Adam Sedgwick, Adaptive radiation, African Invertebrates, Agnatha, Agoniatitida, Alamo bolide impact, Algae, Ammonoidea, Antler orogeny, Apatite, Appalachian Mountains, Archaeopteris, Arthropod, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric circulation, Aulopora, Australia, Bacteria, Bactritida, Baltica, Bothriolepis, Brachiopod, Bryozoa, Caledonian orogeny, Cambrian, Canadians, Carbon dioxide, Carbon sink, Carbonate, Carboniferous, Cephalopod, Chondrichthyes, Cladoselache, Cladoxylopsida, Climactichnites, Climate, Clymeniida, Conodont, Continent, Coral, Coral reef, Crinoid, Devon, Digby McLaren, Drepanophycus, Dunkleosteus, Eifelian, Emsian, ..., England, Equator, Equisetales, Erosion, Euramerica, Eusthenopteron, Extinction event, Falls of the Ohio State Park, Famennian, Fern, Fish, Forest, Fossil, Frasnian, Fresh water, Geologic time scale, Geological period, George Bellas Greenough, Givetian, Glacier, Gnathostomata, Gondwana, Goniatite, Great Britain, Hadley cell, Hederellid, Hematite, Henry De la Beche, Heterostraci, Idaho, Insect, International Commission on Stratigraphy, Island arc, Journal of Paleontology, Kimberley (Western Australia), Landform, Late Devonian extinction, Laurentia, Lignin, List of Early Devonian land plants, List of fossil sites, Lochkovian, Lycopodiophyta, Mesozoic, Microconchida, Microorganism, Mississippian (geology), Mite, Mollusca, Moss, Myriapoda, Nature (journal), Nautiloid, Nevada, North America, Ohio, Old Red Sandstone, Order (biology), Osteichthyes, Ostracoderm, Palaeogeography, Paleo-Tethys Ocean, Paleontological Society, Paleontology, Paleozoic, Pangaea, Panthalassa, Phacops rana, Placodermi, Planet, Plant, Plate tectonics, Pleurodictyum, Pragian, Proetida, Progymnosperm, Proto-Tethys Ocean, Prototaxites, Psammosteida, Pteridophyte, Pteridospermatophyta, Reef, Rheic Ocean, Roderick Murchison, Rugosa, Sampling bias, Sarcopterygii, Scandinavia, Scorpion, Series (stratigraphy), Shark, Siberia (continent), Silurian, Soil, South America, Stratum, Stromatoporoidea, Supercontinent, Temperate climate, Tetrapod, The Great Devonian Controversy, Trigonotarbida, Trilobite, Tropic of Capricorn, Ural Ocean, Vascular plant, Vertebrate, Wattieza, Western Europe, Wood, Year. Expand index (111 more) »


Acritarchs are organic microfossils, present from approximately to the present.

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Actinopterygii, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes.

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Adam Sedgwick

Adam Sedgwick (22 March 1785 – 27 January 1873) was a British priest and geologist, one of the founders of modern geology.

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Adaptive radiation

In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is a process in which organisms diversify rapidly from an ancestral species into a multitude of new forms, particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available, creates new challenges, or opens new environmental niches.

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African Invertebrates

African Invertebrates is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal that covers the taxonomy, systematics, biogeography, ecology, conservation, and palaeontology of Afrotropical invertebrates, whether terrestrial, freshwater, or marine.

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Agnatha (Greek, "no jaws") is a superclass of jawless fish in the phylum Chordata, subphylum Vertebrata, consisting of both present (cyclostomes) and extinct (conodonts and ostracoderms) species.

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Agoniatitida, also known as the Anarcestida, is the ancestral order within the cephalopod subclass Ammonoidea originating from bactritoid nautiloids, that lived in what would become Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, and North America during the Devonian from about the lower boundary of Zlichovian stage (corresponding to late Pragian, after 409.1 mya) into Taghanic event during upper middle Givetian (between 385–384 mya), existing for approximately 25 million years.

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Alamo bolide impact

The Alamo bolide impact occurred 367 million years ago, when one or more hypervelocity objects from space slammed into shallow marine waters at a site that is now the Devonian Guilmette Formation of the Worthington Mountains and Schell Creek Range of southeastern Nevada; the event is named for breccias of metamorphosed crushed rock deposits, found as far as the town of Alamo, Nevada (the "Alamo Breccia").

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Ammonoids are an extinct group of marine mollusc animals in the subclass Ammonoidea of the class Cephalopoda.

