115 relations: Adharma, Ahimsa, Alf Hiltebeitel, Apastamba Dharmasutra, Aramaic language, Arjuna, Artha, Ashoka, Ashoka Chakra, Ashrama (stage), Atharvaveda, Atmatusti, Avestan, Ṛta, Étienne Lamotte, Bhavacakra, Bhima, Bhrigu, Brahmacharya, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Buddhahood, Buddhism, Buddhist philosophy, Caste system in India, Chan Buddhism, Charles Johnston (Theosophist), Daena, Daniel H. H. Ingalls Sr., David Frawley, David Kalupahana, Devanagari, Dhammapada, Dharma, Dharma (Jainism), Dharma transmission, Dharmaśāstra, Dharmachakra, Dharmakāya, Dravya, Encyclopædia Britannica, Essence, Eusebeia, Four Noble Truths, Gautama Buddha, Gavin Flood, Greek language, Grihastha, Guru Granth Sahib, Harold Coward, Harvard Oriental Series, ..., Hinduism, Historical Vedic religion, History of Dharmaśāstra, Huston Smith, Indian epic poetry, Indian philosophy, Indian religions, Indra, J. A. B. van Buitenen, Jain literature, Jainism, Jan Gonda, Journal of Indian Philosophy, Kama, Karl Friedrich Geldner, Karma, Klaus Klostermaier, Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben, Logos, Maat, Mahabharata, Mandala 10, Manusmriti, Maya (religion), Me (mythology), Moksha, Noble Eightfold Path, Old Church Slavonic, Ontology, Opposite (semantics), Oxford Dictionary of World Religions, Oxford University Press, Pali, Patrick Olivelle, Phenomenon, Proto-Indo-European language, Puranas, Rajiv Malhotra, Ramayana, Refuge (Buddhism), Rigveda, Sanātanī, Sangha, Sannyasa, Sanskrit, Satya, Schools of Buddhism, Shatapatha Brahmana, Sikh, Sikhism, Tao, Themis, Tirthankara, Trailokya, Untranslatability, Upanishads, Vanaprastha, Vātsyāyana, Vedas, Vedic Sanskrit, Yoga, Yudhishthira, Yuga, Yuga dharma, 3HO. Expand index (65 more) » « Shrink index
Adharma is the Sanskrit antonym of Dharma.
Ahimsa (IAST:, Pāli) means 'not to injure' and 'compassion' and refers to a key virtue in Indian religions.
Alf Hiltebeitel is Columbian Professor of Religion, History, and Human Sciences at George Washington University in Washington DC, USA.
Āpastamba Dharmasūtra is a Sanskrit text and one of the oldest Dharma-related texts of Hinduism that have survived into the modern age from the 1st-millennium BCE.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Arjuna (in Devanagari: अर्जुन) is the main central character of the ancient Indian epic Mahabharata and plays a key role in the Bhagavad Gita alongside Krishna.
Artha (अर्थ) is one of the four aims of human life in Indian philosophy.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
The Ashoka Chakra is a depiction of the dharmachakra; represented with 24 spokes.
An Ashrama (Sanskrit: āśrama) in Hinduism is one of four age-based life stages discussed in ancient and medieval era Indian texts.
The Atharva Veda (Sanskrit: अथर्ववेद, from and veda, meaning "knowledge") is the "knowledge storehouse of atharvāṇas, the procedures for everyday life".
Atmatusti is translated into English as being “what is pleasing to one's self” – it is important to recognize "what is pleasing to one's self, oneself is not equal one's self", for without knowing one's self one cannot know what is pleasing to self.
Avestan, also known historically as Zend, is a language known only from its use as the language of Zoroastrian scripture (the Avesta), from which it derives its name.
In the Vedic religion, Ṛta (Sanskrit ऋतम् "that which is properly/excellently joined; order, rule; truth") is the principle of natural order which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it.
Étienne Paul Marie Lamotte (November 21, 1903 – May 5, 1983) was a Belgian priest and Professor of Greek at the Catholic University of Louvain, but was better known as an Indologist and the greatest authority on Buddhism in the West in his time.
The bhavachakra (Sanskrit; Pāli: bhavachakra; Tibetan: srid pa'i 'khor lo) is a symbolic representation of saṃsāra (or cyclic existence).
In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Bhima or Bhimasena (Sanskrit: भीम) is the second of the Pandavas.
