130 relations: Anti-Dühring, Antithesis, Applications of artificial intelligence to legal informatics, Argument, Aristotle, Aufheben, Bertell Ollman, Boethius, Bourgeoisie, Christianity in the 18th century, Christianity in the 19th century, Class conflict, Classical Greece, Contradiction, Critique, Critique of Dialectical Reason, Critique of Pure Reason, Das Kapital, David Walls (academic), Debate, Decision support system, Defeasible reasoning, Demiurge, Dialect, Dialectical behavior therapy, Dialectical logic, Dialectical materialism, Dialectical research, Dialectics of Nature, Dialogic, Dialogue, Didactic method, Dielectric, Diogenes Laërtius, Discourse, Doublethink, Emil Brunner, Enthymeme, Euthyphro, Euthyphro (prophet), Evald Ilyenkov, Existence, Existentialism, False dilemma, Fascism, Frankfurt School, Friedrich Engels, Garlandus Compotista, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Georgi Plekhanov, ..., Gorgias (dialogue), Grammar, György Lukács, Hegelianism, Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus, Henri Lefebvre, Heraclitus, Historical materialism, Historicism, Idealism, Immanuel Kant, Informal logic, Jacques Derrida, Jean-Paul Sartre, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, John L. Pollock, Joseph Dietzgen, Joseph Stalin, Karl Barth, Karl Korsch, Karl Marx, Karl Popper, Liberal Christianity, Logic, Logic and dialectic, Mario Bunge, Marxism, Master–slave dialectic, Materialism, Mathematical logic, Medieval university, Mysticism, Neo-orthodoxy, New York University, Nicholas Rescher, Opinion, Paraconsistent logic, Peter Abelard, Philosophy, Plato, Positivism, Pragma-dialectics, Predestination, Proposition, Protestantism, Rationality, Rechtsstaat, Reflective equilibrium, Reformation, Relational dialectics, Rhetoric, Science of Logic, Scientific method, Socialism, Socrates, Socratic dialogue, Socratic method, Springer Science+Business Media, Stephen Toulmin, Swiss people, The Open Society and Its Enemies, The Phenomenology of Spirit, Theology, Thesis, antithesis, synthesis, Thomas Aquinas, Totalitarianism, Transcendentalism, Trivium, Truth, Unity of opposites, Universal dialectic, Vladimir Lenin, Walter Burley, Walter Kaufmann (philosopher), Weimar Republic, William of Ockham, William of Sherwood, World War I, Zaid Orudzhev, Zeno of Elea. Expand index (80 more) » « Shrink index
Anti-Dühring (Herrn Eugen Dührings Umwälzung der Wissenschaft, "Herr Eugen Dühring's Revolution in Science") is a book by Friedrich Engels, first published in German in 1878.
Antithesis (Greek for "setting opposite", from ἀντί "against" and θέσις "placing") is used in writing or speech either as a proposition that contrasts with or reverses some previously mentioned proposition, or when two opposites are introduced together for contrasting effect.
Artificial intelligence and law (AI and law) is a subfield of artificial intelligence (AI) mainly concerned with applications of AI to legal informatics problems and original research on those problems.
In logic and philosophy, an argument is a series of statements typically used to persuade someone of something or to present reasons for accepting a conclusion.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Aufheben or Aufhebung is a German word with several seemingly contradictory meanings, including "to lift up", "to abolish", "cancel" or "suspend", or "to sublate".
Bertell Ollman (born April 30, 1935 in Milwaukee) is a professor of politics at New York University.
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boëthius, commonly called Boethius (also Boetius; 477–524 AD), was a Roman senator, consul, magister officiorum, and philosopher of the early 6th century.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
Christianity in the 18th century is marked by the First Great Awakening in the Americas, along with the expansion of the Spanish and Portuguese empires around the world, which helped to spread Catholicism.
Bibliothèque Nationale de France --> Characteristic of Christianity in the 19th century were Evangelical revivals in some largely Protestant countries and later the effects of modern Biblical scholarship on the churches.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.
In classical logic, a contradiction consists of a logical incompatibility between two or more propositions.
Critique is a method of disciplined, systematic study of a written or oral discourse.
Critique of Dialectical Reason (Critique de la raison dialectique) is a 1960 book by the philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, in which the author further develops the existentialist Marxism he first expounded in his essay Search for a Method (1957).
The Critique of Pure Reason (Kritik der reinen Vernunft, KrV) (1781, Riga; second edition 1787) is a book by Immanuel Kant that has exerted an enduring influence on Western philosophy.
