298 relations: Abbreviation, Abjad, Abugida, Acronym, Acute accent, Adjective, Afrikaans, Albanian alphabet, Aleph, Alphabet, Alt code, Ancient Greek, Anusvara, Apex (diacritic), Apostrophe, Arabic, Arabic alphabet, Arabic diacritics, Arabic numerals, Assyrian Neo-Aramaic, Asturian language, Aymara language, Azerbaijani alphabet, Ḥ, Ḷ, Ṣ, Ṭ, Ä, Ç, Ê, Ë, Î, Ñ, Ö, Û, Ü, Ý, Ā, Č, Ğ, Ġ, Ň, Ş, Š, Ž, Bar (diacritic), Belarusian alphabet, Bengali language, Brahmic scripts, Breton language, ..., Breve, Cantillation, Carolina Klüft, Caron, Catalan orthography, Cedilla, Chandrabindu, Chinese language, Circumflex, Citroën, Close-mid vowel, Code page, Collation, Colon (punctuation), Combining character, Comma, Compose key, Cornish language, Crasis, Crimean Tatar language, Cypriot Turkish, Cyrillic alphabets, Cyrillic script, Czech orthography, D, Dagesh, Dakuten and handakuten, Danish orthography, Dž, Dead key, Devanagari, Diaeresis (diacritic), Digraph (orthography), Diphthong, Dot (diacritic), Dotted and dotless I, Double acute accent, Double grave accent, Dutch orthography, Early Cyrillic alphabet, Eberhard Nestle, Emoticon, Emphatic consonant, English alphabet, English terms with diacritical marks, Esperanto orthography, Estonian orthography, Faroese orthography, Filipino alphabet, Filipino name, Finnish orthography, French language, French orthography, Gaelic type, Gagauz alphabet, Gaj's Latin alphabet, Galician language, Geresh, German orthography, Germanic umlaut, Gershayim, Gje, Glottal stop, Glyph, Grammatical number, Grave accent, Greek diacritics, Greek language, Greek numerals, H with stroke, Hamza, Hangul, Hebrew alphabet, Hebrew language, Hepburn romanization, Hiatus (linguistics), Hindi, Hiragana, Hiriq, Holam, Homonym, Hook (diacritic), Hook above, Horn (diacritic), Hungarian alphabet, Icelandic orthography, Imageboard, Indian numerals, Inflection, International Phonetic Alphabet, Internationalized domain name, Interpunct, Inverted breve, Iota subscript, Irish language, Irish orthography, ISO/IEC 8859, ISO/IEC 8859-1, Italian orthography, Japan, Japanese language, Jussive mood, Kamatz, Katakana, Kernewek Kemmyn, Kernowek Standard, Keyboard layout, Kje, Kubutz and Shuruk, Kunrei-shiki romanization, Kurdish alphabets, Lakota language, Lamé, Latin alphabet, Latin script, Latin-script alphabet, Latvian orthography, Lenition, Leonese dialect, Letter (alphabet), Letter case, List of Latin-script alphabets, List of Latin-script letters, List of U.S. cities with diacritics, Lithuanian orthography, Livonian language, Lje, Loanword, Macedonian language, Macintosh, Macron (diacritic), Macron below, Malé, Maltese alphabet, Manx language, Mappiq, Mate, Mate (drink), Māori language, Metal umlaut, Minim (palaeography), Minimal pair, Nestlé, Nihon-shiki romanization, Niqqud, Nj (digraph), North Germanic languages, Norwegian language, Noun, Occitan alphabet, Ogonek, Open-mid vowel, Orthography, Oxford English Dictionary, Palaeography, Palatal approximant, Palatalization (sound change), Patach, Pâté, Phoenician alphabet, Pinyin, Pitch-accent language, Plural, Polish alphabet, Portuguese language, Portuguese orthography, Prosody (linguistics), Rafe, Rasm, Résumé, Renée, Revised Romanization of Korean, Rheinische Dokumenta, Ring (diacritic), Roman type, Romanian alphabet, Romanization, Romanization of Chinese, Romanization of Japanese, Rosé, Rough breathing, Russian alphabet, S-comma, Sake, Sanskrit, Schwa, Scottish Gaelic, Segol, Serbian language, Shadda, Shin (letter), Short I, Short U (Cyrillic), Shva, Sicilicus, Slavic languages, Slovak orthography, Slovene alphabet, Smooth breathing, Soufflé, Spanish language, Spanish language in the Philippines, Spanish orthography, Staël von Holstein, Standard Chinese, Standard Written Form, Stress (linguistics), Swedish alphabet, Syllabary, Syllabic consonant, Syncope (phonology), Syriac language, T-comma, Tamil script, Thai alphabet, Thai language, The New Yorker, Tie (typography), Tilde, Titlo, Tittle, Tone (linguistics), Transliteration, Turkish alphabet, Turkmen alphabet, Typeface, Tzere, Ukrainian alphabet, Ukrainian Latin alphabet, Umlaut (linguistics), Unicode, Unified Cornish, Velar nasal, Vietnamese alphabet, Virama, Voice (phonetics), Voiceless glottal fricative, Vowel, Vowel harmony, Vowel length, Vowel pointing, Wali language (Gur), Welsh language, Welsh orthography, X Window System, Ye (Cyrillic), Yo (Cyrillic), Zoe (name). Expand index (248 more) » « Shrink index
An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
An acronym is a word or name formed as an abbreviation from the initial components in a phrase or a word, usually individual letters (as in NATO or laser) and sometimes syllables (as in Benelux).
