176 relations: A language is a dialect with an army and navy, Abstand and ausbau languages, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Accent (sociolinguistics), Accents (psychology), Alexander Gode, Alice Vanderbilt Morris, American English, Ancient Greek, Arabic, Argot, Australian English, Bavarian language, Bengali dialects, British English, Bulgarian language, Canadian English, Catalan dialects, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Chronolect, Codification (linguistics), Cognate, Connacht Irish, Creole language, Croatia, Croatian language, Cypriot Greek, Cypriot Turkish, Danish dialects, Dialect continuum, Dialect levelling, Dialect Test, Dialectometry, Dialects of Polish, Dutch dialects, East Franconian German, Eligibility of international words in Interlingua, Elite, English language, Ethnic group, Ethnolect, Eye dialect, Finnish language, French language, French Revolution, Frisian languages, Gan Chinese, Georgian dialects, German dialects, ..., German Empire, German language, Germanic peoples, Greek language, Hakka Chinese, Heinz Kloss, Historical linguistics, Hong Kong, Idiolect, Indian English, Interlingua, Interlingua–English Dictionary, International Auxiliary Language Association, International scientific vocabulary, Islam, Isogloss, Italian language, Japanese dialects, Jargon, Joseph Wright (linguist), Koiné language, Korean dialects, Language, Latin, Latin script, Lebanese Arabic, Lebanon, Lexicon, Liechtenstein, Linguistics, List of dialects of the English language, Literary language, Logogram, Low German, Macau, Macedonian language, Maghrebi Arabic, Malayan languages, Mandarin Chinese, Max Weinreich, Middle Ages, Middle Chinese, Min Chinese, Ming dynasty, Mircea Snegur, Modern Standard Arabic, Moldovan language, Moldovan–Romanian dictionary, Munster Irish, Mutual intelligibility, Nation language, Nationalism, Nonstandard dialect, North Germanic languages, Norwegian dialects, Old Chinese, Old Norse, Patois, Pennsylvania Dutch, Philippine English, Phonology, Pidgin, Portuguese dialects, President of Moldova, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Prosody (linguistics), Quran, Regional Italian, Regional language, Register (sociolinguistics), Republic of Macedonia, Romance languages, Romanian Academy, Romansh language, Russia, Russian dialects, Russian language, Sacred language, Scouse, Serbia, Serbian language, Serbo-Croatian, Slang, Slovene dialects, Social class, Social status, Sociolect, Sociolinguistics, South Slavic languages, Southern American English, Southern Min, Spanish dialects and varieties, Spanish language, Sprachbund, Sri Lankan Tamil dialects, Standard Average European, Standard Chinese, Standard language, State (polity), Surzhyk, Swedish dialects, Swiss German, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tok Pisin, Triple Entente, Tsar, Ukraine during World War I, Ukrainian collaborationism with the Axis powers, Ukrainian language, Ulster Irish, Varieties of Arabic, Varieties of Chinese, Varieties of French, Variety (linguistics), Vocabulary, Western Australian English, White movement, World War I, World War II, Wu Chinese, Xiang Chinese, Yiddish dialects, Yiddish language, Yorkshire dialect, Yue Chinese. Expand index (126 more) » « Shrink index
"A language is a dialect with an army and navy" is a quipVictor H. Mair, The Columbia History of Chinese Literature, p. 24: "It has often been facetiously remarked...
The framework of abstand and ausbau languages is a tool used in sociolinguistics to analyse and categorise the distinctiveness of related language varieties.
The Academy of Sciences of Moldova (Academia de Ştiinţe a Moldovei), established in 1946, is the main scientific organization of the Republic of Moldova and coordinates research in all areas of science and technology.
In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.
Accents are the distinctive variations in the pronunciation of a language.
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Alexander Gottfried Friedrich Gode-von Aesch, or simply Alexander Gode (October 30, 1906 – August 10, 1970), was a German-American linguist, translator and the driving force behind the creation of the auxiliary language Interlingua.
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Alice Vanderbilt Shepard Morris (December 7, 1874 – August 15, 1950) was a member of the Vanderbilt family.
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American English, or United States (U.S.) English, is the set of dialects of the English language native to the United States.
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Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
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Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.
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An argot (from French argot ‘slang’) is a secret language used by various groups—e.g. schoolmates, outlaws, colleagues, among many others—to prevent outsiders from understanding their conversations.
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Australian English (AusE, AuE, AusEng, en-AU) is a major variety of the English language and is used throughout Australia.
