72 relations: Agate, Agate (rocket), Ariane (rocket family), Ariane 1, Astérix (satellite), Ballistic missile, Bechar Province, Black Arrow, Black Knight (rocket), Blue Steel (missile), Blue Streak (missile), Centre interarmées d'essais d'engins spéciaux, Charles de Gaulle, CNES, Comparison of orbital launchers families, Diamond, Dinitrogen tetroxide, Emerald, Emeraude (rocket), Europa (rocket), European Launcher Development Organisation, European Space Agency, European Space Research Organisation, Expendable launch system, Force de dissuasion, France, French Algeria, French Fifth Republic, French Guiana, French space program, Gemstone, Guiana Space Centre, Hammaguir, Intermediate-range ballistic missile, Kourou, Launch vehicle, Maiden flight, Missile, MSBS rifle, Nazi Germany, Newton (unit), Orbit, Paris, Pierre Victor Auger, Pound (force), President of France, Reconnaissance satellite, Rocket, Rubis (rocket), Ruby, ..., Saphir (rocket), Sapphire, Satellite, Solid-propellant rocket, Soviet Union, Space Race, Spacecraft, Sputnik 1, Sputnik crisis, Submarine-launched ballistic missile, Superpower, Tonne, Topaz, Topaze (rocket), United Kingdom, United States, Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine, V-2 rocket, Van Allen radiation belt, Véronique (rocket), Vernon, Eure, Vexin. Expand index (22 more) » « Shrink index
Agate is a rock consisting primarily of cryptocrystalline silica, chiefly chalcedony, alternating with microgranular quartz.
Agate is the designation of an unguided French test rocket developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s.
Ariane is a series of a European civilian expendable launch vehicles for space launch use.
Ariane 1 was the first rocket in the Ariane family of expendable launch systems.
Astérix, the first French satellite, was launched on November 26, 1965 by a Diamant A rocket from the CIEES launch site at Hammaguir, French Algeria.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
Béchar (ولاية بشار) is a province (wilaya) in Algeria, named after its capital Béchar.
Black Arrow, officially capitalised BLACK ARROW, was a British satellite carrier rocket.
Black Knight was a British research ballistic missile, originally developed to test and verify the design of a re-entry vehicle for the Blue Streak missile. It was the United Kingdom's first indigenous expendable launch project. Design work on what would become the Black Knight launch vehicle commenced in 1955, being performed by the Royal Aircraft Establishment (RAE) and British manufacturer Saunders-Roe. Saunders-Roe was the principal manufacturer for the Black Knight at its facility on the Isle of Wight. On 7 September 1958, the first Black Knight was launched at Woomera in Australia. Between 1958 and 1965, a total of 22 launch vehicles were fired, none of which having suffered any major failures. After 22 launches, the Black Knight programme was closed. The success of the Black Knight as a cheap and successful test vehicle led to many studies being performed into further derivatives of the vehicle, including its adaption to serve as an intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) and as a launch vehicle, including one proposal, which was based on the Blue Streak missile and the Black Knight, known as the Black Prince. Technology and experience gained on the Black Knight programme would contribute to the subsequent Black Arrow expendable launch vehicle programme.Hill 2001, pp. 188-189.Laycock and Laycock 2005, p. 52.
The Avro Blue Steel was a British air-launched, rocket-propelled nuclear armed standoff missile, built to arm the V bomber force.
The de Havilland Propellers Blue Streak was a British medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM), and later the first stage of the Europa satellite launch vehicle.
The Interarmy Special Vehicles Test Centre (CIEES) (French: Centre Interarmées d'Essais d'Engins Spéciaux) was France's first space launch and ballistic missile testing facility.
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle (22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French general and statesman who led the French Resistance against Nazi Germany in World War II and chaired the Provisional Government of the French Republic from 1944 to 1946 in order to reestablish democracy in France.
The Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) (English: National Centre for Space Studies) is the French government space agency (administratively, a "public administration with industrial and commercial purpose").