The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.
In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.
Afrikaans is a West Germanic language spoken in South Africa, Namibia and, to a lesser extent, Botswana and Zimbabwe.
The Albanian alphabet (alfabeti shqip) is a variant of the Latin alphabet used to write the Albanian language.
Aleph (or alef or alif) is the first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician 'Ālep 𐤀, Hebrew 'Ālef א, Aramaic Ālap 𐡀, Syriac ʾĀlap̄ ܐ, Arabic ا, Urdu ا, and Persian.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
On IBM compatible personal computers, many characters not directly associated with a key can be entered using the Alt Numpad input method or Alt code: pressing and holding the ''Alt'' key while typing the number identifying the character with the keyboard's numeric keypad.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anusvara (Sanskrit: अनुस्वारः) is the diacritic used to mark a type of nasal sound used in a number of Indic scripts.
In written Latin, the apex (plural "apices") is a mark with roughly the shape of an acute accent (´) which is placed over vowels to indicate that they are long.
The apostrophe ( ' or) character is a punctuation mark, and sometimes a diacritical mark, in languages that use the Latin alphabet and some other alphabets.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
The Arabic alphabet (الأَبْجَدِيَّة العَرَبِيَّة, or الحُرُوف العَرَبِيَّة) or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing Arabic.
The Arabic script has numerous diacritics, including i'jam -, consonant pointing and tashkil -, supplementary diacritics.
Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic (ܣܘܪܝܬ, sūrët), or just simply Assyrian, is a Neo-Aramaic language within the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family.
Asturian (asturianu,Art. 1 de la formerly also known as bable) is a West Iberian Romance language spoken in Principality of Asturias, Spain.
Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.
The Azerbaijani alphabet (Azərbaycan əlifbası) of the Republic of Azerbaijan is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Azerbaijani language.
Ḥ (minuscule: ḥ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from H with the addition of a dot diacritic.
Ḷ (minuscule: ḷ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from L with a diacritical dot below.
Ṣ (minuscule: ṣ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from an S with the addition of a dot below the letter.
(minuscule: ṭ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, formed from T with the addition of a dot below the letter.
Ä (lower case ä) is a character that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter A with an umlaut mark or diaeresis.
Ç or ç (c-cedilla) is a Latin script letter, used in the Albanian, Azerbaijani, Manx, Portuguese, Tatar, Turkish, Turkmen, Kurdish and Zazaki alphabets.
Ê, ê (e-circumflex) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, found in Afrikaans, Dutch, French, Friulian, Kurdish, Portuguese, Vietnamese, and Welsh.
Ë, ë (e-diaeresis) is a letter in the Albanian, Kashubian, Emilian-Romagnol and Ladin alphabets.
Î, î (i-circumflex) is a letter in the Friulian, Kurdish, and Romanian alphabets.
