284 relations: A language is a dialect with an army and navy, Abruzzo, Abstand and ausbau languages, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Accent (sociolinguistics), Accent perception, Albanian language, Alessandro Manzoni, Alexander Gode, Algherese dialect, Alghero, Alice Vanderbilt Morris, American English, Ancient Greek, Arabic, Arbëresh language, Arbitrariness, Argot, Australian English, Autonomy and heteronomy, Bari dialect, Bengali dialects, Bergamasque dialect, British English, Bulgarian language, Calabrian Greek, Calasetta, Campania, Campidanese dialect, Canadian English, Cantonese, Carloforte, Catalan dialects, Catalan language, Central Italian, Charles A. Ferguson, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Chronolect, Cilentan dialect, Cimbrian language, Codification (linguistics), Cognate, Colloquialism, Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union), Connacht Irish, Conscription, Corsican language, Cossack Hetmanate, Creole language, ..., Croatia, Croatian language, Cypriot Greek, Cypriot Turkish, Danish dialects, Danish language, Dante Alighieri, Dialect continuum, Dialect levelling, Dialect Test, Dialectology, Dialectometry, Dialects of Polish, Dutch dialects, Dutch Language Union, Dutch Low Saxon, East Franconian German, Eastern Lombard dialect, Education, Eligibility of international words in Interlingua, Elite, Emilian-Romagnol language, English language, Ethnic group, Ethnolect, Executed Renaissance, Eye dialect, Finnish language, Florentine dialect, French language, French Revolution, Frisian languages, Friulian language, Gail Valley dialect, Gallo-Italic languages, Gallo-Italic of Sicily, Gallo-Romance languages, Gallurese dialect, Gan Chinese, Genetic relationship (linguistics), Georgian dialects, German dialects, German Empire, German language, Germanic languages, Germanic peoples, Giovanni Boccaccio, Greek language, Griko dialect, Guangzhou, Hakka Chinese, Heinz Kloss, Hong Kong, Iberian Romance languages, Idiolect, Indian English, Interlingua, Interlingua–English Dictionary, International Auxiliary Language Association, International scientific vocabulary, Irpinian dialect, Islam, Isogloss, Istrian dialect, Italian language, Italian unification, Italo-Dalmatian languages, Italy, Japanese dialects, Jargon, John J. Gumperz, Joseph Wright (linguist), Koiné language, Korean dialects, Ladin language, Language, Language family, Languages of Calabria, Languages of Italy, Late Middle Ages, Latin, Latin script, Lebanon, Lexicon, Liechtenstein, Ligurian (Romance language), Limonese Creole, Lingua franca, Linguistics, List of dialects of the English language, Literacy, Literary language, Logogram, Logudorese dialect, Lombard language, Lombardy, Low German, Macau, Macedonian language, Maghrebi Arabic, Malayalam languages, Malayan languages, Mandarin Chinese, Marche, Max Weinreich, Mòcheno language, Middle Ages, Middle Chinese, Middle High German, Min Chinese, Ming dynasty, Mircea Snegur, Modern Standard Arabic, Modern Ukrainian language, Moldovan language, Moldovan–Romanian dictionary, Molisan, Munster Irish, Mutual intelligibility, Naples, Nation language, National identity, National language, Nationalism, Neapolitan language, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nonstandard dialect, Northern Italy, Norwegian dialects, Norwegian language, Occitan language, Official language, Old Chinese, Patois, Pavel Postyshev, Pennsylvania Dutch, Petrarch, Philippine English, Phonology, Pidgin, Portuguese dialects, President of Moldova, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Prosody (linguistics), Quran, Regional Italian, Regional language, Register (sociolinguistics), Renaissance, Republic of China (1912–1949), Republic of Macedonia, Rhaeto-Romance languages, Romance languages, Romanesco dialect, Romanian Academy, Romansh language, Rome, Russian dialects, Russian Empire, Russian language, Sacred language, Salentino dialect, Salerno, Sardinia, Sardinian language, Sassarese language, Scouse, Serbia, Serbian language, Serbo-Croatian, Sicilian language, Sicily, Slang, Slavomolisano dialect, Slovene dialects, Slovene language, Social class, Social status, Social stratification, Sociolect, Sociolinguistics, South Slavic languages, Southern American English, Southern Bavarian, Spanish dialects and varieties, Speech community, Sprachbund, Sri Lankan Tamil dialects, Standard Average European, Standard Chinese, Standard German, Standard language, State (polity), State school, Stratum (linguistics), Surzhyk, Swedish dialects, Swiss German, Switzerland, Syntax, Taiwan, Taiwanese Hokkien, Taiwanese Mandarin, Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (Ukraine–Central Powers), Triple Entente, Tsar, Tuscan dialect, Tuscany, Ukraine during World War I, Ukrainian collaboration with Nazi Germany, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian People's Republic, Ulster Irish, Upper class, Varieties of Arabic, Varieties of Chinese, Varieties of French, Variety (linguistics), Vivaro-Alpine dialect, Vocabulary, Vulgar Latin, Walser German, Western Australian English, Westphalian language, White movement, William Alexander Stewart, World War I, Wu Chinese, Xiang Chinese, Yiddish, Yiddish dialects, Yorkshire dialect, Yue Chinese, 12th century. 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"A language is a dialect with an army and navy" is a quipVictor H. Mair, The Columbia History of Chinese Literature, p. 24: "It has often been facetiously remarked...
