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Diabetes mellitus

Index Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. [1]

194 relations: Abdominal pain, Academic Press, ACE inhibitor, Acetone, Acidosis, Acromegaly, Acute (medicine), Addison's disease, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Altered level of consciousness, Alzheimer's disease, American College of Physicians, American Diabetes Association, Amputation, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Anti-diabetic medication, Antihypertensive drug, Anxiety, Aretaeus of Cappadocia, Aspirin, Autoantibody, Autoimmunity, Bariatric surgery, Beta cell, Blood sugar level, Blood vessel, Body mass index, Brain damage, Caesarean section, Cardiovascular disease, Cataract, Central nervous system, Charaka, Charles Best (medical scientist), Chronic condition, Chronic kidney disease, Chronic pancreatitis, Circa, Cognitive deficit, Common Era, Concordance (genetics), Consumer Reports, Cost-effectiveness analysis, Coxsackie B4 virus, Cushing's syndrome, Cystic fibrosis, Cytomegalovirus, Death, ..., Dehydration, Diabetes insipidus, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetic dermadrome, Diabetic foot, Diabetic foot ulcer, Diabetic ketoacidosis, Diabetic nephropathy, Diabetic neuropathy, Diabetic retinopathy, Dialysis, Diet (nutrition), Dietary fiber, Dominance (genetics), Ebers Papyrus, Endocrine disease, Endocrinology, Epileptic seizure, Exercise, Fat, Fatigue, Fibrocalculous pancreatopathy, Floruit, Frederick Banting, Galen, Gastroparesis, General practitioner, Genetics, Gestational diabetes, Glaucoma, Gliadin, Glucagon, Glucagon rescue, Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, Glucagonoma, Glucocorticoid, Gluconeogenesis, Glucose, Glucose test, Glucose tolerance test, Gluten, Glycated hemoglobin, Glycogen, Glycosuria, Health policy, Hemolysis, Hormone, Human leukocyte antigen, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperglycemia, Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, Hypertension, Hyperthyroidism, Hypoglycemia, ICD-10, Impaired fasting glucose, Impaired glucose tolerance, Infant respiratory distress syndrome, Inhalable insulin, Insulin, Insulin analog, Insulin receptor, Insulin resistance, Insulin-like growth factor 1, International Diabetes Federation, Iron overload, Ketosis, Kidney, Kidney transplantation, Kussmaul breathing, Labor induction, Large for gestational age, Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults, Latin, Lens (anatomy), List of physicians named Apollonius, Liver, Macrovascular disease, MannKind Corporation, Maturity onset diabetes of the young, Merck & Co., Metabolic disorder, Metformin, Mitochondrion, Monounsaturated fat, Muscle atrophy, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Nutrition, Obesity, Orthotics, Osmotic pressure, Pancreas, Pancreas transplantation, Pancreatectomy, Pancreatic cancer, Pancreatic islets, Paresthesia, Peripheral artery disease, Perspiration, Pheochromocytoma, Physician, Polydipsia, Polyphagia, Polyunsaturated fat, Polyuria, Poodle, Prediabetes, Pregnancy, Proinsulin, Proximal diabetic neuropathy, Reabsorption, Receptor (biochemistry), Retina, Roman Empire, Saturated fat, Shoulder dystocia, Siphon, Skeletal muscle, Smoking cessation, St. Vincent Declaration, Statin, Stress (biology), Stroke, Sugar, Surfactant, Sushruta, T cell, Telehealth, Thomas Willis, Thyroid hormones, Tobacco smoking, Trans fat, Twin, Unconsciousness, Unemployment, Urbanization, Urine, Visual impairment, Waist–hip ratio, White rice, Whole grain, World Health Organization. Expand index (144 more) »

Abdominal pain

Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.

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Academic Press

Academic Press is an academic book publisher.

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ACE inhibitor

An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.

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Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.

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Acidosis is a process causing increased acidity in the blood and other body tissues (i.e., an increased hydrogen ion concentration).