Ñ (lower case ñ, eñe, Phonetic Alphabet: "énye") is a letter of the modern Latin alphabet, formed by placing a tilde (called a virgulilla in Spanish) on top of an upper- or lowercase N. It became part of the Spanish alphabet in the eighteenth century when it was first formally defined, but it is also used in other languages such as Galician, Asturian, the Aragonese Grafía de Uesca, Basque, Chavacano, Filipino, Chamorro, Guarani, Quechua, Mapudungun, Mandinka, and Tetum alphabets, as well as in Latin transliteration of Tocharian and Sanskrit, where it represents.
Ö, or ö, is a character that represents either a letter from several extended Latin alphabets, or the letter o modified with an umlaut or diaeresis.
Û, û (u-circumflex) is a letter of the Kurdish alphabet.
Ü, or ü, is a character that typically represents a close front rounded vowel.
Ý (ý) is a letter of Old Norse, Icelandic, Kazakh and Faroese alphabets, as well as in Turkmen language.
Ā, lowercase ā, is a grapheme, a Latin A with a macron, used in several orthographies.
The grapheme Čč (Latin C with caron, also known as háček in Czech and mäkčeň in Slovak) is used in various contexts, usually denoting the voiceless postalveolar affricate consonant like the English ch in the word chocolate.
Ğ (g with breve) is a Latin letter found in the Turkish and Azerbaijani alphabets, as well as the Latin alphabets of Laz, Crimean Tatar and Tatar.
Ġ (minuscule: ġ) is a letter of the Latin script, formed from G with the addition of a dot above the letter.
The grapheme Ň (minuscule: ň) is a letter in the Czech, Slovak and Turkmen alphabets.
Ş, ş (S-cedilla) is a letter of the Azerbaijani, Gagauz, Neapolitan, Turkish and Turkmen alphabets.
The grapheme Š, š (S with caron) is used in various contexts representing the đ sound usually denoting the voiceless postalveolar fricative or similar voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/.
The grapheme Ž (minuscule: ž) is formed from Latin Z with the addition of caron (háček, mäkčeň, strešica, kvačica).
A bar or stroke is a modification consisting of a line drawn through a grapheme.
The Belarusian alphabet is based on the Cyrillic script and is derived from the alphabet of Old Church Slavonic.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
A breve (less often;; neuter form of the Latin brevis “short, brief”) is the diacritic mark ˘, shaped like the bottom half of a circle.
Cantillation is the ritual chanting of readings from the Hebrew Bible in synagogue services.
Carolina Evelyn Klüft (born 2 February 1983) is a retired Swedish track and field athlete who competed in the heptathlon, triple jump, long jump, and pentathlon.
A caron, háček or haček (or; plural háčeks or háčky) also known as a hachek, wedge, check, inverted circumflex, inverted hat, is a diacritic (ˇ) commonly placed over certain letters in the orthography of some Baltic, Slavic, Finnic, Samic, Berber, and other languages to indicate a change in the related letter's pronunciation (c > č; >). The use of the haček differs according to the orthographic rules of a language.
Like those of many other Romance languages, the Catalan alphabet derives from the Latin alphabet and is largely based on the language’s phonology.
A cedilla (from Spanish), also known as cedilha (from Portuguese) or cédille (from French), is a hook or tail (¸) added under certain letters as a diacritical mark to modify their pronunciation.
Chandrabindu (meaning "moon-dot" in Sanskrit, alternatively spelled candrabindu, chandravindu, candravindu, or chôndrobindu) is a diacritic sign with the form of a dot inside the lower half of a circle.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The circumflex is a diacritic in the Latin, Greek and Cyrillic scripts that is used in the written forms of many languages and in various romanization and transcription schemes.
Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën (1878–1935).
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In computing, a code page is a table of values that describes the character set used for encoding a particular set of characters, usually combined with a number of control characters.
Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.
The colon is a punctuation mark consisting of two equally sized dots centered on the same vertical line.
In digital typography, combining characters are characters that are intended to modify other characters.
The comma is a punctuation mark that appears in several variants in different languages.
A compose key (sometimes called multi key) is a key on a computer keyboard that indicates that the following (usually 2 or more) keystrokes trigger the insertion of an alternate character, typically a precomposed character or a symbol.
Cornish (Kernowek) is a revived language that became extinct as a first language in the late 18th century.
Crasis (from the Greek κρᾶσις, "mixing", "blending") is a type of contraction in which two vowels or diphthongs merge into one new vowel or diphthong, making one word out of two.