This page contains a list of orbital launchers' families.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Dinitrogen tetroxide, commonly referred to as nitrogen tetroxide, is the chemical compound N2O4.
Emerald is a precious gemstone and a variety of the mineral beryl (Be3Al2(SiO3)6) colored green by trace amounts of chromium and sometimes vanadium.
Émeraude VE121 (French for "emerald") was a large French sounding rocket of the 1960s.
The Europa rocket was an early expendable launch system of the European Launcher Development Organisation (ELDO), which was the precursor to the European Space Agency (ESA).
Europa II Rolls-Royce''RZ-12'' ''Coralie'' ''Astris'' The European Launcher Development Organisation (ELDO) is a former European space research organization.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
The European Space Research Organisation (ESRO) was an international organisation founded by 10 European nations with the intention of jointly pursuing scientific research in space.
An expendable launch vehicle (ELV) is a launch system or launch vehicle stage that is used only once to carry a payload into space.
The Force de frappe (French for: strike force), or Force de dissuasion after 1961,Gunston, Bill.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
French Algeria (Alger to 1839, then Algérie afterwards; unofficially Algérie française, االجزائر المستعمرة), also known as Colonial Algeria, began in 1830 with the invasion of Algiers and lasted until 1962, under a variety of governmental systems.
The Fifth Republic, France's current republican system of government, was established by Charles de Gaulle under the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958.
French Guiana (pronounced or, Guyane), officially called Guiana (Guyane), is an overseas department and region of France, on the north Atlantic coast of South America in the Guyanas.
The French space program includes both civil and military spaceflight activities.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
The Guiana Space Centre or, more commonly, Centre Spatial Guyanais (CSG) is a French and European spaceport to the northwest of Kourou in French Guiana.
Hammaguir (also written Hamaguir and Hammaguira) (حماقير.) is a village in Abadla District, Béchar Province, Algeria, south-west of Béchar.
An intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of 3,000–5,500 km (1,864–3,418 miles), between a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) and an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
Kourou is a commune in French Guiana, an overseas region and department of France located in South America.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
The maiden flight of an aircraft is the first occasion on which an aircraft leaves the ground under its own power.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
The WAT-FB MSBS-5.56 (Modułowy System Broni Strzeleckiej kalibru 5,56 mm, Modular Firearm System 5.56 mm calibre), also known as Grot, is a modular assault rifle currently developed and manufactured by FB "Łucznik" Radom to become the next service rifle of the Polish Armed Forces.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The newton (symbol: N) is the International System of Units (SI) derived unit of force.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Pierre Victor Auger (14 May 1899 – 25 December 1993) was a French physicist, born in Paris.
The pound-force (symbol: lbf, sometimes lbf) is a unit of force used in some systems of measurement including English Engineering units and the British Gravitational System.
The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française) is the executive head of state of France in the French Fifth Republic.
A reconnaissance satellite (commonly, although unofficially, referred to as a spy satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
The Rubis was a French two-stage rocket.
A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).
Saphir VE231 (French, meaning sapphire) was a French sounding rocket.
Sapphire is a precious gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum, an aluminium oxide.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
The Sputnik crisis was a period of public fear and anxiety in Western nations about the perceived technological gap between the United States and Soviet Union caused by the Soviets' launch of Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite.
A submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is a ballistic missile capable of being launched from submarines.
Superpower is a term used to describe a state with a dominant position, which is characterised by its extensive ability to exert influence or project power on a global scale.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Topaz is a silicate mineral of aluminium and fluorine with the chemical formula Al2SiO4(F, OH)2.
Topaze is the designation of a French sounding rocket.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH; 1,1-dimethylhydrazine) is a chemical compound with the formula H2NN(CH3)2.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field.
Veronique is a French liquid-fuelled sounding rocket that was partly developed by German scientists who had worked in Peenemünde.
Vernon is a commune in the department of Eure in the Normandy region in northern France.
Vexin is a historical county of northwestern France.