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Acromegaly is a disorder that results from excess growth hormone (GH) after the growth plates have closed.

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Acute (medicine)

In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.

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Addison's disease

Addison's disease, also known as primary adrenal insufficiency and hypocortisolism, is a long-term endocrine disorder in which the adrenal glands do not produce enough steroid hormones.

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Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), located in Rockville, MD, a suburb of Washington, D.C., is one of 12 Agencies within the United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

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Altered level of consciousness

An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.

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Alzheimer's disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.

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American College of Physicians

The American College of Physicians (ACP) is a national organization of internal medicineAmerican Board of Medical Specialties -. Retrieved 20 October 2014 physicians (internists)Mercy Cedar Rapids -. Retrieved 20 October 2014—specialists who apply scientific knowledge and clinical expertise to the diagnosis, treatment, and compassionate care of adults across the spectrum from health to complex illness.

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American Diabetes Association

The American Diabetes Association (ADA) is a United States-based nonprofit that seeks to educate the public about diabetes and to help those affected by it by funding research to manage, cure and prevent diabetes (including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and pre-diabetes).

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Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.

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Ancient Greece

Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Angiotensin II receptor blocker

Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.

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Anti-diabetic medication

Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood.

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Antihypertensive drug

Antihypertensives are a class of drugs that are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure).

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Anxiety is an emotion characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil, often accompanied by nervous behaviour such as pacing back and forth, somatic complaints, and rumination.

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Aretaeus of Cappadocia

Aretaeus (Ἀρεταῖος) is one of the most celebrated of the ancient Greek physicians, of whose life, however, few particulars are known.

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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An autoantibody is an antibody (a type of protein) produced by the immune system that is directed against one or more of the individual's own proteins.

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Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.

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Bariatric surgery

Bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have obesity.

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Beta cell

Beta cells (β cells) are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.

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Blood sugar level

The blood sugar level, blood sugar concentration, or blood glucose level is the amount of glucose present in the blood of humans and other animals.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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Body mass index

The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.

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Brain damage

Brain damage or brain injury (BI) is the destruction or degeneration of brain cells.

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Caesarean section

Caesarean section, also known as C-section or caesarean delivery, is the use of surgery to deliver one or more babies.

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Cardiovascular disease

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.

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A cataract is a clouding of the lens in the eye which leads to a decrease in vision.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Charaka (चरक) (~6th – 2nd century BCE) was one of the principal contributors to Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India.

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Charles Best (medical scientist)

Charles Herbert Best (February 27, 1899 – March 31, 1978) was a Canadian medical scientist and one of the co-discoverers of insulin.

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Chronic condition

A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.

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Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.

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Chronic pancreatitis

Chronic pancreatitis is a long-standing inflammation of the pancreas that alters the organ's normal structure and functions.

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Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.

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Cognitive deficit

Cognitive deficit or cognitive impairment is an inclusive term to describe any characteristic that acts as a barrier to the cognition process.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Concordance (genetics)

Concordance, as used in genetics, usually means the presence of the same trait in both members of a pair of twins.

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Consumer Reports

Consumer Reports is an American magazine published since 1930 by Consumers Union, a nonprofit organization dedicated to unbiased product testing, consumer-oriented research, public education, and advocacy.

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Cost-effectiveness analysis

Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is a form of economic analysis that compares the relative costs and outcomes (effects) of different courses of action.

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Coxsackie B4 virus

Coxsackie B4 Virus are enteroviruses that belong to the Picornaviridae family.

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Cushing's syndrome

Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.

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Cystic fibrosis

Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.

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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, "cell", and megalo-, "large") is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae.

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Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism.

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In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.

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Diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by large amounts of dilute urine and increased thirst.

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Diabetes mellitus

Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.

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Diabetes mellitus type 1

Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.

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Diabetes mellitus type 2

Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.

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Diabetic dermadrome

Diabetic dermadromes constitute a group of cutaneous conditions commonly seen in people with diabetes with longstanding disease.