Das Kapital, also known as Capital.
David Walls (born October 21, 1941) is an activist and academic who has made significant contributions to Appalachian studies and to the popular understanding of social movements.
Debate is a process that involves formal discussion on a particular topic.
A decision support system (DSS) is an information system that supports business or organizational decision-making activities.
In logic, defeasible reasoning is a kind of reasoning that is rationally compelling, though not deductively valid.
In the Platonic, Neopythagorean, Middle Platonic, and Neoplatonic schools of philosophy, the demiurge is an artisan-like figure responsible for fashioning and maintaining the physical universe.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is an evidence-based psychotherapy designed to help people suffering from borderline personality disorder.
Dialectical logic is the system of laws of thought, developed within the Hegelian and Marxist traditions, which seeks to supplement or replace the laws of formal logic.
Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature developed in Europe and based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Dialectical research or dialectical inquiry or dialectical investigation is a form of qualitative research which utilizes the method of dialectic, aiming to discover truth through examining and interrogating competing ideas, perspectives or arguments.
Dialectics of Nature (Dialektik der Natur) is an unfinished 1883 work by Friedrich Engels that applies Marxist ideas – particularly those of dialectical materialism – to science.
Dialogic means relates to or is characterized by dialogue and its use.
Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.
A Pedagogy or general method a comum denomined in the Enghish - Classic a didactic method (διδάσκειν didáskein, "to teach") is a teaching method that follows a consistent scientific approach or educational style to present information to students.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
Diogenes Laërtius (Διογένης Λαέρτιος, Diogenēs Laertios) was a biographer of the Greek philosophers.
Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.
Doublethink is the act of simultaneously accepting two mutually contradictory beliefs as correct, often in distinct social contexts.
Heinrich Emil Brunner (born December 23, 1889 in Winterthur, Switzerland; died April 6, 1966 in Zurich, Switzerland) was a Swiss Protestant (Reformed) theologian.
An enthymeme (ἐνθύμημα, enthumēma) is a rhetorical syllogism (a three-part deductive argument) used in oratorical practice.
Euthyphro (translit; c. 399–395 BC), by Plato, is a Socratic dialogue whose events occur in the weeks before the trial of Socrates (399 BC), for which Socrates and Euthyphro attempt to establish a definitive meaning for the word piety (virtue).
Euthyphro of Prospalta (Εὐθύφρων Προσπάλτιος; fl. 400 BCE) was an ancient Athenian religious prophet (mantis) best known for his role in his eponymous dialogue written by the philosopher Plato.
Evald Vassilievich Ilyenkov (Э́вальд Васи́льевич Илье́нков; 18 February 1924 – 21 March 1979) was a Marxist author and Soviet philosopher.
Existence, in its most generic terms, is the ability to, directly or indirectly, interact with reality or, in more specific cases, the universe.
Existentialism is a tradition of philosophical inquiry associated mainly with certain 19th and 20th-century European philosophers who, despite profound doctrinal differences,Oxford Companion to Philosophy, ed.
A false dilemma is a type of informal fallacy in which something is falsely claimed to be an "either/or" situation, when in fact there is at least one additional option.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
The Frankfurt School (Frankfurter Schule) is a school of social theory and philosophy associated in part with the Institute for Social Research at the Goethe University Frankfurt.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Garlandus Compotista, also known as Garland the Computist, was an early medieval logician of the eleventh-century school of Liège.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 – November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher and the most important figure of German idealism.
Georgi Valentinovich Plekhanov (a; 29 November 1856 – 30 May 1918) was a Russian revolutionary and a Marxist theoretician.
Gorgias (Γοργίας) is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato around 380 BC.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
György Lukács (also Georg Lukács; born György Bernát Löwinger; 13 April 1885 – 4 June 1971) was a Hungarian Marxist philosopher, aesthetician, literary historian, and critic.
Hegelianism is the philosophy of G. W. F. Hegel which can be summed up by the dictum that "the rational alone is real", which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories.
Heinrich Moritz Chalybäus (3 July 1796, in Pfaffroda – 22 September 1862, in Dresden) was a German philosopher best known for his exegetical work on philosophy, such as his characterisation of Hegel's dialectic ("an sich", "fuer sich", "an sich und fuer sich") positing a triad of "thesis–antithesis–synthesis.".
