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Index Diamond

Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure. [1]

334 relations: Abrasive, Adornment, Aeromagnetic survey, Aggregated diamond nanorod, Algoman orogeny, Allotropes of carbon, Alloy, Alluvium, Alrosa, Amphibole, Amsterdam, Analytical Chemistry (journal), Annealing (metallurgy), Antoine Lavoisier, Antwerp diamond district, Antwerpsche Diamantkring, Applied Physics Letters, Argon–argon dating, Argyle diamond mine, Arkansas, Aspect ratio, Atmosphere (unit), Australia, Bain & Company, Ballas, Band gap, Basalt, Bearing (mechanical), Belgium, BHP, Bingara, New South Wales, Biotite, Blood diamond, Blue diamond, Boron, Boron nitride, Bort, Botswana, Bravais lattice, Brazil, Breccia, British Geological Survey, Brussels Airport diamond heist, Butterworth-Heinemann, Calcite, Calcium, Cambridge University Press, Canada, Carat (mass), Carbide, ..., Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbon flaw, Carbon-12, Carbon-13, Carbonado, Carbonate, Carbonatite, Cathodoluminescence, Cecil Rhodes, Central Africa, Chemical & Engineering News, Chemical stability, Chemical vapor deposition, Clastic rock, Cleavage (crystal), CNBC, Coal, Cobalt, Colorado, Conchoidal fracture, Copeton Dam, Covalent bond, Crater of Diamonds State Park, Craton, Crystal, Crystal growth, Crystal twinning, Crystallographic defect, Cube, Cubic crystal system, Cubic zirconia, De Beers, Decennial Mineral Exploration Conferences, Deformation (engineering), Democratic Republic of the Congo, Detonation nanodiamond, Diamantaire, Diamond (gemstone), Diamond anvil cell, Diamond blade, Diamond clarity, Diamond color, Diamond cubic, Diamond cut, Diamond cutting, Diamond enhancement, Diamond Exchange District, Diamond knife, Diamond simulant, Diamond Trading Company, Diamond-like carbon, Diamondoid, Diavik Diamond Mine, Disdyakis dodecahedron, Dispersion (optics), Distribution (marketing), Doping (semiconductor), Drill bit, Earth, Eclogite, Electric arc, Electrical resistivity tomography, Electronics, Electronics Letters, Embryophyte, Engagement ring, Euhedral and anhedral, Eur-Lex, Facet, Ferrous, Garnet, Gas giant, Gemological Institute of America, Gemology, Geophysical survey, Geothermobarometry, Godavari River, Graphite, Gravimetry, Grinding (abrasive cutting), Guerrilla News Network, Gujarat, Guntur district, Harzburgite, Hearts and arrows, Heat sink, Hermann–Mauguin notation, History of the world, Hot-filament ionization gauge, Human body temperature, Human rights, Hydraulic fracturing, Hydrogen, Hydrophile, Hydrophobe, Ice, Ice VII, Icon, Igneous rock, Inclusion (mineral), India, Indiana, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Institution of Engineering and Technology, Insulator (electricity), International Gemological Institute, Intrusive rock, Irradiation, John Wiley & Sons, Jwaneng diamond mine, Kalsilite, Kimberley Process Certification Scheme, Kimberley, Northern Cape, Kimberlite, Krishna district, Krishna River, Lamproite, Lamprophyre, Laser, Lazare Kaplan International, Lherzolite, Lipophilicity, List of diamond mines, List of diamonds, List of largest rough diamonds, List of minerals, Lonsdaleite, Loupe, Lustre (mineralogy), LVMH, Macle, Magnesium, Magnesium oxide, Mahajanapada, Majorite, Mantle (geology), Melilite, Metamorphic rock, Metasomatism, Metastability, Meteorite, Methane, Microwave, Mir mine, Mohs scale of mineral hardness, Moissanite, Montana, Murowa diamond mine, N. W. Ayer & Son, Nanodiamond, National Science Foundation, Native element minerals, Nature (journal), Neptune, New England (New South Wales), New Mexico, New South Wales, New York City, Nickel, Nitrogen, Northeastern Japan Arc, Northern Australia, Northwest Territories, Octahedron, Olivine, Orbital hybridisation, Orogeny, Oxy-fuel welding and cutting, Oxygen, Panna district, Paragon (diamond), Paramilitary, Pascal (unit), Penguin Books, Penna River, Peridotite, Perseus Project, Peter Thrower, Petra Diamonds, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A, Phlogopite, Phoenix Cut Diamond, Photoluminescence, Photosynthesis, Physical Review B, Physical Review E, Plasma (physics), Polishing, Popigai crater, Popular Mechanics, Premier Mine, Pressure experiment, Product placement, Pyroclastic rock, Pyroxene, Radical (chemistry), Raman spectroscopy, Redox, Refractive index, Rhenium–osmium dating, Rhombicosidodecahedron, RIA Novosti, Rio Tinto Group, Routledge, Rubidium–strontium dating, Russia, Sakha Republic, Samarium–neodymium dating, Scratch hardness, Sediment transport, Semiconductor, Serpentine subgroup, Serpentinite, Shore, Silicon carbide, Silicon dioxide, Sintering, Smithson Tennant, Smithsonian (magazine), Solid solution, South India, Southern Africa, Spectral color, Spiegel Online, Stable nuclide, Standard conditions for temperature and pressure, Subduction, Superhard material, Supernova, Surat, Surface energy, Swiss Gemmological Institute, Symmetry, Synthetic diamond, Tel Aviv, Terrane, Tetrahedral-octahedral honeycomb, Tetrakis hexahedron, Thailand, The Astrophysical Journal, The Atlantic, The Daily Telegraph, The Economist, The Montana Standard, The Washington Post, Thermal conductivity, Thermistor, Till, Time (magazine), Toughness, Transition zone (Earth), Transparency and translucency, Types of volcanic eruptions, Udachnaya pipe, Ultra-high-pressure metamorphism, Ultraviolet, United Nations, United States Geological Survey, Uranium–lead dating, Uranus, Vacuum, Valence and conduction bands, Vickers hardness test, Volatility (chemistry), Water, Weathering, Wedding ring, West Africa, Western Australia, White dwarf, Wind, Window, Wisconsin, Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond, World Diamond Congress, World Diamond Council, World Federation of Diamond Bourses, X-ray, X-ray crystallography, X-ray fluorescence, Xenolith, 2000s energy crisis, 47th Street (Manhattan). Expand index (284 more) »