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Diabetic foot

A diabetic foot is a foot that exhibits any pathology that results directly from diabetes mellitus or any long-term (or "chronic") complication of diabetes mellitus.

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Diabetic foot ulcer

Diabetic foot ulcer is a major complication of diabetes mellitus, and probably the major component of the diabetic foot.

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Diabetic ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.

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Diabetic nephropathy

Diabetic nephropathy (DN), also known as diabetic kidney disease, is the chronic loss of kidney function occurring in those with diabetes mellitus.

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Diabetic neuropathy

Diabetic neuropathies are nerve damaging disorders associated with diabetes mellitus.

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Diabetic retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy, also known as diabetic eye disease, is a medical condition in which damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes mellitus.

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In medicine, dialysis (from Greek διάλυσις, diàlysis, "dissolution"; from διά, dià, "through", and λύσις, lỳsis, "loosening or splitting") is the process of removing excess water, solutes and toxins from the blood in those whose native kidneys have lost the ability to perform these functions in a natural way.

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Diet (nutrition)

In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.

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Dietary fiber

Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.

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Dominance (genetics)

Dominance in genetics is a relationship between alleles of one gene, in which the effect on phenotype of one allele masks the contribution of a second allele at the same locus.

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Ebers Papyrus

The Ebers Papyrus, also known as Papyrus Ebers, is an Egyptian medical papyrus of herbal knowledge dating to circa 1550 BC.

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Endocrine disease

Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system.

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Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.

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Epileptic seizure

An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.

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Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.

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Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.

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Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.

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Fibrocalculous pancreatopathy

Fibrocalculous pancreatopathy (FCPP) is a secondary form of diabetes mellitus of unresolved etiology that has historically been considered an issue specific to the impoverished agricultural tropics of India, but also occurs in the countries of Bangladesh, China, and Ethiopia.

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Floruit, abbreviated fl. (or occasionally, flor.), Latin for "he/she flourished", denotes a date or period during which a person was known to have been alive or active.

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Frederick Banting

Sir Frederick Grant Banting (November 14, 1891 – February 21, 1941) was a Canadian medical scientist, physician, painter, and Nobel laureate noted as the co-discoverer of insulin and its therapeutic potential.

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Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.

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Gastroparesis (GP also called delayed gastric emptying) is a medical condition consisting of a paresis (partial paralysis) of the stomach, resulting in food remaining in the stomach for an abnormally long time.

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General practitioner

In the medical profession, a general practitioner (GP) is a medical doctor who treats acute and chronic illnesses and provides preventive care and health education to patients.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.

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Glaucoma is a group of eye diseases which result in damage to the optic nerve and vision loss.

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Gliadin (a type of prolamin) is a class of proteins present in wheat and several other cereals within the grass genus Triticum.

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Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.

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Glucagon rescue

Glucagon rescue is the emergency injection of glucagon in case of severe diabetic hypoglycemia.

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Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist

Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists also known as GLP-1 receptor agonists or incretin mimetics are agonists of the GLP-1 receptor.

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A glucagonoma is a rare tumor of the alpha cells of the pancreas that results in the overproduction of the hormone glucagon.

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Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.

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Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glucose test

A glucose test may be recommended for a variety of reasons.

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Glucose tolerance test

The glucose tolerance test is a medical test in which glucose is given and blood samples taken afterward to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood.

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Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.

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Glycated hemoglobin

Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also referred to as being Hb1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration.

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Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.

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Glycosuria or glucosuria is the excretion of glucose into the urine.

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Health policy

Health policy can be defined as the "decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a society".

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Hemolysis or haemolysis, also known by several other names, is the rupturing (lysis) of red blood cells (erythrocytes) and the release of their contents (cytoplasm) into surrounding fluid (e.g. blood plasma).

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A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.

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Human leukocyte antigen

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.

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Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.

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Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.

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Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state

Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is a complication of diabetes mellitus in which high blood sugar results in high osmolarity without significant ketoacidosis.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.

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Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.

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ICD-10 is the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD), a medical classification list by the World Health Organization (WHO).