Henri Lefebvre (16 June 1901 – 29 June 1991) was a French Marxist philosopher and sociologist, best known for pioneering the critique of everyday life, for introducing the concepts of the right to the city and the production of social space, and for his work on dialectics, alienation, and criticism of Stalinism, existentialism, and structuralism.
Heraclitus of Ephesus (Hērákleitos ho Ephésios) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, and a native of the city of Ephesus, then part of the Persian Empire.
Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.
Historicism is the idea of attributing meaningful significance to space and time, such as historical period, geographical place, and local culture.
In philosophy, idealism is the group of metaphysical philosophies that assert that reality, or reality as humans can know it, is fundamentally mental, mentally constructed, or otherwise immaterial.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
Informal logic, intuitively, refers to the principles of logic and logical thought outside of a formal setting.
Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.
Jean-Paul Charles Aymard Sartre (21 June 1905 – 15 April 1980) was a French philosopher, playwright, novelist, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
Johann Gottlieb Fichte (May 19, 1762 – January 27, 1814), was a German philosopher who became a founding figure of the philosophical movement known as German idealism, which developed from the theoretical and ethical writings of Immanuel Kant.
John L. Pollock (1940–2009) was an American philosopher known for influential work in epistemology, philosophical logic, cognitive science, and artificial intelligence.
Peter Josef Dietzgen (October 28, 1828April 15, 1888) was a German socialist philosopher, Marxist and journalist.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Karl Barth (–) was a Swiss Reformed theologian who is often regarded as the greatest Protestant theologian of the twentieth century.
Karl Korsch (August 15, 1886 – October 21, 1961) was a German Marxist theoretician.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.
Liberal Christianity, also known as liberal theology, covers diverse philosophically and biblically informed religious movements and ideas within Christianity from the late 18th century onward.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Since the 1980s, European and American logicians have attempted to provide mathematical foundations for logic and dialectic through formalisation, although logic has been related to dialectic since ancient times.
Mario Augusto Bunge (born September 21, 1919) is an Argentine philosopher, philosopher of science and physicist mainly active in Canada.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
The master–slave dialectic is the common name for a famous passage of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's Phenomenology of Spirit, though the original German phrase, Herrschaft und Knechtschaft, is more properly translated as Lordship and Bondage.
Materialism is a form of philosophical monism which holds that matter is the fundamental substance in nature, and that all things, including mental aspects and consciousness, are results of material interactions.
Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.
A medieval university is a corporation organized during the Middle Ages for the purposes of higher learning.
Mysticism is the practice of religious ecstasies (religious experiences during alternate states of consciousness), together with whatever ideologies, ethics, rites, myths, legends, and magic may be related to them.
Neo-orthodoxy, in Christianity, also known as theology of crisis and dialectical theology, was a theological movement developed in the aftermath of the First World War.
New York University (NYU) is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City.
Nicholas Rescher (born 15 July 1928) is a German-American philosopher at the University of Pittsburgh.
An opinion is a judgment, viewpoint, or statement that is not conclusive.
A paraconsistent logic is a logical system that attempts to deal with contradictions in a discriminating way.
Peter Abelard (Petrus Abaelardus or Abailardus; Pierre Abélard,; 1079 – 21 April 1142) was a medieval French scholastic philosopher, theologian, and preeminent logician.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.
Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural phenomena and their properties and relations.
Pragma-dialectics, or pragma-dialectical theory, developed by Frans H. van Eemeren and Rob Grootendorst (see 1984; 1992; 2004) at the University of Amsterdam, is an argumentation theory that is used to analyze and evaluate argumentation in actual practice.
Predestination, in theology, is the doctrine that all events have been willed by God, usually with reference to the eventual fate of the individual soul.
The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary analytic philosophy.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Rationality is the quality or state of being rational – that is, being based on or agreeable to reason.
Rechtsstaat is a doctrine in continental European legal thinking, originating in German jurisprudence.
Reflective equilibrium is a state of balance or coherence among a set of beliefs arrived at by a process of deliberative mutual adjustment among general principles and particular judgments.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
Relational dialectics is an interpersonal communication theory about close personal ties and relationships that highlights the tensions, struggles and interplay between contrary tendencies.
Rhetoric is the art of discourse, wherein a writer or speaker strives to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations.
Science of Logic (SL; Wissenschaft der Logik, WL), first published between 1812 and 1816, is the work in which Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel outlined his vision of logic.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Socrates (Sōkrátēs,; – 399 BC) was a classical Greek (Athenian) philosopher credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, and as being the first moral philosopher, of the Western ethical tradition of thought.