Crimean Tatar (Къырымтатарджа, Qırımtatarca; Къырымтатар тили, Qırımtatar tili), also called Crimean Turkish or simply Crimean, is a Kipchak Turkic language spoken in Crimea and the Crimean Tatar diasporas of Uzbekistan, Turkey, Romania and Bulgaria, as well as small communities in the United States and Canada.
Cypriot Turkish (Kıbrıs Türkçesi) is a dialect of the Turkish language spoken by Turkish Cypriots both in Cyprus and among its diaspora.
Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script.
The Cyrillic script is a writing system used for various alphabets across Eurasia (particularity in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, and North Asia).
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
D (named dee) is the fourth letter of the modern English alphabet and the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
The dagesh is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet.
The, colloquially, is a diacritic sign most often used in the Japanese kana syllabaries to indicate that the consonant of a syllable should be pronounced voiced, for instance, on sounds that have undergone rendaku (sequential voicing).
Danish orthography is the system used to write the Danish language.
Dž (titlecase form; all-capitals form DŽ, lowercase dž) is the seventh letter of the Gaj's Latin alphabet for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian), after D and before Đ. It is pronounced.
A dead key is a special kind of a modifier key on a mechanical typewriter, or computer keyboard, that is typically used to attach a specific diacritic to a base letter.
Devanagari (देवनागरी,, a compound of "''deva''" देव and "''nāgarī''" नागरी; Hindi pronunciation), also called Nagari (Nāgarī, नागरी),Kathleen Kuiper (2010), The Culture of India, New York: The Rosen Publishing Group,, page 83 is an abugida (alphasyllabary) used in India and Nepal.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used in the orthography of a language to write either a single phoneme (distinct sound), or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
When used as a diacritic mark, the term dot is usually reserved for the Interpunct (·), or to the glyphs 'combining dot above' (◌̇) and 'combining dot below' (◌̣) which may be combined with some letters of the extended Latin alphabets in use in Central European languages and Vietnamese.
Dotted İi and dotless Iı are separate letters in Turkish and Azerbaijani.
The double acute accent (˝) is a diacritic mark of the Latin script.
The double grave accent is a diacritic used in scholarly discussions of the Serbo-Croatian and sometimes Slovene languages.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
The Early Cyrillic alphabet is a writing system that was developed during the late ninth century on the basis of the Greek alphabet for the Orthodox Slavic population in Europe.
Eberhard Nestle (May 1, 1851, Stuttgart – March 9, 1913, Stuttgart) was a German biblical scholar, textual critic, orientalist, editor of Novum Testamentum Graece, and the father of Erwin Nestle.
An emoticon (rarely pronounced) is a pictorial representation of a facial expression using characters—usually punctuation marks, numbers, and letters—to express a person's feelings or mood, or as a time-saving method.
In Semitic linguistics, an emphatic consonant is an obstruent consonant which originally contrasted with series of both voiced and voiceless obstruents.
The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an uppercase and a lowercase form: The same letters constitute the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
Some English language terms have letters with diacritical marks.
Esperanto is written in a Latin-script alphabet of twenty-eight letters, with upper and lower case.
Estonian orthography is the system used for writing the Estonian language and is based on the Latin alphabet.
Faroese orthography is the method employed to write the Faroese language, using a 29-letter Latin alphabet.
The Modern Filipino alphabet (Makabagong alpabetong Filipino), otherwise known as the Filipino alphabet (alpabetong Filipino), is the alphabet of the Filipino language, the official national language and one of the two official languages of the Philippines.
In the Philippines, varying naming customs are observed, whether it is given name first, family name last, a mixture of native conventions with those of neighbouring territories, etc.
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 29 letters.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
Gaelic type (sometimes called Irish character, Irish type, or Gaelic script) is a family of insular typefaces devised for printing Classical Gaelic.
The modern Gagauz alphabet is a 31-letter Latin-based alphabet modelled on the Turkish alphabet.
Gaj's Latin alphabet (gâj); abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin). It was devised by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1835, based on Jan Hus's Czech alphabet. A slightly reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language, and a slightly expanded version is used as a script of the modern standard Montenegrin language. A modified version is used for the romanization of the Macedonian language. Pavao Ritter Vitezović had proposed an idea for the orthography of the Croatian language, stating that every sound should have only one letter. Gaj's alphabet is currently used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
Geresh (׳ in גֶּרֶשׁ‎ or ‎, or medieval) is a sign in Hebrew writing.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
The Germanic umlaut (sometimes called i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel (fronting) or a front vowel becomes closer to (raising) when the following syllable contains,, or.