Maharishi Bhrigu (Bhṛgu) was one of the seven great sages, the Saptarshis, one of the many Prajapatis (the facilitators of Creation) created by Brahma Born in ballia.
Brahmacharya (Devanagari: ब्रह्मचर्य) is a concept within Indian religions that literally means "going after Brahman".
The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (बृहदारण्यक उपनिषद्) is one of the Principal Upanishads and one of the oldest Upanishadic scriptures of Hinduism.
In Buddhism, buddhahood (buddhatva; buddhatta or italic) is the condition or rank of a buddha "awakened one".
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buddhist philosophy refers to the philosophical investigations and systems of inquiry that developed among various Buddhist schools in India following the death of the Buddha and later spread throughout Asia.
The caste system in India is the paradigmatic ethnographic example of caste.
Chan (of), from Sanskrit dhyāna (meaning "meditation" or "meditative state"), is a Chinese school of Mahāyāna Buddhism.
Charles Johnston (1867–1931) was an Irish writer, journalist, theosophist and Sanskrit scholar.
Daena is a Zoroastrian concept representing insight and revelation, hence "conscience" or "religion." Alternately, Daena is considered to be a divinity, counted among the ''yazata''s.
Daniel Henry Holmes Ingalls Sr. (May 4, 1916 – July 17, 1999) was the Wales Professor of Sanskrit at Harvard University.
David Frawley (Sanskrit title: वामदेव शास्त्री, IAST: Vāmadeva Śāstrī), born 1950, is an American Hindu teacher (acharya) and author, who has written more than thirty books on topics such as the Vedas, Hinduism (Sanatana Dharma), Yoga, Ayurveda and Vedic astrology, published both in India and in the United States.
David J. Kalupahana (1936–2014) was a Buddhist scholar from Sri Lanka.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
The Dhammapada (Pāli; धम्मपद Dhammapada) is a collection of sayings of the Buddha in verse form and one of the most widely read and best known Buddhist scriptures.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
Jain texts assign a wide range of meaning to the Sanskrit dharma or Prakrit dhamma.
In Zen-Buddhism, Dharma transmission is a custom in which a person is established as a "successor in an unbroken lineage of teachers and disciples, a spiritual 'bloodline' (kechimyaku) theoretically traced back to the Buddha himself."Haskel, 2 The dharma lineage reflects the importance of family-structures in ancient China, and forms a symbolic and ritual recreation of this system for the monastical "family".
Dharmaśāstra (धर्मशास्त्र) is a genre of Sanskrit texts, and refers to the treatises (shastras) of Hinduism on dharma.
The dharmachakra (which is also known as the wheel of dharma), is one of the Ashtamangala of Indian religions such as Jainism, Buddhism, and Hinduism.
The dharmakāya (Sanskrit, "truth body" or "reality body") is one of the three bodies (trikaya) of a buddha in Mahayana Buddhism.
Dravya (द्रव्य) is a term used to refer to a substance.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
In philosophy, essence is the property or set of properties that make an entity or substance what it fundamentally is, and which it has by necessity, and without which it loses its identity.
Eusebeia (Greek: εὐσέβεια from εὐσεβής "pious" from εὖ eu meaning "well", and σέβας sebas meaning "reverence", itself formed from seb- meaning sacred awe and reverence especially in actions) is a Greek word abundantly used in Greek philosophy as well as in the New Testament, meaning to perform the actions appropriate to the gods.
The Four Noble Truths refer to and express the basic orientation of Buddhism in a short expression: we crave and cling to impermanent states and things, which are dukkha, "incapable of satisfying" and painful.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Gavin Dennis Flood (born 1954) FBA is a British scholar of comparative religion specialising in Shaivism and phenomenology, but with research interests that span South Asian traditions.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Grihastha (Sanskrit: gr̥hastha) literally means "being in and occupied with home, family" or "householder".
Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: ਗੁਰੂ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ਸਾਹਿਬ) is the religious scripture of Sikhism, regarded by Sikhs as the final, sovereign, and eternal living guru following the lineage of the ten human Sikh gurus of the Sikh religion.
Harold Coward (born 1936) is a Canadian scholar of bioethics and religious studies.
The Harvard Oriental Series is a book series founded in 1891 by Charles Rockwell Lanman and Henry Clarke Warren.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The historical Vedic religion (also known as Vedism, Brahmanism, Vedic Brahmanism, and ancient Hinduism) was the religion of the Indo-Aryans of northern India during the Vedic period.