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Antler orogeny

The Antler orogeny was an enigmatic tectonic event, that began in the early Late Devonian with widespread effects continuing into the Mississippian and early Pennsylvanian.

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Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, with high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal.

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Appalachian Mountains

The Appalachian Mountains (les Appalaches), often called the Appalachians, are a system of mountains in eastern North America.

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Archaeopteris is an extinct genus of tree-like plants with fern-like leaves.

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An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atmospheric circulation

Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and together with ocean circulation is the means by which thermal energy is redistributed on the surface of the Earth.

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Aulopora is an extinct genus of tabulate coral characterized by a bifurcated budding pattern and conical corallites.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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The Bactritida are a small order of more or less straight-shelled (orthoconic) cephalopods that first appeared during the Emsian stage of the Devonian period (407 million years ago) with questionable origins in Pragian stage before 409 million years ago, and persisted until Carnian pluvial event in the upper middle Carnian stage of the Triassic period (231 million years ago).

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Baltica is a paleocontinent that formed in the Paleoproterozoic and now constitutes northwestern Eurasia, or Europe north of the Trans-European Suture Zone and west of the Ural Mountains.

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Bothriolepis ("pitted scale" or "trench scale") is a widespread, abundant and diverse genus of antiarch placoderms that lived during the Middle to Late Devonian period of the Paleozoic Era.

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Brachiopods, phylum Brachiopoda, are a group of lophotrochozoan animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower surfaces, unlike the left and right arrangement in bivalve molluscs.

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Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.

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Caledonian orogeny

The Caledonian orogeny was a mountain building era recorded in the northern parts of Ireland and Britain, the Scandinavian Mountains, Svalbard, eastern Greenland and parts of north-central Europe.

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The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Canadians (Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon sink

A carbon sink is a natural or artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon-containing chemical compound for an indefinite period.

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In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.

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The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.

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A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.

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Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.

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Cladoselache is a genus of extinct shark.

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The cladoxylopsids are a group of plants known only as fossils that are thought to be ancestors of ferns and horsetails.

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Climactichnites is an enigmatic, Cambrian fossil formed on or within sandy tidal flats around.

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Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Clymeniida is an order of ammonoid cephalods from the Upper Devonian characterized by having an unusual dorsal siphuncle.

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Conodonts (Greek kōnos, "cone", + odont, "tooth") are extinct agnathan chordates resembling eels, classified in the class Conodonta.

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A continent is one of several very large landmasses of the world.

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Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

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Coral reef

Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.

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Crinoids are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata).

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Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.

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Digby McLaren

Digby Johns McLaren, (December 11, 1919 – December 8, 2004) was a Canadian geologist and palaeontologist.

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Drepanophycus is a genus of extinct plants of the Division Lycopodiophyta of Early to Late Devonian age (around), found in Eastern Canada and Northeast USA, China, Russia, Egypt and various parts of Northern Europe and Britain.

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Dunkleosteus is an extinct genus of arthrodire placoderm fish that existed during the Late Devonian period, about 358–382 million years ago.

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The Eifelian is one of two faunal stages in the Middle Devonian epoch.

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The Emsian is one of three faunal stages in the Early Devonian epoch.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).

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Equisetales is an order of Equisetopsida with only one living family, the Equisetaceae, containing the genus Equisetum (horsetails).

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In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).

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Euramerica (also known as Laurussia – not to be confused with Laurasia, – the Old Red Continent or the Old Red Sandstone Continent) was a minor supercontinent created in the Devonian as the result of a collision between the Laurentian, Baltica, and Avalonia cratons during the Caledonian orogeny, about 410 million years ago.

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Eusthenopteron is a genus of prehistoric sarcopterygian (often called lobe-finned fishes) which has attained an iconic status from its close relationships to tetrapods.

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Extinction event

An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.

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Falls of the Ohio State Park

Falls of the Ohio State Park is a state park in Indiana.

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The Famennian is the latter of two faunal stages in the Late Devonian epoch.

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A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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A forest is a large area dominated by trees.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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The Frasnian is one of two faunal stages in the Late Devonian period.

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Fresh water

Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.

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Geologic time scale

The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.

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Geological period

A geological period is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place.

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George Bellas Greenough

George Bellas Greenough FRS FGS (18 January 1778 – 2 April 1855) was a pioneering English geologist.

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The Givetian is one of two faunal stages in the Middle Devonian period.

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A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Gnathostomata are the jawed vertebrates.

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Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).

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Goniatids, informally Goniatites, are ammonoid cephalopods that form the Order Goniatitida, derived from the more primitive Agoniatitida during the Middle Devonian some 390 million years ago.