Gershayim (גֵּרְשַׁיִם, without niqqud), also occasionally grashayim.
Gje (Ѓ ѓ; italics: Ѓ ѓ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
In typography, a glyph is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing.
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").
The grave accent (`) is a diacritical mark in many written languages, including Breton, Catalan, Corsican, Dutch, Emilian-Romagnol, French, West Frisian, Greek (until 1982; see polytonic orthography), Haitian Creole, Italian, Mohawk, Occitan, Portuguese, Ligurian, Scottish Gaelic, Vietnamese, Welsh, Romansh, and Yoruba.
Greek orthography has used a variety of diacritics starting in the Hellenistic period.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek numerals, also known as Ionic, Ionian, Milesian, or Alexandrian numerals, are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet.
Ħ (minuscule: ħ) is a letter of the Latin alphabet, derived from H with the addition of a bar.
Hamza (همزة) (ء) is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
is a system for the romanization of Japanese, that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language.
In phonology, hiatus or diaeresis refers to two vowel sounds occurring in adjacent syllables, with no intervening consonant.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system, along with katakana, kanji, and in some cases rōmaji (Latin script).
Hiriq (חִירִיק) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a single dot underneath the letter.
Cholam (חוֹלָם, Modern Hebrew:, Biblical Hebrew) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a dot above the upper left corner of the consonant letter.
In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which sound alike or are spelled alike, but have different meanings.
In typesetting, the hook or tail is a diacritic mark attached to letters in many alphabets.
In typesetting, the hook above (dấu hỏi) is a diacritic mark placed on top of vowels in the Vietnamese alphabet.
The horn (dấu móc or dấu râu) is a diacritic mark attached to the top right corner of the letters o and u in the Vietnamese alphabet to give ơ and ư, unrounded variants of the vowel represented by the basic letter.
The Hungarian alphabet is an extension of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Hungarian language.
Icelandic orthography is the way in which Icelandic words are spelled and how their spelling corresponds with their pronunciation.
An imageboard or image board is a type of Internet forum which operates mostly via posting images.
Indian numerals are the symbols representing numbers in India.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
An internationalized domain name (IDN) is an Internet domain name that contains at least one label that is displayed in software applications, in whole or in part, in a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Tamil, Hebrew or the Latin alphabet-based characters with diacritics or ligatures, such as French.
An interpunct (·), also known as an interpoint, middle dot, middot, and centered dot or centred dot, is a punctuation mark consisting of a vertically centered dot used for interword separation in ancient Latin script.
Inverted breve or arch is a diacritical mark, shaped like the top half of a circle (̑), that is, like an upside-down breve (˘).
The iota subscript is a diacritic mark in the Greek alphabet shaped like a small vertical stroke or miniature iota placed below the letter.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Irish orthography has evolved over many centuries, since Old Irish was first written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 8th century AD.
ISO/IEC 8859 is a joint ISO and IEC series of standards for 8-bit character encodings.
ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, Information technology — 8-bit single-byte coded graphic character sets — Part 1: Latin alphabet No.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
The jussive (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood of verbs for issuing orders, commanding, or exhorting (within a subjunctive framework).
Kamatz or Qamatz (קָמַץ) is a Hebrew niqqud (vowel) sign represented by two perpendicular lines (looking like an uppercase T) underneath a letter.
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin script (known as rōmaji).
Kernewek Kemmyn (Common Cornish or "KK") is a variety of the revived Cornish language.
Kernowek Standard (KS, Standard Cornish), its initial version spelt Kernowak Standard, is a variety of revived Cornish.
A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations (respectively) of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard.
Kje (Ќ ќ; italics: Ќ ќ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script, used only in the Macedonian alphabet, where it represents the voiceless palatal plosive, or the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate.
Kubutz (קֻבּוּץ) and Shuruk (שׁוּרוּק) are the two Hebrew niqqud vowel signs that represent the sound.
is a Cabinet-ordered romanization system to transcribe the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet.
The Kurdish languages are written in either of two alphabets: a Latin alphabet introduced by Jeladet Ali Bedirkhan (Celadet Alî Bedirxan) in 1932 (Bedirxan alphabet, or Hawar after the ''Hawar'' magazine), and a Persian alphabet-based Sorani alphabet, named for the historical Soran Emirate of present-day Iraqi Kurdistan.
