156 relations: Acanthosis nigricans, Acarbose, ACE inhibitor, Acromegaly, Adipocyte, Aerobic exercise, Allele, Altered level of consciousness, Alzheimer's disease, American Diabetes Association, Amputation, Angiotensin II receptor blocker, Anti-diabetic medication, Antibody, Atypical antipsychotic, Autoimmunity, Bacteroides, Bariatric surgery, Beta blocker, Beta cell, Blood pressure, Blurred vision, Body mass index, C-peptide, Cancer, Cardiovascular disease, Cell (biology), Central nervous system, Charaka, Charles Best (medical scientist), Childhood obesity, Chronic kidney disease, Circa, Cognitive disorder, Common Era, Coronary artery disease, Cushing's syndrome, Dementia, Developed country, Developing country, Diabetes insipidus, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Diabetic diet, Diabetic ketoacidosis, Diabetic retinopathy, Diet (nutrition), Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, DNA methylation, Donohue syndrome, ..., Endocrinology, Epidemic, Exercise, Eye examination, Fatigue, First-degree relatives, Frederick Banting, Galen, Gene, Genetic disorder, Gestational diabetes, Gliflozin, Glucagon, Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, Glucagonoma, Glucocorticoid, Glucose, Glucose test, Glucose tolerance test, Glycated hemoglobin, Heredity, Hospital, Hypercholesterolemia, Hyperglycemia, Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, Hypertension, Hyperthyroidism, Hypoglycemia, Hypotension, Impaired glucose tolerance, Incretin, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Insulin, Insulin detemir, Insulin glargine, Insulin resistance, Itch, Kidney disease, Kidney failure, Latino, Least Developed Countries, Life expectancy, Lipid, List of physicians named Apollonius, Liver, Low-carbohydrate diet, Maturity onset diabetes of the young, Metabolic disorder, Metabolic syndrome, Metabolism, Metformin, Microalbuminuria, Monounsaturated fat, NPH insulin, Nutrition, Obesity, Overweight, Pacific Islander, Pancreas, Pancreatic islets, Periodontal disease, Peripheral neuropathy, Persistent organic pollutant, Pheochromocytoma, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Polydipsia, Polyphagia, Polyunsaturated fat, Polyuria, Pregnancy, Prevotella, Psychological stress, Rabson–Mendenhall syndrome, Retinopathy, Roman Empire, Rosiglitazone, Saturated fat, Scaling and root planing, Screening (medicine), Sexual dysfunction, South Asian ethnic groups, Statin, Strength training, Stroke, Sulfonylurea, Sushruta, TCF7L2, Testosterone, Thiazide, Thiazolidinedione, Trans fat, Twin, United States Preventive Services Task Force, Unnecessary health care, Urbanization, Vaginitis, Vascular dementia, Vegetarianism, Very-low-calorie diet, Visual impairment, Vitamin D, Waist–hip ratio, Weight loss, Western lifestyle, White rice, World Health Organization. Expand index (106 more) » « Shrink index
Acanthosis nigricans is a brown to black, poorly defined, velvety hyperpigmentation of the skin.
Acarbose (INN) is an anti-diabetic drug used to treat diabetes mellitus type 2 and, in some countries, prediabetes.
An angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (ACE inhibitor) is a pharmaceutical drug used primarily for the treatment of hypertension (elevated blood pressure) and congestive heart failure.
Acromegaly is a disorder that results from excess growth hormone (GH) after the growth plates have closed.
Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat.
Aerobic exercise (also known as cardio) is physical exercise of low to high intensity that depends primarily on the aerobic energy-generating process.
An allele is a variant form of a given gene.
An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
The American Diabetes Association (ADA) is a United States-based nonprofit that seeks to educate the public about diabetes and to help those affected by it by funding research to manage, cure and prevent diabetes (including type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes, and pre-diabetes).
Amputation is the removal of a limb by trauma, medical illness, or surgery.
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system.
Drugs used in diabetes treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
Bacteroides is a genus of Gram-negative, obligate anaerobic bacteria.
Bariatric surgery (weight loss surgery) includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have obesity.
Beta blockers, also written β-blockers, are a class of medications that are particularly used to manage abnormal heart rhythms, and to protect the heart from a second heart attack (myocardial infarction) after a first heart attack (secondary prevention).
Beta cells (β cells) are a type of cell found in the pancreatic islets of the pancreas.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure of circulating blood on the walls of blood vessels.
Blurred vision is an ocular symptom.
The body mass index (BMI) or Quetelet index is a value derived from the mass (weight) and height of an individual.
The connecting peptide, or C-peptide, is a short 31-amino-acid polypeptide that connects insulin's A-chain to its B-chain in the proinsulin molecule.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Charaka (चरक) (~6th – 2nd century BCE) was one of the principal contributors to Ayurveda, a system of medicine and lifestyle developed in Ancient India.