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Great Britain

Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.

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Hadley cell

The Hadley cell, named after George Hadley, is a global scale tropical atmospheric circulation that features air rising near the Equator, flowing poleward at 10–15 kilometers above the surface, descending in the subtropics, and then returning equatorward near the surface.

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Hederellids are extinct colonial animals with calcitic tubular branching exoskeletons.

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Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.

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Henry De la Beche

Sir Henry Thomas De la Beche KCB, FRS (10 February 179613 April 1855) was an English geologist and palaeontologist, the first director of the Geological Survey of Great Britain, who helped pioneer early geological survey methods.

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Heterostraci ("Different scales") is an extinct subclass of pteraspidomorph jawless vertebrate that lived primarily in marine and estuary environments.

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Idaho is a state in the northwestern region of the United States.

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Insects or Insecta (from Latin insectum) are hexapod invertebrates and the largest group within the arthropod phylum.

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International Commission on Stratigraphy

The International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), sometimes referred to by the unofficial name "International Stratigraphic Commission" is a daughter or major subcommittee grade scientific daughter organization that concerns itself with stratigraphy, geological, and geochronological matters on a global scale.

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Island arc

An island arc is a type of archipelago, often composed of a chain of volcanoes, with arc-shaped alignment, situated parallel and close to a boundary between two converging tectonic plates.

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Journal of Paleontology

The Journal of Paleontology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of paleontology.

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Kimberley (Western Australia)

The Kimberley is the northernmost of the nine regions of Western Australia.

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A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body.

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Late Devonian extinction

The Late Devonian extinction was one of five major extinction events in the history of the Earth's biota.

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Laurentia or the North American Craton is a large continental craton that forms the ancient geological core of the North American continent.

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Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.

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List of Early Devonian land plants

The list of Early Devonian (419.2 ± 2.8 to 393.3 ± 2.5 million years ago) land plants includes currently known vascular and potentially vascular plants, along with some possibly non-vascular plants, that have been described from global Early Devonian fossil assemblages.

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List of fossil sites

This list of fossil sites is a worldwide list of localities known well for the presence of fossils.

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The Lochkovian is one of three faunal stages in the Early Devonian epoch.

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The Division Lycopodiophyta (sometimes called lycophyta or lycopods) is a tracheophyte subgroup of the Kingdom Plantae.

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The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.

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The order Microconchida is a group of small, spirally-coiled, encrusting fossil "worm" tubes from the class Tentaculita found from the Upper Ordovician to the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) around the world.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Mississippian (geology)

The Mississippian (also known as Lower Carboniferous or Early Carboniferous) is a subperiod in the geologic timescale or a subsystem of the geologic record.

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Mites are small arthropods belonging to the class Arachnida and the subclass Acari (also known as Acarina).

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Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

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Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.

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Myriapoda is a subphylum of arthropods containing millipedes, centipedes, and others.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nautiloids are a large and diverse group of marine cephalopods (Mollusca) belonging to the subclass Nautiloidea that began in the Late Cambrian and are represented today by the living Nautilus and Allonautilus.

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Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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Ohio is a Midwestern state in the Great Lakes region of the United States.

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Old Red Sandstone

The Old Red Sandstone is an assemblage of rocks in the North Atlantic region largely of Devonian age.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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Osteichthyes, popularly referred to as the bony fish, is a diverse taxonomic group of fish that have skeletons primarily composed of bone tissue, as opposed to cartilage.

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Ostracoderms ("shell-skinned") are the armored jawless fishes of the Paleozoic.

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Palaeogeography (or paleogeography) is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes.

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Paleo-Tethys Ocean

The Paleo-Tethys or Palaeo-Tethys Ocean was an ocean located along the northern margin of the paleocontinent Gondwana that started to open during the Middle Cambrian, grew throughout the Paleozoic, and finally closed during the Late Triassic; existing for about 400 million years.

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Paleontological Society

The Paleontological Society, formerly the Paleontological Society of America, is an international organisation devoted to the promotion of paleontology.

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Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Pangaea or Pangea was a supercontinent that existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras.

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Panthalassa, also known as the Panthalassic or Panthalassan Ocean, (from Greek πᾶν "all" and θάλασσα "sea"), was the superocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea.

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Phacops rana

Phacops rana (Eldredgeops rana) is a species of trilobite from the middle Devonian period.

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Placodermi (from the Greek πλάξ.

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A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Plate tectonics

Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.

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Pleurodictyum is an extinct genus of tabulate corals, characterized by polygonal corallites.