Lakota (Lakȟótiyapi), also referred to as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux, is a Siouan language spoken by the Lakota people of the Sioux tribes.
Lamé may refer to.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
A Latin-script alphabet (Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet) is an alphabet that uses letters of the Latin script.
Latvian orthography, historically, has used a system based upon German phonetic principles and the Latgalian dialect was written using Polish orthographic principles.
In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous.
Leonese is a set of vernacular Romance dialects spoken in the northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain languages.
The tables below summarize and compare the letter inventory of some of the Latin-script alphabets.
This is a list of letters of the Latin script.
This is a list of U.S. cities whose official names have diacritics.
Lithuanian orthography employs a Latin alphabet of 32 letters, two of which denote sounds not native to the Lithuanian language.
Livonian (Livonian: līvõ kēļ or rāndakēļ) is a Finnic language.
Lje (Љ љ; italics: Љ љ) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
The Macintosh (pronounced as; branded as Mac since 1998) is a family of personal computers designed, manufactured, and sold by Apple Inc. since January 1984.
A macron is a diacritical mark: it is a straight bar placed above a letter, usually a vowel.
Macron below,, is a combining diacritical mark used in various orthographies.
Malé (މާލެ) is the capital and most populous city in the Republic of Maldives.
The Maltese alphabet is based on the Latin alphabet with the addition of some letters with diacritic marks and digraphs.
The mappiq (also mapiq, mapik, mappik, lit. "causing to go out") is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet.
Mate may refer to.
Mate (sometimes spelled maté in English though not in Spanish or Portuguese), also known as chimarrão or cimarrón, is a traditional South American caffeine-rich infused drink, that was first consumed by the Guaraní and also spread by the Tupí people.
Māori, also known as te reo ("the language"), is an Eastern Polynesian language spoken by the Māori people, the indigenous population of New Zealand.
A metal umlaut (also known as röck döts) is a diacritic that is sometimes used gratuitously or decoratively over letters in the names of hard rock or heavy metal bands—for example those of Blue Öyster Cult, Queensrÿche, Motörhead, The Accüsed and Mötley Crüe.
In palaeography, a minim is a short, vertical stroke used in handwriting.
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
Nestlé S.A. is a Swiss transnational food and drink company headquartered in Vevey, Vaud, Switzerland.
Nihon-shiki, or Nippon-shiki Rōmaji (日本式ローマ字, "Japan-style," romanized as Nihon-siki or Nippon-siki in Nippon-shiki itself), is a romanization system for transliterating the Japanese language into the Latin alphabet.
In Hebrew orthography, niqqud or nikkud is a system of diacritical signs used to represent vowels or distinguish between alternative pronunciations of letters of the Hebrew alphabet.
Nj (nj in lower case) is a letter present in South Slavic languages such as the Latin-alphabet version of Serbo-Croatian and in romanised Macedonian.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.
The Occitan alphabet consists of the following 23 Latin letters: |- |bgcolor.
The ogonek (Polish:, "little tail", the diminutive of ogon; nosinė, "nasal") is a diacritic hook placed under the lower right corner of a vowel in the Latin alphabet used in several European languages, and directly under a vowel in several Native American languages.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Palaeography (UK) or paleography (US; ultimately from παλαιός, palaiós, "old", and γράφειν, graphein, "to write") is the study of ancient and historical handwriting (that is to say, of the forms and processes of writing, not the textual content of documents).
The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages.
In linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of them.
Pataḥ (פַּתַח,, Biblical Hebrew) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by a horizontal line underneath a letter.
Pâté is a mixture of cooked ground meat and fat minced into a spreadable paste.
The Phoenician alphabet, called by convention the Proto-Canaanite alphabet for inscriptions older than around 1050 BC, is the oldest verified alphabet.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.
The Polish alphabet is the script of the Polish language, the basis for the Polish system of orthography.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.
In Hebrew orthography the rafe, or more commonly spelt raphe (רָפֵה), is a diacritic, a subtle horizontal overbar placed above certain letters to indicate that they are to be pronounced as fricatives.
Rasm is an Arabic writing script often used in the early centuries of Arabic literature (7th century - early 11th century AD).