Abruzzo (Aquiliano: Abbrùzzu) is a region of Southern Italy, with an area of 10,763 square km (4,156 sq mi) and a population of 1.2 million.
In sociolinguistics, an abstand language is a language variety or cluster of varieties with significant linguistic distance from all others, while an ausbau language is a standard variety, possibly with related dependent varieties.
The Academy of Sciences of Moldova (Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei), established in 1946, is the main scientific organization of the Republic of Moldova and coordinates research in all areas of science and technology.
In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.
Accents are the distinctive variations in the pronunciation of a language.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Alessandro Francesco Tommaso Antonio Manzoni (7 March 1785 – 22 May 1873) was an Italian poet and novelist.
Alexander Gottfried Friedrich Gode-von Aesch, or simply Alexander Gode (October 30, 1906 – August 10, 1970), was a German-American linguist, translator and the driving force behind the creation of the auxiliary language Interlingua.
Algherese (Standard Catalan: Alguerès,; Algherese: Alguerés) is the variant of the Catalan language spoken in the city of Alghero (L'Alguer in Catalan), in the northwest of Sardinia, Italy.
Alghero (L'Alguer,,; S'Alighèra; La Liéra), is a town of about 44,000 inhabitants in the Italian insular province of Sassari in northwestern Sardinia, next to the Mediterranean Sea.
Alice Vanderbilt Shepard Morris (December 7, 1874 – August 15, 1950) was a member of the Vanderbilt family.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arbëresh (also known as Arbërisht, Arbërishtja or T'arbrisht) is the variety of Albanian spoken by the Arbëreshë people in Italy.
Arbitrariness is the quality of being "determined by chance, whim, or impulse, and not by necessity, reason, or principle".
An argot (from French argot 'slang') is a secret language used by various groups—e.g., schoolmates, outlaws, colleagues, among many others—to prevent outsiders from understanding their conversations.
Australian English (AuE, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language, used throughout Australia.
Autonomy and heteronomy are complementary attributes of a language variety describing its functional relationship with related varieties.
Bari dialect (dialetto barese) is a dialect of Neapolitan spoken in the Apulia and Basilicata regions of Italy.
The dialects of the Bengali language (বাংলা উপভাষাসমূহ) are part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan language group of the Indo-European language family widely spoken in the Bengal region of South Asia.
The Bergamasque dialect is the western variant of the Eastern Lombard group of the Lombard language.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
The Calabrian dialect of Greek, or Grecanic, is the variety of Italiot Greek used by the ethnic Griko people in Calabria, as opposed to the Italiot Greek dialect spoken in the Grecìa Salentina.
Calasetta (Ligurian: Câdesédda) is a small town (population 2,745) and comune located on the island of Sant'Antioco, off the Southwestern coast of Sardinia, Italy.
Campania is a region in Southern Italy.
Campidanese Sardinian (Sardu Campidanesu, Sardo Campidanese) is a standardised variety of the Sardinian language primarily spoken in the Province of Cagliari, Italy.
Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Carloforte (U Pàize in Ligurian, literally: the village, the town) is a fishing and resort town of located on Isola di San Pietro (Saint Peter's Island), approximately off the southwestern coast of Sardinia, in southern Sardinia, Italy.