The History of Dharmaśāstra, with subtitle Ancient and Medieval Religious and Civil Law in India, is a monumental five-volume work consisting of around 6,500 pages.
Huston Cummings Smith (May 31, 1919 – December 30, 2016) was a religious studies scholar in the United States.
Indian epic poetry is the epic poetry written in the Indian subcontinent, traditionally called Kavya (or Kāvya; Sanskrit: काव्य, IAST: kāvyá) or Kappiyam (Tamil language: காப்பியம், kāppiyam).
Indian philosophy refers to ancient philosophical traditions of the Indian subcontinent.
Indian religions, sometimes also termed as Dharmic faiths or religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism.
(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.
Johannes Adrianus Bernardus van Buitenen (21 May 1928, The Hague – 21 September 1979, Champaign, Illinois) was a Dutch Indologist at the University of Chicago where he was the George V. Bobrinskoy Professor of Sanskrit in the Department of South Asian Languages and Civilizations.
Jain literature comprises Jain Agamas and subsequent commentaries on them by various Jain asectics.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Jan Gonda, (14 April 1905 – 28 July 1991) was a Dutch Indologist and the first Utrecht professor of Sanskrit.
The Journal of Indian Philosophy (print:, online) is an academic journal on philosophy published by Springer.
Kama (Sanskrit, Pali; Devanagari: काम, IAST: kāma) means wish, desire or longing in Hindu literature.
Karl Friedrich Geldner (17 December 1852 – 5 February 1929) was a German linguist best known for his analysis and synthesis of Avestan and Vedic Sanskrit texts.
Karma (karma,; italic) means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect).
Klaus K. Klostermaier (born 1933) is a prominent German-Canadian scholar on Hinduism and Indian history and culture.
The Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben (LIV, "Lexicon of the Indo-European Verbs") is an etymological dictionary of the Proto-Indo-European (PIE) verb.
Logos (lógos; from λέγω) is a term in Western philosophy, psychology, rhetoric, and religion derived from a Greek word variously meaning "ground", "plea", "opinion", "expectation", "word", "speech", "account", "reason", "proportion", and "discourse",Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott,: logos, 1889.
Maat or Ma'at (Egyptian '''mꜣꜥt''' /ˈmuʀʕat/) refers to the ancient Egyptian concepts of truth, balance, order, harmony, law, morality, and justice.
The Mahābhārata (महाभारतम्) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the Rāmāyaṇa.
The tenth mandala of the Rigveda has 191 hymns.
The Manusmṛti (Sanskrit: मनुस्मृति), also spelled as Manusmriti, is an ancient legal text among the many of Hinduism.
Maya (Devanagari: माया, IAST: māyā), literally "illusion" or "magic", has multiple meanings in Indian philosophies depending on the context.
In Sumerian mythology, a me (Sumerian: me; paršu) is one of the decrees of the gods that is foundational to those social institutions, religious practices, technologies, behaviors, mores, and human conditions that make civilization, as the Sumerians understood it, possible.
Moksha (मोक्ष), also called vimoksha, vimukti and mukti, is a term in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism which refers to various forms of emancipation, liberation, and release. In its soteriological and eschatological senses, it refers to freedom from saṃsāra, the cycle of death and rebirth. In its epistemological and psychological senses, moksha refers to freedom from ignorance: self-realization and self-knowledge. In Hindu traditions, moksha is a central concept and the utmost aim to be attained through three paths during human life; these three paths are dharma (virtuous, proper, moral life), artha (material prosperity, income security, means of life), and kama (pleasure, sensuality, emotional fulfillment). Together, these four concepts are called Puruṣārtha in Hinduism. In some schools of Indian religions, moksha is considered equivalent to and used interchangeably with other terms such as vimoksha, vimukti, kaivalya, apavarga, mukti, nihsreyasa and nirvana. However, terms such as moksha and nirvana differ and mean different states between various schools of Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism.See.
The Noble Eightfold Path (ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo, āryāṣṭāṅgamārga) is an early summary of the path of Buddhist practices leading to liberation from samsara, the painful cycle of rebirth.
Old Church Slavonic, also known as Old Church Slavic (or Ancient/Old Slavonic often abbreviated to OCS; (autonym словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, slověnĭskŭ językŭ), not to be confused with the Proto-Slavic, was the first Slavic literary language. The 9th-century Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius are credited with standardizing the language and using it in translating the Bible and other Ancient Greek ecclesiastical texts as part of the Christianization of the Slavs. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (now in Greece). It played an important role in the history of the Slavic languages and served as a basis and model for later Church Slavonic traditions, and some Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic churches use this later Church Slavonic as a liturgical language to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of Proto-Slavic, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.
Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
In lexical semantics, opposites are words lying in an inherently incompatible binary relationship, like the opposite pairs big: small, long: short, and precede: follow.
The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions is a reference work edited by John Bowker and published by Oxford University Press.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
Patrick Olivelle is an Indologist.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.
The Puranas (singular: पुराण), are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories.
Rajiv Malhotra (born 15 September 1950) is an Indian-American author and public intellectual who, after a career in the computer and telecom industries, took early retirement in 1995 to found the Infinity Foundation, which focuses on Indic studies, but also funds projects such as Columbia University's project to translate the Tibetan Buddhist Tengyur.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
Buddhists take refuge in the Three Jewels or Triple Gem (also known as the "Three Refuges").
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
Indians often use the term Sanātanī with reference either.
Sangha (saṅgha; saṃgha; සංඝයා; พระสงฆ์; Tamil: சங்கம்) is a word in Pali and Sanskrit meaning "association", "assembly", "company" or "community" and most commonly refers in Buddhism to the monastic community of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns).
Sannyasa is the life stage of renunciation within the Hindu philosophy of four age-based life stages known as ashramas, with the first three being Brahmacharya (bachelor student), Grihastha (householder) and Vanaprastha (forest dweller, retired).
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Satya is the Sanskrit word for truth.
The Schools of Buddhism are the various institutional and doctrinal divisions of Buddhism that have existed from ancient times up to the present.
The Shatapatha Brahmana (IAST:, "Brāhmaṇa of one hundred parts") is a prose text describing Vedic rituals, history and mythology associated with the Śukla Yajurveda.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
Sikhism (ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi,, from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the fifth-largest. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for social justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them (20 million) living in Punjab, the Sikh homeland in northwest India, and about 2 million living in neighboring Indian states, formerly part of the Punjab. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014),, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield,, pages 17, 84-85William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press,, pages 241–242 Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life., page.
Tao or Dao (from) is a Chinese word signifying 'way', 'path', 'route', 'road' or sometimes more loosely 'doctrine', 'principle' or 'holistic science' Dr Zai, J..
Themis (Ancient Greek: Θέμις) is an ancient Greek Titaness.
In Jainism, a tirthankara (Sanskrit:; English: literally a 'ford-maker') is a saviour and spiritual teacher of the dharma (righteous path).
Trailokya (त्रैलोक्य; tiloka) has been translated as "three worlds,"Fischer-Schreiber et al. (1991), p. 230, entry for "Triloka." Here, synonyms for triloka include trailokya and traidhātuka.
Untranslatability is a property of a text, or of any utterance, in one language, for which no equivalent text or utterance can be found in another language when translated.
The Upanishads (उपनिषद्), a part of the Vedas, are ancient Sanskrit texts that contain some of the central philosophical concepts and ideas of Hinduism, some of which are shared with religious traditions like Buddhism and Jainism.
Vanaprastha (वनप्रस्थ) literally means "giving up worldly life".
Vātsyāyana is the name of an ancient Indian philosopher, known for writing the Kama Sutra, the most famous book in the world on human sexuality.
The Vedas are ancient Sanskrit texts of Hinduism. Above: A page from the ''Atharvaveda''. The Vedas (Sanskrit: वेद, "knowledge") are a large body of knowledge texts originating in the ancient Indian subcontinent.
Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group.
Yoga (Sanskrit, योगः) is a group of physical, mental, and spiritual practices or disciplines which originated in ancient India.
In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Yudhishthira (Sanskrit: युधिष्ठिर, IAST: Yudhiṣṭhira) was the eldest son of King Pandu and Queen Kunti and the king of Indraprastha and later of Hastinapura (Kuru).
Yuga in Hinduism is an epoch or era within a four-age cycle.
Yuga Dharma (युगधर्म) is one aspect of Dharma, as understood by Hindus.
3HO (Healthy, Happy, Holy Organization) is a sect of Sikhism that started about 1970.
Buddhist dharma, Definition of Dharma, Dhamma, Dhammā, Dharm, Dharma (Buddhism), Dharma in Buddhism, Dharma in Hinduism, Dharma in Sikhism, Dharmic, Fǎ, Hindu dharma, History of Dharma, The dharma, धम्म, 法.