A résumé, also spelled resume, is a document used by a person to present their backgrounds and skills.
Renée (often spelled without the accent in non-French speaking countries) is a French feminine given name.
The Revised Romanization of Korean is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea proclaimed by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism to replace the older McCune–Reischauer system.
The Rheinische Dokumenta is a phonetic writing system developed in the early 1980s by a working group of academics, linguists, local language experts, and local language speakers of the Rhineland.
A ring diacritic may appear above or below letters.
In Latin script typography, roman is one of the three main kinds of historical type, alongside blackletter and italic.
The Romanian alphabet is a variant of the Latin alphabet used by the Romanian language.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
The Romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese.
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.
A rosé (from French rosé; also known as rosado in Portuguese and Spanish-speaking countries and rosato in Italy) is a type of wine that incorporates some of the color from the grape skins, but not enough to qualify it as a red wine.
In the polytonic orthography of Ancient Greek, the rough breathing (dasỳ pneûma or δασεῖα daseîa; δασεία dasía; Latin spīritus asper), is a diacritical mark used to indicate the presence of an sound before a vowel, diphthong, or after rho.
The Russian alphabet (ˈruskʲɪj ɐɫfɐˈvʲit̪) uses letters from the Cyrillic script.
S-comma (majuscule: Ș, minuscule: ș) is a letter which is part of the Romanian alphabet, used to represent the sound, the voiceless postalveolar fricative (like sh in shoe).
, also spelled saké, also referred to as a Japanese rice wine, is an alcoholic beverage made by fermenting rice that has been polished to remove the bran.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
Segol (סֶגּוֹל) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign that is represented by three dots forming an upside down equilateral triangle "ֶ ". As such, it resembles an upside down therefore sign (a because sign) underneath a letter.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Shaddah (شَدّة " emphasis", also called by the verbal noun from the same root, tashdid "emphasis") is one of the diacritics used with the Arabic alphabet, marking a long consonant (geminate).
Shin (also spelled Šin or Sheen) is the name of the twenty-first letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Shin, Hebrew Shin, Aramaic Shin, Syriac Shin ܫ, and Arabic Shin (in abjadi order, 13th in modern order).
Short I or Yot (Й й; italics: Й й) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Short U (Ў ў; italics: Ў ў) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Shva or, in Biblical Hebrew, shĕwa (שְׁוָא) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign written as two vertical dots (ְ) beneath a letter.
A sicilicus was an old Latin diacritical mark, ͗, like a reversed C (Ɔ) placed above a letter and evidently deriving its name from its shape like a little sickle (which is sicilis in Latin).
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
The first Slovak orthography was proposed by Anton Bernolák (1762–1813) in his Dissertatio philologico-critica de litteris Slavorum, used in the six-volume Slovak-Czech-Latin-German-Hungarian Dictionary (1825–1927) and used pmarily by Slovak Catholics.
The Slovene alphabet (slovenska abeceda, or slovenska gajica) is an extension of the Latin script and is used in the Slovene language.
The smooth breathing (psilòn pneûma; ψιλή psilí; spīritus lēnis) is a diacritical mark used in polytonic orthography.
A soufflé is a baked egg-based dish which originated in early eighteenth century France.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spanish was the official language of the Philippines from the beginning of Spanish rule in the late 16th century, through the conclusion of the Spanish–American War in 1898.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
According to tradition, the family which originated from ancient Rhenish-German nobility, came to Sweden from Livonia during the 17th century via the Polish Major Hildebrand Staël.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
The Standard Written Form or SWF (Furv Skrifys Savonek) of the Cornish language is an orthography standard that is designed to "provide public bodies and the educational system with a universally acceptable, inclusive, and neutral orthography".
In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.
The Swedish alphabet is the writing system used for the Swedish language.
A syllabary is a set of written symbols that represent the syllables or (more frequently) moras which make up words.
A syllabic consonant or vocalic consonant is a consonant that forms a syllable on its own, like the m, n and l in the English words rhythm, button and bottle, or is the nucleus of a syllable, like the r sound in the American pronunciation of work.
In phonology, syncope (from συγκοπή||cutting up) is the loss of one or more sounds from the interior of a word, especially the loss of an unstressed vowel.
Syriac (ܠܫܢܐ ܣܘܪܝܝܐ), also known as Syriac Aramaic or Classical Syriac, is a dialect of Middle Aramaic.