The dialects of the Catalan language feature a relative uniformity, especially when compared to other Romance languages; both in terms of vocabulary, semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Central Italian (italiano centrale or mediano) is a group of Italo-Dalmatian Romance lects spoken in central Italy in Lazio, Umbria, central Marche, the far south of Tuscany, and a small part of Abruzzo.
Charles Albert Ferguson (July 6, 1921 – September 2, 1998) was an American linguist who taught at Stanford University.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
In linguistics, a chronolect is a specific variety of language of which the characteristics are in particular determined by time-related factors.
The Cilentan language (in Italian: Cilentano, in Cilentan: Celendano or Cilindanu) is a dialect spoken in the area of Cilento, located in the southern part of the Province of Salerno, Campania, Italy.
Cimbrian (Zimbar,; Zimbrisch; Cimbro) refers to any of several local Upper German varieties spoken in northeastern Italy.
In linguistics, codification is the process of standardizing and developing a norm for a language.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.
The Communist Party of Ukraine (Комуністична Партія України Komunistychna Partiya Ukrayiny, КПУ, KPU; Коммунистическая партия Украины), was the founding and ruling political party of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic operated as the Ukrainian branch of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU).
Connacht Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Connacht.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Corsican (corsu or lingua corsa) is a Romance language within the Italo-Dalmatian subfamily.
The Cossack Hetmanate (Гетьманщина), officially known as Zaporizhian Host (Військо Запорозьке), was a Cossack state in Central Ukraine between 1649 and 1764 (some sources claim until 1782).
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Cypriot Greek (Κυπριακά) is the variety of Modern Greek that is spoken by the majority of the Cypriot populace and Greek Cypriot diaspora.
Cypriot Turkish (Kıbrıs Türkçesi) is a dialect of the Turkish language spoken by Turkish Cypriots both in Cyprus and among its diaspora.
The Danish language has a number of regional and local dialect varieties.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
Dialect levelling or dialect leveling is a process of assimilation, mixture and merging of certain dialects, often by language standardization.
The Dialect Test was created by A.J. Ellis in February 1879, and was used in the fieldwork for his work On Early English Pronunciation.
Dialectology (from Greek διάλεκτος, dialektos, "talk, dialect"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of linguistic dialect, a sub-field of sociolinguistics.
Dialectometry is the quantitative and computational branch of dialectology, the study of dialect.
Modern sources on the Slavic languages normally describe the Polish language as consisting of four major dialect groups, each primarily associated with a certain geographical region, and often further subdivided into subdialectal groups (called gwara in Polish):Roland Sussex and Paul Cubberley (2006).
Dutch dialects are primarily the dialects that are both cognate with the Dutch language and are spoken in the same language area as the Dutch standard language.
The Dutch Language Union (Dutch:, NTU) is an international regulatory institution that governs issues regarding the Dutch language.
Dutch Low Saxon (Nederlands Nedersaksisch; Dutch Low Saxon: Nederlaands Leegsaksies) are the Low Saxon dialects that are spoken in the northeastern Netherlands and are written there with local, unstandardised orthographies based on Standard Dutch orthography.
East Franconian (Ostfränkisch), usually referred to as Franconian (Fränkisch) in German, is a dialect which is spoken in Franconia, the northern part of the federal state of Bavaria and other areas in Germany around Nuremberg, Bamberg, Coburg, Würzburg, Hof, Bayreuth, Meiningen, Bad Mergentheim, and Crailsheim.
Eastern Lombard is a group of closely related dialects of Lombard, a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Lombardy, mainly in the provinces of Bergamo, Brescia and Mantua, in the area around Crema and in parts of Trentino.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Words can be included in Interlingua in either of two ways: through regular derivation using roots and affixes or by establishing their eligibility as international words.
In political and sociological theory, the elite (French élite, from Latin eligere) are a small group of powerful people who hold a disproportionate amount of wealth, privilege, political power, or skill in a society.
Emilian-Romagnol (emiliân-rumagnōl or langua emiglièna-rumagnôla), also known as Emiliano-Romagnolo, is a Gallo-Italic language.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
An ethnolect is a variety of a language associated with a certain ethnic or cultural subgroup.
The term Executed Renaissance (Розстріляне відродження, Rozstrilyane vidrodzhennya) is used to describe the generation of Ukrainian writers and artists of 1920s and early 1930s who were performing in the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic and were executed or repressed by Stalin's totalitarian regime.
Eye dialect is the use of nonstandard spelling for speech to draw attention to pronunciation.
Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
The Florentine dialect or vernacular (Dialetto fiorentino or vernacolo) is a Tuscan variety of Romance spoken in the Italian city of Florence.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany.
Friulian or Friulan (or, affectionately, marilenghe in Friulian, friulano in Italian, Furlanisch in German, furlanščina in Slovene; also Friulian) is a Romance language belonging to the Rhaeto-Romance family, spoken in the Friuli region of northeastern Italy.
The Gail Valley dialect (ziljsko narečje, ziljščinaLogar, Tine. 1996. Dialektološke in jezikovnozgodovinske razprave. Ljubljana: SAZU) is the westernmost Slovene dialect in the Carinthian dialect group, spoken in parts of southern Carinthia in Austria, in the northeasternmost part of the Province of Udine in Italy, and in northeastern Upper Carniola in Slovenia.
The Gallo-Italian, Gallo-Italic, Gallo-Cisalpine or simply Cisalpine languages constitute the majority of the Romance languages of northern Italy.
Gallo-Italic of Sicily (Gallo-italico di Sicilia) is a group of Gallo-Italic languages found in about 15 isolated communities of central eastern Sicily.
The Gallo-Romance branch of the Romance languages includes sensu stricto the French language, the Occitan language, and the Franco-Provençal language (Arpitan).
Gallurese (gadduresu) is an Italo-Dalmatian Romance lect spoken in the region of Gallura, in the northeastern part of Sardinia.
Gan is a group of Chinese varieties spoken as the native language by many people in the Jiangxi province of China, as well as significant populations in surrounding regions such as Hunan, Hubei, Anhui, and Fujian.
In linguistics, genetic relationship is the usual term for the relationship which exists between languages that are members of the same language family.
Georgian (ქართული, Kartuli) is a Kartvelian language spoken by about 4.1 million people, primarily in Georgia but also in Russia, northern Turkey, in previously Georgian-controlled territories and the diaspora, such as in Iran, Azerbaijan and Europe.
German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to the neighbouring varieties of Low Franconian (Dutch) and Frisian.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Griko, sometimes spelled Grico in Salento is the dialect of Italiot Greek spoken by Griko people in Salento and (sometimes spelled Grecanic)in Calabria.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.
Heinz Kloss (30 October 1904, Halle, Saxony-Anhalt – 13 June 1987) was a German linguist and internationally recognised authority on linguistic minorities.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Iberian Romance, Ibero-Romance or simply Iberian languages is an areal grouping of Romance languages that developed on the Iberian Peninsula, an area consisting primarily of Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra, and in southern France which are today more commonly separated into West Iberian and Occitano-Romance language groups.
Idiolect is an individual's distinctive and unique use of language, including speech.
Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.
Interlingua (ISO 639 language codes ia, ina) is an Italic international auxiliary language (IAL), developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).
The Interlingua–English Dictionary (IED), developed by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) under the direction of Alexander Gode and published by Storm Publishers in 1951, is the first Interlingua dictionary.
The International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) was founded in 1924 to "promote widespread study, discussion and publicity of all questions involved in the establishment of an auxiliary language, together with research and experiment that may hasten such establishment in an intelligent manner and on stable foundations." Although it was created to determine which auxiliary language of a wide field of contenders was best suited for international communication, it eventually determined that none of them was up to the task and developed its own language, Interlingua.
International scientific vocabulary (ISV) comprises scientific and specialized words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages (that is, translingually).
The Irpinian dialect, or Irpino, is the dialect spoken in almost all of the comuni in the Province of Avellino in the Italian region of Campania.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
An isogloss, also called a heterogloss (see Etymology below), is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or the use of some morphological or syntactic feature.
The Istrian dialect (istrsko narečje, istrščina) is a Slovene dialect in the Littoral dialect group.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
The Italo-Dalmatian languages, or Central Romance languages, are a group of Romance languages spoken in Italy, Corsica (France) and formerly in Dalmatia (Croatia).
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The dialects of the Japanese language fall into two primary clades, Eastern (including Tokyo) and Western (including Kyoto), with the dialects of Kyushu and Hachijō Island often distinguished as additional branches, the latter perhaps the most divergent of all.
Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside that context.
John Joseph Gumperz (January 9, 1922 – March 29, 2013) was an American linguist and academic.