Charles Herbert Best (February 27, 1899 – March 31, 1978) was a Canadian medical scientist and one of the co-discoverers of insulin.
Childhood obesity is a condition where excess body fat negatively affects a child's health or well-being.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a type of kidney disease in which there is gradual loss of kidney function over a period of months or years.
Circa, usually abbreviated c., ca. or ca (also circ. or cca.), means "approximately" in several European languages (and as a loanword in English), usually in reference to a date.
Cognitive disorders (CDs), also known as neurocognitive disorders (NCDs), are a category of mental health disorders that primarily affect cognitive abilities including learning, memory, perception, and problem solving.
Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Cushing's syndrome is a collection of signs and symptoms due to prolonged exposure to cortisol.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by large amounts of dilute urine and increased thirst.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.
A diabetic diet is a diet that is used by people with diabetes mellitus or high blood glucose to minimize symptoms and dangerous consequences of the disease.
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.
Diabetic retinopathy, also known as diabetic eye disease, is a medical condition in which damage occurs to the retina due to diabetes mellitus.
In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism.
Inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase 4, also DPP-4 inhibitors or gliptins, are a class of oral hypoglycemics that block DPP-4 (DPP-IV).
DNA methylation is a process by which methyl groups are added to the DNA molecule.
Donohue syndrome (also known as leprechaunism) is an extremely rare and severe genetic disorder.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
An epidemic (from Greek ἐπί epi "upon or above" and δῆμος demos "people") is the rapid spread of infectious disease to a large number of people in a given population within a short period of time, usually two weeks or less.
Exercise is any bodily activity that enhances or maintains physical fitness and overall health and wellness.
An eye examination is a series of tests performed by an ophthalmologist (medical doctor), optometrist, or orthoptist assessing vision and ability to focus on and discern objects, as well as other tests and examinations pertaining to the eyes.
Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.
A first-degree relative is one's offspring, sibling or parent.
Sir Frederick Grant Banting (November 14, 1891 – February 21, 1941) was a Canadian medical scientist, physician, painter, and Nobel laureate noted as the co-discoverer of insulin and its therapeutic potential.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy.
Gliflozin drugs are a class of medications that inhibit reabsorption of glucose in the kidney and therefore lower blood sugar.
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists also known as GLP-1 receptor agonists or incretin mimetics are agonists of the GLP-1 receptor.
A glucagonoma is a rare tumor of the alpha cells of the pancreas that results in the overproduction of the hormone glucagon.
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
A glucose test may be recommended for a variety of reasons.
The glucose tolerance test is a medical test in which glucose is given and blood samples taken afterward to determine how quickly it is cleared from the blood.
Glycated hemoglobin (hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c, A1C, or Hb1c; sometimes also referred to as being Hb1c or HGBA1C) is a form of hemoglobin that is measured primarily to identify the three-month average plasma glucose concentration.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
Hypercholesterolemia, also called high cholesterol, is the presence of high levels of cholesterol in the blood.
Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma.
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is a complication of diabetes mellitus in which high blood sugar results in high osmolarity without significant ketoacidosis.
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypoglycemia, also known as low blood sugar, is when blood sugar decreases to below normal levels.
Hypotension is low blood pressure, especially in the arteries of the systemic circulation.
Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of hyperglycemia that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology.
Incretins are a group of metabolic hormones that stimulate a decrease in blood glucose levels.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Insulin detemir is a long-acting human insulin analogue for maintaining the basal level of insulin.
Insulin glargine, marketed under the names Lantus, among others, is a long-acting basal insulin analogue, given once daily to help control the blood sugar level of those with diabetes.
Insulin resistance (IR) is a pathological condition in which cells fail to respond normally to the hormone insulin.
Itch (also known as pruritus) is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch.
Kidney disease, or renal disease, also known as nephropathy, is damage to or disease of a kidney.
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Latino is a term often used in the United States to refer to people with cultural ties to Latin America, in contrast to Hispanic which is a demonym that includes Spaniards and other speakers of the Spanish language.
The Least Developed Countries (LDCs) is a list of developing countries that, according to the United Nations, exhibit the lowest indicators of socioeconomic development, with the lowest Human Development Index ratings of all countries in the world.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
Apollonius (Ἀπολλώνιος) was the name of several physicians in the time of Ancient Greece and Rome.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Low-carbohydrate diets or low-carb diets are dietary programs that restrict carbohydrate consumption.
"Maturity onset diabetes of the young" (MODY) refers to any of several hereditary forms of diabetes mellitus caused by mutations in an autosomal dominant gene disrupting insulin production.
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.
Metformin, marketed under the trade name Glucophage among others, is the first-line medication for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, particularly in people who are overweight.