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Bavarian (Bairisch; Austro-Bavarian: Boarisch), is a major group of Upper German varieties spoken in the southeast of the German language area, largely covered by Bavaria and Austria.
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The dialects of the Bengali language are part of the Eastern Indo-Aryan language group of the Indo-European language family.
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British English is the English language as spoken and written in Great Britain or, more broadly, throughout the British Isles.
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Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the variety of English spoken in Canada.
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The dialects of the Catalan language feature a relative uniformity, especially when compared to other Romance languages; both in terms of vocabulary, semantics, syntax, morphology, and phonology.
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Chinese characters are logograms used in the writing of Chinese and some other Asian languages.
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Chinese (汉语 / 漢語; Hànyǔ or 中文; Zhōngwén) is a group of related but in many cases mutually unintelligible language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
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In linguistics, a chronolect is a specific variety of language of which the characteristics are in particular determined by time-related factors.
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In linguistics, codification is the process of standardizing and developing a norm for a language.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
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Connacht Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Connacht.
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A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language that has developed from a pidgin (i.e. a simplified language or simplified mixture of languages used by non-native speakers) becoming nativized by children as their first language, with the accompanying effect of a fully developed vocabulary and system of grammar.
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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a sovereign state at the crossroads of Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean.
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Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighbouring countries.
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Cypriot Greek (κυπριακά) is the variety of Modern Greek that is spoken by the majority of the Cypriot populace and diaspora Greek Cypriots.
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Cypriot Turkish (Kıbrıs Türkçesi) is a dialect of the Turkish language spoken by Turkish Cypriots both in Cyprus and among its diaspora.
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Danish dialects are the regional and local varieties of the Danish language.
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A dialect continuum or dialect area was defined by Leonard Bloomfield as a range of dialects spoken across some geographical area that differ only slightly between neighboring areas, but as one travels in any direction, these differences accumulate in such a way that speakers from opposite ends of the continuum are no longer mutually intelligible.
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Dialect levelling or dialect leveling refers to the assimilation, mixture and/or eradication of certain dialects, often due to language standardization.
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The Dialect Test was created by Joseph Wright in February 1879.
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The main purpose of dialectometry (also: dialectometrics) is to discover high levels of structure in geographical dialect networks.
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Modern sources on the Slavic languages normally describe the Polish language as consisting of four major dialect groups, each primarily associated with a certain geographical region, and often further subdivided into subdialectal groups (called gwara or region in Polish):Roland Sussex and Paul Cubberley (2006).
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Dutch dialects are primarily the dialects that are both cognate with the Dutch language and are spoken in the same language area as the Dutch standard language.
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East Franconian (Ostfränkisch), usually referred to as Franconian (Fränkisch) in German, is a dialect which is spoken in Franconia, the northern part of the federal state of Bavaria and other areas in Germany around Nuremberg, Bamberg, Coburg, Würzburg, Hof, Bayreuth, Meiningen, Bad Mergentheim, and Crailsheim.
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Words can be included in Interlingua in either of two ways: through regular derivation using roots and affixes or by establishing their eligibility as international words.
In political and sociological theory, an elite is a small group of people who control a disproportionate amount of wealth or political power.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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An ethnic group or ethnicity is a socially defined category of people who identify with each other based on common ancestral, social, cultural or national experience.
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Ethnolect is a variety of a language associated with a certain ethnic or cultural subgroup.
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Eye dialect is the use of nonstandard spelling for speech to draw attention to an ironically standard pronunciation.
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Finnish (or suomen kieli) is the language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.
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French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.
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The French Revolution (Révolution française) was an influential period of social and political upheaval in France that lasted from 1789 until 1799, and was partially carried forward by Napoleon during the later expansion of the French Empire.
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The Frisian languages are a closely related group of Germanic languages, spoken by about 500,000 Frisian people, who live on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands, Germany, and Denmark.
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Gan (Gan: Gon ua, alternatively, Jiāngxī huà; Gan: Kongsi ua) is a group of Chinese varieties spoken as the native language by many people in the Jiangxi province of China, as well as significant populations in surrounding regions such as Hunan, Hubei, Anhui, and Fujian.
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Georgian (ქართული, Kartuli) is a Kartvelian language spoken by about 4.1 million people primarily in Georgia, but also in Russia, northern Turkey in previously Georgian-controlled territories, and the diaspora (such as in Iran, Azerbaijan, Europe etc.). It is a highly standardized language, with established literary and linguistic norms dating back to the 5th century.
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German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to some neighboring languages, e.g. the Dutch and Luxembourgish languages.