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The Pragian is one of three faunal stages in the Early Devonian epoch.

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Proetida is an order of trilobite that lived from the Ordovician to the Permian.

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The progymnosperms are an extinct group of woody, spore-bearing plants that is presumed to have evolved from the trimerophytes, and eventually gave rise to the gymnosperms.

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Proto-Tethys Ocean

The Proto-Tethys Ocean was an ancient ocean that existed from the latest Ediacaran to the Carboniferous (550–330 Ma).

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Prototaxites is a genus of terrestrial fossil fungi dating from the Late Silurian until the Late Devonian periods, approximately.

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Psammmosteida is a taxon of pteraspidid heterostracan agnathans.

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A pteridophyte is a vascular plant (with xylem and phloem) that disperses spores (and lacks seeds).

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The term Pteridospermatophyta (or "seed ferns" or "Pteridospermatopsida") refers to several distinct groups of extinct seed-bearing plants (spermatophytes).

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A reef is a bar of rock, sand, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water.

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Rheic Ocean

The Rheic Ocean was an ocean which separated two major palaeocontinents, Gondwana and Laurussia (Laurentia-Baltica-Avalonia).

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Roderick Murchison

Roderick Impey Murchison, 1st Baronet KCB DCL FRS FRSE FLS PRGS PBA MRIA (22 February 1792 – 22 October 1871) was a Scottish geologist who first described and investigated the Silurian system.

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The Rugosa, also called the Tetracorallia, are an extinct order of solitary and colonial corals that were abundant in Middle Ordovician to Late Permian seas.

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Sampling bias

In statistics, sampling bias is a bias in which a sample is collected in such a way that some members of the intended population are less likely to be included than others.

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The Sarcopterygii or lobe-finned fish (from Greek σαρξ sarx, flesh, and πτερυξ pteryx, fin) – sometimes considered synonymous with Crossopterygii ("fringe-finned fish", from Greek κροσσός krossos, fringe) – constitute a clade (traditionally a class or subclass) of the bony fish, though a strict cladistic view includes the terrestrial vertebrates.

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Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.

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Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.

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Series (stratigraphy)

Series are subdivisions of rock layers based on the age of the rock and formally defined by international conventions of the geological timescale.

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Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.

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Siberia (continent)

Siberia, also known as Angaraland (or simply Angara) and Angarida, is an ancient craton located in the heart of Siberia.

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The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.

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Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.

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Stromatoporoidea is a class of aquatic invertebrates common in the fossil record from the Ordovician through the Devonian.

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In geology, a supercontinent is the assembly of most or all of Earth's continental blocks or cratons to form a single large landmass.

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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The superclass Tetrapoda (from Greek: τετρα- "four" and πούς "foot") contains the four-limbed vertebrates known as tetrapods; it includes living and extinct amphibians, reptiles (including dinosaurs, and its subgroup birds) and mammals (including primates, and all hominid subgroups including humans), as well as earlier extinct groups.

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The Great Devonian Controversy

The Great Devonian Controversy began in 1834 when Roderick Murchison disagreed with Henry De la Beche as to the dating of certain petrified plants found in coals in the Greywacke strata in North Devon, England.

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The order Trigonotarbida is an extinct group of arachnids whose fossil record extends from the late Silurian to the early Permian.

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Trilobites (meaning "three lobes") are a fossil group of extinct marine arachnomorph arthropods that form the class Trilobita.

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Tropic of Capricorn

The Tropic of Capricorn (or the Southern Tropic) is the circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December (or southern) solstice.

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Ural Ocean

The Ural Ocean (also called the Uralic Ocean) was a small, ancient ocean that was situated between Siberia and Baltica.

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Vascular plant

Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.

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Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).

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Wattieza was a genus of prehistoric trees that existed in the mid-Devonian that belong to the cladoxylopsids, close relatives of the modern ferns and horsetails.

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Western Europe

Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.

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Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.

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A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.

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Age of Fish, Age of Fishes, Breconian, Devon (geology), Devon era, Devonian Age, Devonian Era, Devonian Period, Devonian System, Devonian climate, Devonian era, Devonian period, Devonion Period, Dittonian, Downtonian, Early Devonian, Early Devonian epoch, Eifelian Stage, Eifelian stage, Famennian Stage, Frasnian Stage, Gedinnian, Greenhouse Age, Greening of the continents, Late Devonian, Late Devonian epoch, Late Emsian, Lower Devonian, Middle Devonian, Middle Devonian epoch, Old Red Age, Pragnian, Tioughnioga Stage, Tioughniogan, Upper Devonian.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devonian

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