Microalbuminuria is a term to describe a moderate increase in the level of urine albumin.
In biochemistry and nutrition, monounsaturated fatty acids (abbreviated MUFAs, or more plainly monounsaturated fats) are fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain with all of the remainder carbon atoms being single-bonded.
NPH insulin, also known as isophane insulin, is an intermediate–acting insulin given to help control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
Nutrition is the science that interprets the interaction of nutrients and other substances in food in relation to maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of an organism.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Being overweight or fat is having more body fat than is optimally healthy.
Pacific Islanders or Pasifikas are the peoples of the Pacific Islands.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
The pancreatic islets or islets of Langerhans are the regions of the pancreas that contain its endocrine (hormone-producing) cells, discovered in 1869 by German pathological anatomist Paul Langerhans.
Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a set of inflammatory conditions affecting the tissues surrounding the teeth.
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are organic compounds that are resistant to environmental degradation through chemical, biological, and photolytic processes.
Pheochromocytoma (PCC) is a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth, that secretes high amounts of catecholamines, mostly norepinephrine, plus epinephrine to a lesser extent.
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a set of symptoms due to elevated androgens (male hormones) in females.
Polydipsia is excessive thirst or excess drinking.
Polyphagia or hyperphagia is excessive hunger or increased appetite.
Polyunsaturated fats are fats in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds.
Polyuria is excessive or an abnormally large production or passage of urine (greater than 2.5 or 3 L over 24 hours in adults).
Pregnancy, also known as gestation, is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman.
Prevotella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria.
In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure.
Rabson–Mendenhall syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe insulin resistance.
Retinopathy is any damage to the retina of the eyes, which may cause vision impairment.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Rosiglitazone (trade name Avandia) is an antidiabetic drug in the thiazolidinedione class.
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
Scaling and root planing, also known as conventional periodontal therapy, non-surgical periodontal therapy, or deep cleaning, is a procedure involving removal of dental plaque and calculus (scaling or debridement) and then smoothing, or planing, of the (exposed) surfaces of the roots, removing cementum or dentine that is impregnated with calculus, toxins, or microorganisms, the etiologic agents that cause inflammation.
Screening, in medicine, is a strategy used in a population to identify the possible presence of an as-yet-undiagnosed disease in individuals without signs or symptoms.
Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.
The ethno-linguistic composition of the population of South Asia, that is the nations of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka is highly diverse.
Statins, also known as HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are a class of lipid-lowering medications.
Strength training is a type of physical exercise specializing in the use of resistance to induce muscular contraction which builds the strength, anaerobic endurance, and size of skeletal muscles.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Sulfonylureas (UK: sulphonylurea) are a class of organic compounds used in medicine and agriculture.
Sushruta, or Suśruta (Sanskrit: सुश्रुत, lit. "well heard") was an ancient Indian physician during 1500 BCE to 1000 BCE, known as the main author of the treatise The Compendium of Suśruta (Sanskrit: ''Suśruta-saṃhitā'').
Transcription factor 7-like 2 (T-cell specific, HMG-box) also known as TCF7L2 or TCF4 is a protein acting as a transcription factor that in humans, is encoded by the TCF7L2 gene.
Testosterone is the primary male sex hormone and an anabolic steroid.
Thiazide is a type of molecule and a class of diuretics often used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) and edema (such as that caused by heart failure, liver failure, or kidney failure).
The thiazolidinediones, abbreviated as TZD, also known as glitazones after the prototypical drug ciglitazone, are a class of heterocyclic compounds consisting of a five-membered C3NS ring.
Trans fat, also called trans-unsaturated fatty acids or trans fatty acids, are a type of unsaturated fat that occur in small amounts in nature but became widely produced industrially from vegetable fats starting in the 1950s for use in margarine, snack food, and packaged baked goods and for frying fast food.
Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) is "an independent panel of experts in primary care and prevention that systematically reviews the evidence of effectiveness and develops recommendations for clinical preventive services".
Unnecessary health care (overutilization, overuse, or overtreatment) is healthcare provided with a higher volume or cost than is appropriate.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Vaginitis is inflammation of the vagina.
Vascular dementia, also known as multi-infarct dementia (MID) and vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), is dementia caused by problems in the supply of blood to the brain, typically a series of minor strokes, leading to worsening cognitive decline that occurs step by step.
Vegetarianism is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.
Very low calorie diet (VLCD) is a diet with very or extremely low daily food energy consumption.
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
The Waist-hip ratio or waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is the dimensionless ratio of the circumference of the waist to that of the hips.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
Western lifestyle or cowboy culture is the lifestyle, or behaviourisms, of, and resulting from the influence of, the (often romanticized) attitudes, ethics and history of the American Western cowboy and cowgirl.
White rice is milled rice that has had its husk, bran, and germ removed.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
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