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Impaired fasting glucose

Impaired fasting glucose, or impaired fasting glycemia (IFG) is a type of prediabetes, in which a person's blood sugar levels during fasting are consistently above the normal range, but below the diagnostic cut-off for a formal diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.

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Impaired glucose tolerance

Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology.

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Infant respiratory distress syndrome

Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), also called neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS), respiratory distress syndrome of newborn, or increasingly surfactant deficiency disorder (SDD), and previously called hyaline membrane disease (HMD), is a syndrome in premature infants caused by developmental insufficiency of pulmonary surfactant production and structural immaturity in the lungs.

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Inhalable insulin

Inhalable insulin is a powdered form of insulin, delivered with a nebulizer into the lungs where it is absorbed.

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Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.

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Insulin analog

An insulin analog is an altered form of insulin, different from any occurring in nature, but still available to the human body for performing the same action as human insulin in terms of glycemic control.

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Insulin receptor

The insulin receptor (IR) is a transmembrane receptor that is activated by insulin, IGF-I, IGF-II and belongs to the large class of tyrosine kinase receptors.

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Insulin resistance

Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.

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Insulin-like growth factor 1

Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), also called somatomedin C, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IGF1 gene.

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International Diabetes Federation

The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) is a worldwide alliance of over 230 national diabetes associations in more than 160 countries, who have come together to enhance the lives of people with diabetes everywhere.

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Iron overload

Iron overload (variously known as haemochromatosis, hemochromatosis, hemochromocytosis, Celtic curse, Irish illness, British gene, Scottish sickness and bronzing diabetes) indicates accumulation of iron in the body from any cause.

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Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy.

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The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.

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Kidney transplantation

Kidney transplantation or renal transplantation is the organ transplant of a kidney into a patient with end-stage renal disease.

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Kussmaul breathing

Kussmaul breathing is a deep and labored breathing pattern often associated with severe metabolic acidosis, particularly diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) but also kidney failure.

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Labor induction

Labor induction is the process or treatment that stimulates childbirth and delivery.

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Large for gestational age

Large for gestational age (LGA) is an indication of high prenatal growth rate.

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Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults

Latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA) is a form of diabetes mellitus type 1 that occurs in adulthood, often with a slower course of onset than type 1 diabetes diagnosed in juveniles.

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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Lens (anatomy)

The lens is a transparent, biconvex structure in the eye that, along with the cornea, helps to refract light to be focused on the retina.

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List of physicians named Apollonius

Apollonius (Ἀπολλώνιος) was the name of several physicians in the time of Ancient Greece and Rome.

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The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.

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Macrovascular disease

Macrovascular disease is a disease of any large (macro) blood vessels in the body.

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MannKind Corporation

MannKind Corporation is a biopharmaceutical company focusing on the discovery, development, and commercialization of therapeutic products for diseases such as diabetes and pulmonary arterial hypertension.

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Maturity onset diabetes of the young

"Maturity onset diabetes of the young" (MODY) refers to any of several hereditary forms of diabetes mellitus caused by mutations in an autosomal dominant gene disrupting insulin production.

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Merck & Co.

Merck & Company, Inc., d.b.a. Merck Sharp & Dohme (MSD) outside the United States and Canada, is an American pharmaceutical company and one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world.

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Metabolic disorder

A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.

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Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in people who are overweight.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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Monounsaturated fat

In biochemistry and nutrition, monounsaturated fatty acids (abbreviated MUFAs, or more plainly monounsaturated fats) are fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain with all of the remainder carbon atoms being single-bonded.

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Muscle atrophy

Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and is most commonly experienced when persons suffer temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement and/or confined to bed as when hospitalized.

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National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) is part of the United States National Institutes of Health, which in turn is part of the Department of Health and Human Services.

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Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.

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Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.

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Orthotics (Greek: Ορθός, ortho, "to straighten" or "align") is a specialty within the medical field concerned with the design, manufacture and application of orthoses.