An abrasive is a material, often a mineral, that is used to shape or finish a workpiece through rubbing which leads to part of the workpiece being worn away by friction.

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An adornment is generally an accessory or ornament worn to enhance the beauty or status of the wearer.

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Aeromagnetic survey

An aeromagnetic survey is a common type of geophysical survey carried out using a magnetometer aboard or towed behind an aircraft.

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Aggregated diamond nanorod

Aggregated diamond nanorods, or ADNRs, are a nanocrystalline form of diamond, also known as nanodiamond or hyperdiamond.

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Algoman orogeny

The Algoman orogeny, known as the Kenoran orogeny in Canada, was an episode of mountain-building (orogeny) during the Late Archean Eon that involved repeated episodes of continental collisions, compressions and subductions.

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Allotropes of carbon

Carbon is capable of forming many allotropes due to its valency.

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An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.

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Alluvium (from the Latin alluvius, from alluere, "to wash against") is loose, unconsolidated (not cemented together into a solid rock) soil or sediments, which has been eroded, reshaped by water in some form, and redeposited in a non-marine setting.

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Alrosa (АЛРОСА) is a Russian group of diamond mining companies that has the leading role in the world diamond mining by volume.

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Amphibole is an important group of generally dark-colored, inosilicate minerals, forming prism or needlelike crystals, composed of double chain tetrahedra, linked at the vertices and generally containing ions of iron and/or magnesium in their structures.

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Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.

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Analytical Chemistry (journal)

Analytical Chemistry is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published since 1929 by the American Chemical Society.

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Annealing (metallurgy)

Annealing, in metallurgy and materials science, is a heat treatment that alters the physical and sometimes chemical properties of a material to increase its ductility and reduce its hardness, making it more workable.