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The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich), variously referred to as the German Reich or Realm, or Imperial Germany, was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in November 1918, when Germany became a federal republic.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.
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Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major languages within the Sinitic branch of Sino-Tibetan and it is spoken natively by the Hakka people in southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and around the world.
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Heinz Kloss (30 October 1904, Halle, Saxony-Anhalt – 13 June 1987) was a German linguist and internationally recognised authority on linguistic minorities.
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Historical linguistics, also called diachronic linguistics, is the scientific study of language change over time.
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Hong Kong, traditionally Hongkong, officially known as Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is a Special Administrative Region (SAR) on the southern coast of China at the Pearl River Estuary and the South China Sea.
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In linguistics, an idiolect is an individual's distinctive and unique use of language, including speech.
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Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of the Indian subcontinent.
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Interlingua (ISO 639 language codes ia, ina) is an international auxiliary language (IAL), developed between 1937 and 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA).
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The Interlingua–English Dictionary (IED), developed by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) under the direction of Alexander Gode and published by Storm Publishers in 1951, is the first Interlingua dictionary.
The International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA) was founded in 1924 to "promote widespread study, discussion and publicity of all questions involved in the establishment of an auxiliary language, together with research and experiment that may hasten such establishment in an intelligent manner and on stable foundations." Although it was created to determine which auxiliary language of a wide field of contenders was best suited for international communication, it eventually determined that none of them was up to the task and developed its own language, Interlingua.
International scientific vocabulary (ISV) comprises scientific and specialized words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages.
Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.
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An isogloss—also called a heterogloss (see Etymology below)—is the geographic boundary of a certain linguistic feature, such as the pronunciation of a vowel, the meaning of a word, or use of some syntactic feature.
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Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.
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The dialects of the Japanese language fall into two primary clades, Eastern (including Tokyo) and Western (including Kyoto), with the dialects of Kyushu and Hachijō Island often distinguished as additional branches, the latter perhaps the most divergent of all.
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Jargon is a type of language that is used in a particular context and may not be well understood outside of it.
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Joseph Wright FBA (31 October 1855 – 27 February 1930) was an English philologist who rose from humble origins to become Professor of Comparative Philology at Oxford University.
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In linguistics, a koiné language (κοινή common language in Koiné Greek) is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
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A number of Korean dialects are spoken in the Korean Peninsula.
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Language is the ability to acquire and use complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so, and a language is any specific example of such a system.
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Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
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Latin script, or Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.
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Lebanese Arabic or Lebanese is a variety of Levantine Arabic, indigenous to and spoken primarily in Lebanon, with significant linguistic influences borrowed from other Middle Eastern and European languages, and is in some ways unique from other varieties of Arabic.
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Lebanon (or; لبنان or; Lebanese Arabic:; Aramaic: לבנאן; French: Liban), officially the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
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A lexicon is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
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Liechtenstein, officially the Principality of Liechtenstein (Fürstentum Liechtenstein), is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Central Europe.
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Linguistics is the scientific study of language.
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This is a partial list of dialects of the English language.
A literary language is a register or dialect of a language that is used in literary writing.
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Logographic systems, or logographies, are writing systems in which each symbol represents a concept rather than a sound, as in syllabaric or phonographic systems.
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Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdüütsch, Nedderdüütsch, Platduuts, Nedderduuts; Standard German: Plattdeutsch or Niederdeutsch; Dutch: Nederduits in the wider sense, see Nomenclature below) is an Ingvaeonic West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
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Governor Nobre de Carvalho Bridge; A-Ma Temple; Guia Fortress; Macau Tower. Macau (Au4mun2), also spelled Macao, officially known as the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is one of the special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China.
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Macedonian (македонски јазик, makedonski jazik) is a South Slavic language, spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
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Maghrebi Arabic, or Darija, is the varieties of Arabic spoken in the Maghreb, including Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya.
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The Malay or Malayan languages are a group of closely related languages spoken by Malays and related peoples across Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Southern Thailand and the far southern parts of the Philippines.
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Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
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Max Weinreich (22 April 1894 in Kuldīga, Russian Empire, now Latvia – 29 January 1969 in New York City, USA) was a linguist, specializing in sociolinguistics and the Yiddish language, and the father of the linguist Uriel Weinreich, who edited the Modern Yiddish-English English-Yiddish Dictionary.
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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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Middle Chinese, formerly known as Ancient Chinese, is the historical variety of Chinese that is phonologically recorded in the Qieyun, a rime dictionary first published in 601 and followed by several revised and expanded editions.