Joseph Wright FBA (31 October 1855 – 27 February 1930) was an English philologist who rose from humble origins to become Professor of Comparative Philology at Oxford University.
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
A number of Korean dialects are spoken in the Korean Peninsula.
Ladin (or; Ladin: Ladin, Ladino, Ladinisch) is a Romance language consisting of a group of dialects that some consider part of a unitary Rhaeto-Romance language, mainly spoken in the Dolomite Mountains in Northern Italy in the provinces of South Tyrol, the Trentino, and the Belluno, by the Ladin people.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
The primary languages of Calabria are the standard Italian language as well as regional varieties of the Neapolitan and Sicilian languages, all collectively known as Calabrian (Italian: calabrese).
There are approximately thirty-four living spoken languages and related dialects in Italy; most of which are indigenous evolutions of Vulgar Latin, and are therefore classified as Romance languages.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
Ligurian (ligure or lengua ligure) is a Gallo-Italic language spoken in Liguria in Northern Italy, parts of the Mediterranean coastal zone of France, Monaco and in the villages of Carloforte and Calasetta in Sardinia.
Limonese Creole (also called Limón Creole English or Mekatelyu) is a dialect of Jamaican Creole spoken in Limón Province on the Caribbean Sea coast of Costa Rica.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is an overview list of dialects of the English language.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.
In written language, a logogram or logograph is a written character that represents a word or phrase.
Logudorese Sardinian (Sardu Logudoresu, Sardo Logudorese) is a standardised variety of Sardinian, often considered the most conservative of all Romance languages.
Lombard (native name lumbàart, lumbard or lombard, depending on the orthography) is a language belonging to the Cisalpine or Gallo-Italic group, within the Romance languages.
Lombardy (Lombardia; Lumbardia, pronounced: (Western Lombard), (Eastern Lombard)) is one of the twenty administrative regions of Italy, in the northwest of the country, with an area of.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
Maghrebi Arabic (Western Arabic; as opposed to Eastern Arabic or Mashriqi Arabic) is an Arabic dialect continuum spoken in the Maghreb region, in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Western Sahara, and Mauritania.
The Malayalam languages are the group of Dravidian languages most closely related to Malayalam.
The Malay or Malayan languages are a group of closely related languages spoken by Malays and related peoples across Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Southern Thailand and the far southern parts of the Philippines.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Marche, or the Marches, is one of the twenty regions of Italy.
Max Weinreich (22 April 1894 in Kuldīga, Russian Empire, now Latvia – 29 January 1969 in New York City, United States) was a Russian Jewish linguist, specializing in sociolinguistics and Yiddish, and the father of the linguist Uriel Weinreich, who edited the Modern Yiddish-English English-Yiddish Dictionary.
Mòcheno (Fersentalerisch; Bersntolerisch) is an Upper German variety spoken in three towns of the Bersntol (Fersental, Valle del Fersina), in Trentino, northeastern Italy.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle Chinese (formerly known as Ancient Chinese) or the Qieyun system (QYS) is the historical variety of Chinese recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.
Min or Miin (BUC: Mìng ngṳ̄) is a broad group of Chinese varieties spoken by over 70 million people in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou, or Chaoshan area, Leizhou peninsula and Part of Zhongshan), Hainan, three counties in southern Zhejiang, Zhoushan archipelago off Ningbo, some towns in Liyang, Jiangyin City in Jiangsu province, and Taiwan.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
Mircea Ion Snegur (born 17 January 1940) was the first President of Moldova from 1990–1997.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
The Modern Ukrainian language (Сучасна українська мова) is the form of the Ukrainian language commonly used since the late 17th century.
Moldovan (also Moldavian; limba moldovenească, or лимба молдовеняскэ in Moldovan Cyrillic) is one of the two names of the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova, prescribed by the Article 13 of the current constitution; the other name, recognized by the Declaration of Independence of Moldova and the Constitutional Court, is "Romanian".
The Moldovan–Romanian dictionary (Dicționar Moldovenesc-Românesc) is a dictionary compiled by Vasile Stati and published in Chișinău, Moldova in 2003 that contains 19,000 Moldovan words that are explained in Romanian.
Molisan is a group of dialects of the Neapolitan language spoken in the Molise region of Southern Italy.
Munster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Munster.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Naples (Napoli, Napule or; Neapolis; lit) is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan.