Socratic dialogue (Σωκρατικὸς λόγος) is a genre of literary prose developed in Greece at the turn of the fourth century BCE.
The Socratic method, also can be known as maieutics, method of elenchus, elenctic method, or Socratic debate, is a form of cooperative argumentative dialogue between individuals, based on asking and answering questions to stimulate critical thinking and to draw out ideas and underlying presumptions.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Stephen Edelston Toulmin (25 March 1922 – 4 December 2009) was a British philosopher, author, and educator.
The Swiss (die Schweizer, les Suisses, gli Svizzeri, ils Svizzers) are the citizens of Switzerland, or people of Swiss ancestry. The number of Swiss nationals has grown from 1.7 million in 1815 to 7 million in 2016. More than 1.5 million Swiss citizens hold multiple citizenship. About 11% of citizens live abroad (0.8 million, of whom 0.6 million hold multiple citizenship). About 60% of those living abroad reside in the European Union (0.46 million). The largest groups of Swiss descendants and nationals outside Europe are found in the United States and Canada. Although the modern state of Switzerland originated in 1848, the period of romantic nationalism, it is not a nation-state, and the Swiss are not usually considered to form a single ethnic group, but a confederacy (Eidgenossenschaft) or Willensnation ("nation of will", "nation by choice", that is, a consociational state), a term coined in conscious contrast to "nation" in the conventionally linguistic or ethnic sense of the term. The demonym Swiss (formerly in English also Switzer) and the name of Switzerland, ultimately derive from the toponym Schwyz, have been in widespread use to refer to the Old Swiss Confederacy since the 16th century.
The Open Society and Its Enemies is a work on political philosophy by the philosopher Karl Popper, in which the author presents a "defence of the open society against its enemies", and offers a critique of theories of teleological historicism, according to which history unfolds inexorably according to universal laws.
The Phenomenology of Spirit (Phänomenologie des Geistes) (1807) is Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's most widely discussed philosophical work.
Theology is the critical study of the nature of the divine.
The triad thesis, antithesis, synthesis (These, Antithese, Synthese; originally: Thesis, Antithesis, Synthesis) is often used to describe the thought of German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
Saint Thomas Aquinas (1225 – 7 March 1274) was an Italian Dominican friar, Catholic priest, and Doctor of the Church.
Benito Mussolini Totalitarianism is a political concept where the state recognizes no limits to its authority and strives to control every aspect of public and private life wherever feasible.
Transcendentalism is a philosophical movement that developed in the late 1820s and 1830s in the eastern United States.
The trivium is the lower division of the seven liberal arts and comprises grammar, logic, and rhetoric (input, process, and output).
Truth is most often used to mean being in accord with fact or reality, or fidelity to an original or standard.
The unity of opposites is the central category of dialectics, said to be related to the notion of non-duality in a deep sense.
Universal dialectic is an ontological idea which is closely related to the Taoist and Neo-Confucian concept of taiji or "supreme ultimate." In the West, dialecticians including Hegel explored themes that some see as remarkably similar, laying the groundwork for unification.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Walter Burley (or Burleigh) (c. 1275–1344/5) was a medieval English scholastic philosopher and logician with at least 50 works attributed to him.
Walter Arnold Kaufmann (July 1, 1921 – September 4, 1980) was a German-American philosopher, translator, and poet.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
William of Ockham (also Occam, from Gulielmus Occamus; 1287 – 1347) was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian, who is believed to have been born in Ockham, a small village in Surrey.
William of Sherwood or William Sherwood, with numerous variant spellings, was a medieval English scholastic philosopher, logician, and teacher.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
Zaid Melikovich Orudzhev (Заи́д Ме́ликович Ору́джев; born on April 4, 1932) is an Azerbaijani-born Russian academic specialising in the history of philosophy, dialectical logic and sociological methodology.
Zeno of Elea (Ζήνων ὁ Ἐλεάτης) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher of Magna Graecia and a member of the Eleatic School founded by Parmenides.
Collective dialogue, Dialectic method, Dialectic process, Dialectical, Dialectical method, Dialectical reasoning, Dialectical subtlety, Dialectical synthesis, Dialectical thinking, Dialectically, Dialecticism, Dialectics, Dialectism, Hegel's dialectic, Hegel's dialectical method, Hegelian Dialectic, Hegelian Dialectics, Hegelian dialectic, Hegelian dialectics, Marxist dialectic, The Dialectic, Διαλεκτική.