T-comma (majuscule: Ț, minuscule: ț) is a letter which is part of the Romanian alphabet, used to represent the Romanian language sound, the voiceless alveolar affricate (like ts in bolts).
The Tamil script (தமிழ் அரிச்சுவடி) is an abugida script that is used by Tamils and Tamil speakers in India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Singapore and elsewhere to write the Tamil language, as well as to write the liturgical language Sanskrit, using consonants and diacritics not represented in the Tamil alphabet.
Thai alphabet (อักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai, Southern Thai and other languages in Thailand.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The tie is a symbol in the shape of an arc similar to a large breve, used in Greek, phonetic alphabets, and Z notation.
The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary or; ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.
Titlo is an extended diacritic symbol initially used in early Cyrillic manuscripts, e.g., in Old Church Slavonic and Old East Slavic languages.
A tittle or superscript dot is a small distinguishing mark, such as a diacritic or the dot on a lowercase i or j. The tittle is an integral part of the glyph of i and j, but diacritic dots can appear over other letters in various languages.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Transliteration is a type of conversion of a text from one script to another that involves swapping letters (thus trans- + liter-) in predictable ways (such as α → a, д → d, χ → ch, ն → n or æ → e).
The Turkish alphabet (Türk alfabesi) is a Latin-script alphabet used for writing the Turkish language, consisting of 29 letters, seven of which (Ç, Ş, Ğ, I, İ, Ö, Ü) have been modified from their Latin originals for the phonetic requirements of the language.
The Turkmen alphabet used for official purposes in Turkmenistan is a Latin alphabet based on the Turkish alphabet, but with notable differences: J is used instead of the Turkish C; W is used instead of the Turkish V; Ž is used instead of the Turkish J; Y is used instead of the dotless i (I/ı); Ý is used instead of the Turkish consonantal Y; and the letters Ä and Ň have been added to represent the phonetic values and, respectively.
In typography, a typeface (also known as font family) is a set of one or more fonts each composed of glyphs that share common design features.
Tzere (also spelled Tsere, Tzeirei, Zere, Zeire, Ṣerî, Ṣerê etc.; צֵירֵי, sometimes צירה) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by two dots "◌ֵ" underneath a letter.
The Ukrainian alphabet is the set of letters used to write Ukrainian, the official language of Ukraine.
A Latin alphabet for the Ukrainian language (called Latynka) has been proposed or imposed several times in the history in Ukraine, but has never challenged the conventional Cyrillic Ukrainian alphabet.
In linguistics, umlaut (from German "sound alteration") is a sound change in which a vowel is pronounced more like a following vowel or semivowel.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
Unified Cornish (UC) (Kernewek Unys, KU) is a variety of the Cornish language of the Cornish revival.
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The Vietnamese alphabet (chữ Quốc ngữ; literally "national language script") is the modern writing system for the Vietnamese language.
Virama (्) is a generic term for the diacritic in many Brahmic scripts, ்including Devanagari and Eastern Nagari script, used to suppress the inherent vowel that otherwise occurs with every consonant letter.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant phonologically, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Vowel harmony is a type of long-distance assimilatory phonological process involving vowels that occurs in some languages.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Vowel pointing is the inserting of signs used to indicate vowels in certain alphabets (esp. the Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic); it may refer to.
Wali (Waali, Wala) is a Gur language of Ghana that is spoken mainly in and nearby the town of Wa Upper West Region, Ghana.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Welsh orthography uses 29 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.
The X Window System (X11, or shortened to simply X) is a windowing system for bitmap displays, common on UNIX-like computer operating systems.
Ye (Е е; italics: Е е) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Yo (Ё ё; italics: Ё ё) is a letter of the Cyrillic script.
Zoe (and its variants) is a female first name, originally from the Greek (ζωή).
Accent mark, Accent marks, Accented, Accented characters, Accents on letters, Diacratic, Diacretic, Diacritic mark, Diacritic marks, Diacritic sign, Diacritical, Diacritical Mark, Diacritical mark, Diacritical mark with vowel, Diacritical marks, Diacritical point, Diacritical sign, Diacritics, Diactric, Diakritikós, Diatric, Funny Foreign Squiggle, Funny foreign squiggle, List of diacritics, Modified letter, ͛.