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Antoine Lavoisier

Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.

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Antwerp diamond district

Antwerp's diamond district, also known as the Diamond Quarter (Diamantkwartier), and dubbed the Square Mile is an area within the city of Antwerp, Belgium.

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Antwerpsche Diamantkring

The Antwerpsche Diamantkring was established in 1928 in Antwerp, Belgium, to become the first diamond bourse worldwide that is dedicated exclusively to rough diamonds trade.

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Applied Physics Letters

Applied Physics Letters is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that is published by the American Institute of Physics.

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Argon–argon dating

Argon–argon (or 40Ar/39Ar) dating is a radiometric dating method invented to supersede potassium-argon (K/Ar) dating in accuracy.

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Argyle diamond mine

The Argyle Diamond Mine is a diamond mine located in the East Kimberley region in the remote north of Western Australia.

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Arkansas is a state in the southeastern region of the United States, home to over 3 million people as of 2017.

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Aspect ratio

The aspect ratio of a geometric shape is the ratio of its sizes in different dimensions.

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Atmosphere (unit)

The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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Bain & Company

Bain & Company is a global management consultancy headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.

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Ballas or shot bort is a term used in the diamond industry to refer to shards of non-gem-grade/quality diamonds.

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Band gap

In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.

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Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.

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Bearing (mechanical)

A bearing is a machine element that constrains relative motion to only the desired motion, and reduces friction between moving parts.

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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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BHP, formerly known as BHP Billiton, is the trading entity of BHP Billiton Limited and BHP Billiton plc, an Anglo-Australian multinational mining, metals and petroleum dual-listed public company headquartered in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

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Bingara, New South Wales

Bingara (Aboriginal for 'creek') is a small town on the Gwydir River in Murchison County in the New England region of New South Wales, Australia.

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Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula.

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Blood diamond

Blood diamonds (also called conflict diamonds, war diamonds, hot diamonds, or red diamonds) is a term used for a diamond mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency, an invading army's war efforts, or a warlord's activity.

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Blue diamond

Blue diamond is a type of diamond which exhibits all of the same inherent properties of the mineral except with the additional element of blue color in the stone.

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Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.

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Boron nitride

Boron nitride is a heat and chemically resistant refractory compound of boron and nitrogen with the chemical formula BN.

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Bort, borat or boort is a term used in the diamond industry to refer to shards of non-gem-grade/quality diamonds.

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Botswana, officially the Republic of Botswana (Lefatshe la Botswana), is a landlocked country located in Southern Africa.

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Bravais lattice

In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Breccia is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix that can be similar to or different from the composition of the fragments.

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British Geological Survey

The British Geological Survey (BGS) is a partly publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research.

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Brussels Airport diamond heist

On 18 February 2013, eight masked gunmen in two cars with police markings stole approximately worth of diamonds from a Swiss-bound Fokker 100 operated by Helvetic Airways on the apron at Brussels Airport, Belgium, just before 20:00 CET.

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Butterworth–Heinemann is a British publishing company specialized in professional information and learning materials for higher education and professional training, in printed and electronic forms.

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Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.

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Carat (mass)

The carat (ct) (not to be confused with the karat, sometimes spelled carat, a unit of purity of gold alloys), is a unit of mass equal to 200 mg (0.2 g; 0.007055 oz) and is used for measuring gemstones and pearls.

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In chemistry, a carbide is a compound composed of carbon and a less electronegative element.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon flaw

A carbon flaw is a blemish present within a diamond crystalline form of carbon, usually seen as a black spot.

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Carbon-12 is the more abundant of the two stable isotopes of carbon (Carbon-13 being the other), amounting to 98.93% of the element carbon; its abundance is due to the triple-alpha process by which it is created in stars.

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Carbon-13 (13C) is a natural, stable isotope of carbon with a nucleus containing six protons and seven neutrons.

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Carbonado, commonly known as the "black diamond", is the toughest form of natural diamond.

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In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.

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Carbonatite is a type of intrusive or extrusive igneous rock defined by mineralogic composition consisting of greater than 50% carbonate minerals.