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Min or Miin (BUC) is a broad group of Chinese varieties spoken by over 70 million people in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou, or Chaoshan area, Leizhou peninsula and Part of Zhongshan), Hainan, three counties in southern Zhejiang, Zhoushan archipelago off Ningbo, some towns in Liyang, Jiangyin City in Jiangsu province, and Taiwan.
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The Ming dynasty, or the Great Ming, also called the Empire of the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
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Mircea Ion Snegur (b. January 17, 1940 – Trifăneşti, now in Florești District) was the first President of Moldova from 1990–1997.
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Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech.
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Moldovan (also Moldavian; limba moldovenească, or лимба молдовеняскэ in Moldovan Cyrillic) is one of the two names of the Romanian language in the Republic of Moldova, prescribed by the Article 13 of the current constitution; the other name, recongnised by the Declaration of Independence of Moldova and the Constitutional Court, is "Romanian".
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The Moldovan–Romanian dictionary (Dicționar Moldovenesc-Românesc) is a dictionary compiled by Vasile Stati and published in Chișinău, Moldova in 2003 that contains 19,000 Moldovan words that are explained in Romanian.
Munster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Munster.
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In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without intentional study or special effort.
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"Nation language" is the term coined by scholar and poet Kamau BrathwaiteTom McArthur,, Concise Oxford Companion to the English Language, 1998.
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Nationalism is essentially a shared group feeling in the significance of a geographical and sometimes demographic region seeking independence for its culture and/or ethnicity that holds that group together, this can be expressed as a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.
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A nonstandard dialect is a dialect that does not have the institutional support or sanction that a standard dialect has.
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The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
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The Norwegian dialects are commonly divided into 4 main groups, Northern Norwegian (nordnorsk), Central Norwegian (trøndersk), Western Norwegian (vestlandsk), and Eastern Norwegian (østnorsk).
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Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the form of Chinese spoken from the beginning of written records (around 1200 BC) until the 3rd century BC.
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Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during about the 9th to 13th centuries.
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Patois (pl. same or) is any language that is considered nonstandard, although the term is not formally defined in linguistics.
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The Pennsylvania Dutch (Pennsilfaanisch Deitsch) are a cultural group formed by early German-speaking immigrants to Pennsylvania and their descendants.
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Philippine English is the variety of English used in the Philippines by the media and the vast majority of educated Filipinos.
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Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
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A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, a mixture of simplified languages or a simplified primary language with other languages' elements included.
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Portuguese dialects are mutually intelligible variations of the Portuguese language over Portuguese-speaking countries and other areas holding some degree of cultural bound with the language.
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The President of the Republic of Moldova is the head of state of Moldova.
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In sociolinguistics, prestige is the level of respect normally accorded to a specific language or dialect within a particular speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
In linguistics, prosody (from Ancient Greek προσῳδία prosōidía, "song sung to music; tone or accent of a syllable") is concerned with those elements of speech that are not individual vowels and consonants but are properties of syllables and larger units of speech.
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The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qurʾan or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (الله, Allah).
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Regional Italian, sometimes also called dialects of Italian, refers to regionalRegional in the broad sense of the word; not to be confused with the Italian endonym regione for Italy's administrative units varieties of the Italian language.
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A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
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In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
Macedonia (Македонија, tr. Makedonija), officially the Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian:, tr. Republika Makedonija), is a country located in the central Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
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The Romance languages— sometimes called the Latin languages, and occasionally the Romanic or Neo-Latin languages—are the modern languages that evolved from spoken Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries A.D. and that thus form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
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The Romanian Academy (Academia Română) is a cultural forum founded in Bucharest, Romania, in 1866.
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Romansh (also spelled Romansch, Rumantsch, or Romanche; Romansh) is a Romance language spoken predominantly in the southeastern Swiss canton of Grisons (Graubünden), where it has official status alongside German and Italian and is used as the medium of instruction of schools in Romansh-speaking areas.
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Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.
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Russian dialects are spoken variants of the Russian language.
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Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.
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A sacred language, "holy language" (in religious context) or liturgical language is a language that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life.
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Scouse (also, in academic sources, called Liverpool English or Merseyside English) is an accent and dialect of English found primarily in the Metropolitan county of Merseyside, and closely associated with the city of Liverpool.
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Serbia (Србија, Srbija), officially the Republic of Serbia (Република Србија, Republika Srbija), is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads between Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans.
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Serbian (српски, Latin: srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used chiefly by Serbs in Serbia, Montenegro, and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
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Serbo-Croatian, also called Serbo-Croat, Serbo-Croat-Bosnian (SCB), Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian (BCS), or Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian (BCMS), is a South Slavic language and the primary language of Serbia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Montenegro.