"Nation language" is the term coined by scholar and poet Kamau BrathwaiteMcArthur, Tom, In the words of Kamau Brathwaite, who is considered the authority of note on nation language and a key exemplar of its use: We in the Caribbean have a kind of plurality: we have English, which is the imposed language on much of the archipelago.
National identity is one's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Neapolitan (autonym: (’o n)napulitano; napoletano) is a Romance language of the Italo-Dalmatian group spoken across much of southern Italy, except for southern Calabria and Sicily.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
A nonstandard dialect is a dialect that does not have the institutional support or sanction that a standard dialect has.
Northern Italy (Italia settentrionale or just Nord) is a geographical region in the northern part of Italy.
The Norwegian dialects are commonly divided into 4 main groups, 'Northern Norwegian' (nordnorsk), 'Central Norwegian' (trøndersk), 'Western Norwegian' (vestlandsk), and 'Eastern Norwegian' (østnorsk).
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
Patois (pl. same or) is speech or language that is considered nonstandard, although the term is not formally defined in linguistics.
Pavel Petrovich Postyshev (Па́вел Петро́вич По́стышев; – 26 February 1939) was a Soviet politician.
The Pennsylvania Dutch (Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch) are a cultural group formed by early German-speaking immigrants to Pennsylvania and their descendants.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
Philippine English is any variety of English (similar and related to English) native to the Philippines, including those used by the media and the vast majority of educated Filipinos.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
Portuguese dialects are mutually intelligible variations of the Portuguese language over Portuguese-speaking countries and other areas holding some degree of cultural bound with the language.
The President of the Republic of Moldova is the head of state of Moldova.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
In linguistics, prosody is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual phonetic segments (vowels and consonants) but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
Regional Italian, sometimes also called dialects of Italian, is any regionalRegional in the broad sense of the word; not to be confused with the Italian endonym regione for Italy's administrative units variety of the Italian language.
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Rhaeto-Romance, or Rhaetian, is a traditional subfamily of the Romance languages that is spoken in north and north-eastern Italy and in Switzerland.
The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
Romanesco is a variety of regional Italian spoken in the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital, especially in the core city.
The Romanian Academy (Academia Română) is a cultural forum founded in Bucharest, Romania, in 1866.
Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh:, rumàntsch, or) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Russian dialects are spoken variants of the Russian language.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in religious service or for other religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily life.
Salentino is a dialect of the Sicilian language spoken in the Salento region (province of Lecce, almost all the province of Brindisi, and part of the province of Taranto).
Salerno (Salernitano: Salierne) is a city and comune in Campania (southwestern Italy) and is the capital of the province of the same name.
Sardinian or Sard (sardu, limba sarda or língua sarda) is the primary indigenous Romance language spoken on most of the island of Sardinia (Italy).
Sassarese (Sassaresu or Turritanu) is an Italo-Dalmatian language and transitional variety between Corsican and Sardinian.
Scouse (also, in academic sources, called Liverpool English or Merseyside English) is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
Sicilian (sicilianu; in Italian: Siciliano; also known as Siculo (siculu) or Calabro-Sicilian) is a Romance language spoken on the island of Sicily and its satellite islands.
Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
Slang is language (words, phrases, and usages) of an informal register that members of special groups like teenagers, musicians, or criminals favor (over a standard language) in order to establish group identity, exclude outsiders, or both.
Slavomolisano, also known as Molise Slavic or Molise Croatian, is a variety of Shtokavian Serbo-Croatian spoken by Italian Croats in the province of Campobasso, in the Molise Region of southern Italy, in the villages of Montemitro (Mundimitar), Acquaviva Collecroce (Živavoda Kruč) and San Felice del Molise (Štifilić).
Slovene dialects (slovenska narečja) are the regional spoken varieties of Slovene, a South Slavic language.
Slovene or Slovenian (slovenski jezik or slovenščina) belongs to the group of South Slavic languages.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Social status is the relative respect, competence, and deference accorded to people, groups, and organizations in a society.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
In sociolinguistics, a sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group or other social group.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.
Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a large collection of related American English dialects spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by white Americans.
Southern Bavarian, or Southern Austro-Bavarian, is a cluster of Upper German dialects of the Bavarian group.
Some of the regional varieties of the Spanish language are quite divergent from one another, especially in pronunciation and vocabulary, and less so in grammar.
A speech community is a group of people who share a set of linguistic norms and expectations regarding the use of language.