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Osmotic pressure

Osmotic pressure is the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membrane.

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The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

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Pancreas transplantation

A pancreas transplant is an organ transplant that involves implanting a healthy pancreas (one that can produce insulin) into a person who usually has diabetes.

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In medicine, a pancreatectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas.

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Pancreatic cancer

Pancreatic cancer arises when cells in the pancreas, a glandular organ behind the stomach, begin to multiply out of control and form a mass.

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Pancreatic islets

The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.

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Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, tickling, pricking, numbness or burning of a person's skin with no apparent physical cause.

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Peripheral artery disease

Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain.

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Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.

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Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent.

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A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.

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Polydipsia is excessive thirst or excess drinking.

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Polyphagia or hyperphagia is excessive hunger or increased appetite.

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Polyunsaturated fat

Polyunsaturated fats are fats in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds.

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Polyuria is excessive or an abnormally large production or passage of urine (greater than 2.5 or 3 L over 24 hours in adults).

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The poodle is a group of formal dog breeds, the Standard Poodle, Miniature Poodle and Toy Poodle.

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Prediabetes is the precursor stage before diabetes mellitus in which not all of the symptoms required to diagnose diabetes are present, but blood sugar is abnormally high.

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Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.

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Proinsulin is the prohormone precursor to insulin made in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans, specialized regions of the pancreas.

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Proximal diabetic neuropathy

Proximal diabetic neuropathy, more commonly known as diabetic amyotrophy, is a nerve disorder that results as a complication of diabetes mellitus.

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In renal physiology, reabsorption or tubular reabsorption is the process by which the nephron removes water and solutes from the tubular fluid (pre-urine) and returns them to the circulating blood.

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Receptor (biochemistry)

In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.

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The retina is the innermost, light-sensitive "coat", or layer, of shell tissue of the eye of most vertebrates and some molluscs.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Saturated fat

A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.

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Shoulder dystocia

Shoulder dystocia is a specific case of obstructed labour whereby after the delivery of the head, the anterior shoulder of the infant cannot pass below, or requires significant manipulation to pass below, the pubic symphysis.

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The word siphon (from σίφων "pipe, tube", also spelled syphon) is used to refer to a wide variety of devices that involve the flow of liquids through tubes.

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Skeletal muscle

Skeletal muscle is one of three major muscle types, the others being cardiac muscle and smooth muscle.

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Smoking cessation

Smoking cessation (also known as quitting smoking or simply quitting) is the process of discontinuing tobacco smoking.

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St. Vincent Declaration

The St.

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Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.

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Stress (biology)

Physiological or biological stress is an organism's response to a stressor such as an environmental condition.

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A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.

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Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

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Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.

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Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician during 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: ''Suśruta-saṃhitā'').

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T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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Telehealth involves the distribution of health-related services and information via electronic information and telecommunication technologies.

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Thomas Willis

Thomas Willis (27 January 1621 – 11 November 1675) was an English doctor who played an important part in the history of anatomy, neurology and psychiatry.

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Thyroid hormones

Thyroid hormones are two hormones produced and released by the thyroid gland, namely triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4).

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Tobacco smoking

Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).

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Trans fat

Trans fat, also called trans-unsaturated fatty acids or trans fatty acids, are a type of unsaturated fat that occur in small amounts in nature but became widely produced industrially from vegetable fats starting in the 1950s for use in margarine, snack food, and packaged baked goods and for frying fast food.

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Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.

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Unconsciousness is a state which occurs when the ability to maintain an awareness of self and environment is lost.

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Unemployment is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed.

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Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.

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Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.

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Visual impairment

Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.

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Waist–hip ratio

The Waist-hip ratio or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is the dimensionless ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips.

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White rice

White rice is milled rice that has had its husk, bran, and germ removed.

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Whole grain

A whole grain is a grain of any cereal and pseudocereal that contains the endosperm, germ, and bran, in contrast to refined grains, which retain only the endosperm.

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World Health Organization

The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diabetes_mellitus

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