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Slang consists of a lexicon of non-standard words and phrases in a given language.
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Slovene dialects (slovenska narečja) are the regional spoken varieties of Slovene, a South Slavic language.
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Social class (or simply "class"), as in a class society, is a set of concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle, and lower classes.
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Social status is the position or rank of a person or group, within the society.
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In sociolinguistics, a sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) associated with a social group such as a socioeconomic class, an ethnic group (precisely termed ethnolect), an age group, etc.
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Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and the effects of language use on society.
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The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages.
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Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a collection of related American English dialects spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by White Americans.
Southern Min, or Min Nan, is a branch of Min Chinese spoken in certain parts of China including southern Fujian, eastern Guangdong, Hainan, and southern Zhejiang, and in Taiwan.
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Some of the regional varieties of the Spanish language are quite divergent from one another, especially in pronunciation and vocabulary, and less so in grammar.
Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.
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A sprachbund ("federation of languages") – also known as a linguistic area, area of linguistic convergence, diffusion area or language crossroads – is a group of languages that have common features resulting from geographical proximity and language contact.
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The Sri Lankan Tamil dialects or Ceylon Tamil dialects form a group of Tamil dialects used in the modern country of Sri Lanka by Sri Lankan Tamil people that is distinct from the dialects of modern Tamil spoken in Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of India.
Standard Average European (SAE) is a concept introduced by Benjamin Whorf (1939) "The Relation of Habitual Thought and Behavior to Language" to group the modern Indo-European languages of Europe.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin and Putonghua, sometimes simply referred to as "Mandarin", is a standard language that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan, and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
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A standard language (also standard dialect or standardized dialect) is a language variety used by a group of people in their public discourse.
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A state is an organized political community living under a single system of government.
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Surzhyk (Cyrillic: су́ржик) refers to a range of mixed (macaronic) sociolects of Ukrainian and Russian languages used in certain regions of Ukraine and adjacent lands.
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Swedish dialects are the various forms of the Swedish language, particularly those that differ considerably from Standard Swedish.
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Swiss German (Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, SchwizertitschBecause there is no standard orthography, many different spellings can be found.) refers to any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in Switzerland and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy.
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Switzerland (Schweiz;Swiss Standard German spelling and pronunciation. The Swiss German name is sometimes spelled as Schwyz or Schwiiz. Schwyz is also the standard German (and international) name of one of the Swiss cantons. Suisse; Svizzera; Svizra or),The latter is the common Sursilvan pronunciation.
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Taiwan (see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC) is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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Tok Pisin (Tok Pisin) is a creole language spoken throughout Papua New Guinea.
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The Triple Entente (from French entente "friendship, understanding, agreement") was the alliance linking the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic, and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland after the signing of the Anglo-Russian Entente on 31 August 1907.
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Tsar (Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь (usually written thus with a tilde) or цар, цaрь; also Czar or Tzar in Latin alphabet languages) is a title used to designate certain European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers.
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Upon the outbreak of World War I, the name ''Ukraine'' was used only geographically, as the term did not exist nationally.
During the military occupation of Ukraine by Nazi Germany, a large number of Ukrainians chose to cooperate with the Nazis.
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Ulster Irish is the dialect of the Irish language spoken in the province of Ulster.
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There are many varieties of the Arabic language (dialects or otherwise) in existence within five regional forms.
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Chinese (/ Hànyǔ) or Sinitic is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family, consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
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Dialects of the French language are spoken in France and around the world.
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In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
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A person's vocabulary is the set of words within a language that are familiar to that person.
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Western Australian English is the collective name given to the variety or varieties of English spoken in the Australian state of Western Australia (WA).
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армiя/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардiя/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya) or the Whites (Белые and белогвардейцы, "White Guardsmen"), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks (большевики, "Majority") in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
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World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.
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World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.
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Wu (Suzhou Wu:, Shanghai Wu) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in Zhejiang province, the municipality of Shanghai, and southern Jiangsu province.
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Xiang (Hsiang) or imprecisely Hunanese, is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese, spoken mainly in Hunan province but also in a few parts of Guangxi, Sichuan and Shaanxi.
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Yiddish dialects are variants of the Yiddish language and are divided according to the region in Europe where each developed its distinctiveness.
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Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, literally "Jewish"; in older sources also "Yiddish-Taitsh" (Judaeo-German)) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.
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The Yorkshire dialect refers to the Northern English language varieties spoken in England's historic county of Yorkshire.
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Yue or Yueh is a primary branch of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi.
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