A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
The Sri Lankan Tamil dialects or Ceylon Tamil dialects form a group of Tamil dialects used in the modern country of Sri Lanka by Sri Lankan Tamil people that is distinct from the dialects of modern Tamil spoken in Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India.
Standard Average European (SAE) is a concept introduced in 1939 by Benjamin Whorf to group the modern Indo-European languages of Europe.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
A state is a compulsory political organization with a centralized government that maintains a monopoly of the legitimate use of force within a certain geographical territory.
State schools (also known as public schools outside England and Wales)In England and Wales, some independent schools for 13- to 18-year-olds are known as 'public schools'.
In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.
Surzhyk refers to a range of mixed (macaronic) sociolects of Ukrainian and Russian languages used in certain regions of Ukraine and adjacent lands.
Swedish dialects are the various forms of the Swedish language, particularly those that differ considerably from Standard Swedish.
Swiss German (Standard German: Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch Mundart,Because of the many different dialects, and because there is no defined orthography for any of them, many different spellings can be found. and others) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy bordering Switzerland.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taiwanese Hokkien (translated as Taiwanese Min Nan), also known as Taiwanese/Taiwanese language in Taiwan (/), is a branched-off variant of Hokkien spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan.
Taiwanese Mandarin is a dialect of Chinese and the de facto official language of Taiwan.
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on 3 March 1918 between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, but prior to that on 9 February 1918, the Central Powers signed an exclusive protectorate treaty (Brotfrieden, "peace for bread") with the Ukrainian People's Republic as part of the negotiations that took place in Brest-Litovsk, Grodno Governorate (now Brest, Belarus) recognizing the sovereignty of the Ukrainian republic.
The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") refers to the understanding linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Tuscan (dialetto toscano) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian varieties mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.
Tuscany (Toscana) is a region in central Italy with an area of about and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants (2013).
Upon the outbreak of World War I, the name ''Ukraine'' was used only geographically, as the term did not exist nationally.
Ukrainian collaboration with Nazi Germany took place during the military occupation of modern-day Ukraine by Nazi Germany in World War II.
The Ukrainian People's Republic, or Ukrainian National Republic (abbreviated to УНР), was a predecessor of modern Ukraine declared on 10 June 1917 following the Russian Revolution.
Ulster Irish is the variety of Irish spoken in the province of Ulster.
The upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of people who hold the highest social status, and usuall are also the wealthiest members of society, and also wield the greatest political power.
There are many varieties of Arabic (dialects or otherwise) in existence.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
Dialects of the French language are spoken in France and around the world.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Vivaro-Alpine (vivaroalpenc, vivaroaupenc) is a variety of Occitan spoken in southeastern France (namely, around the Dauphiné area) and northwestern Italy (the Occitan Valleys of Piedmont and Liguria).
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Walser German (Walserdeutsch) and Walliser German (Walliserdeutsch, locally Wallisertiitsch) form a group of Highest Alemannic dialects spoken in parts of Switzerland (Valais, Ticino, Grisons), Italy (Piedmont, Aosta Valley), Liechtenstein, and Austria (Vorarlberg).
Western Australian English is the English spoken in the Australian state of Western Australia (WA).
Westphalian or Westfalish (German Westfälisch) is one of the major dialect groups of West Low German.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
William Alexander Stewart (September 12, 1930 – March 25, 2002) was a linguist specializing in creoles, known particularly for his work on African American Vernacular English.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Wu (Shanghainese:; Suzhou dialect:; Wuxi dialect) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole Zhejiang province, city of Shanghai, and the southern half of Jiangsu province, as well as bordering areas.
Xiang or Hsiang, also known as Hunanese, is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese, spoken mainly in Hunan province but also in northern Guangxi and parts of neighboring Guizhou and Hubei provinces.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
Yiddish dialects are variants of the Yiddish and are divided according to the region in Europe where each developed its distinctiveness.
The Yorkshire dialect (also Broad Yorkshire, Tyke, Yorkie, or Yorkshire English) is an English dialect of Northern England spoken in England's historic county of Yorkshire.
Yue or Yueh is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, collectively known as Liangguang.
The 12th century is the period from 1101 to 1200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Common Era.
Bidialectism, Dialect (linguistics), Dialect cluster, Dialectal, Dialects, Dialekt, Language cluster, Language or dialect, Multidialectical, Regiolect, Regional dialect, Regionalect, Regionalism (linguistics).