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Cathodoluminescence is an optical and electromagnetic phenomenon in which electrons impacting on a luminescent material such as a phosphor, cause the emission of photons which may have wavelengths in the visible spectrum.

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Cecil Rhodes

Cecil John Rhodes PC (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896.

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Central Africa

Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.

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Chemical & Engineering News

Chemical & Engineering News (C&EN) is a weekly trade magazine published by the American Chemical Society, providing professional and technical information in the fields of chemistry and chemical engineering.

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Chemical stability

Chemical stability when used in the technical sense in chemistry, means thermodynamic stability of a chemical system.

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Chemical vapor deposition

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials, typically under vacuum.

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Clastic rock

Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock.

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Cleavage (crystal)

Cleavage, in mineralogy, is the tendency of crystalline materials to split along definite crystallographic structural planes.

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CNBC is an American basic cable, internet and satellite business news television channel that is owned by NBCUniversal News Group, a division of NBCUniversal, with both being ultimately owned by Comcast.

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Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.

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Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.

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Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.

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Conchoidal fracture

Conchoidal fracture describes the way that brittle materials break or fracture when they do not follow any natural planes of separation.

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Copeton Dam

Copeton Dam is a major clay core and rock fill embankment dam with nine radial gates and a gated concrete chute spillway across the Gwydir River upstream of Bingara in the New England region of New South Wales, Australia.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Crater of Diamonds State Park

Crater of Diamonds State Park is a Arkansas state park in Pike County, Arkansas, in the United States.

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A craton (or; from κράτος kratos "strength") is an old and stable part of the continental lithosphere, where the lithosphere consists of the Earth's two topmost layers, the crust and the uppermost mantle.

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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Crystal growth

Crystal growth is the process where a pre-existing crystal becomes larger as more molecules or ions add in their positions in the crystal lattice.

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Crystal twinning

Crystal twinning occurs when two separate crystals share some of the same crystal lattice points in a symmetrical manner.

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Crystallographic defect

Crystalline solids exhibit a periodic crystal structure.

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In geometry, a cube is a three-dimensional solid object bounded by six square faces, facets or sides, with three meeting at each vertex.

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Cubic crystal system

In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.

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Cubic zirconia

Cubic zirconia (CZ) is the cubic crystalline form of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2).

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De Beers

The De Beers Group of Companies is an international corporation that specialises in diamond exploration, diamond mining, diamond retail, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors.

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Decennial Mineral Exploration Conferences

The Decennial Mineral Exploration Conferences (DMEC) is a Canadian voluntary association dedicated to the advancement of geoscience applied to exploration for mineral resources.

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Deformation (engineering)

In materials science, deformation refers to any changes in the shape or size of an object due to-.

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Democratic Republic of the Congo

The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.

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Detonation nanodiamond

Detonation nanodiamond (DND), also known as ultradispersed diamond (UDD), is diamond that originates from a detonation.

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A diamantaire (French origin) is a gem-quality diamond manufacturer or producer, master diamond cutter, and graduate gemologist specialized in diamonds.

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Diamond (gemstone)

A diamond (from the ἀδάμας adámas, meaning "unbreakable", "proper", or "unalterable") is one of the best-known and most sought-after gemstones.

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Diamond anvil cell

A diamond anvil cell (DAC) is a high-pressure device used in scientific experiments.

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Diamond blade

A diamond blade is a saw blade which has diamonds fixed on its edge for cutting hard or abrasive materials.

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Diamond clarity

Diamond clarity is the quality of diamonds that relates to the existence and visual appearance of internal characteristics of a diamond called inclusions, and surface defects, called blemishes.

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Diamond color

A chemically pure and structurally perfect diamond is perfectly transparent with no hue, or color.

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Diamond cubic

The diamond cubic crystal structure is a repeating pattern of 8 atoms that certain materials may adopt as they solidify.

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Diamond cut

A diamond cut is a style or design guide used when shaping a diamond for polishing such as the brilliant cut.

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Diamond cutting

Diamond cutting is the practice of changing a diamond from a rough stone into a faceted gem.

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Diamond enhancement

Diamond enhancements are specific treatments, performed on natural diamonds (usually those already cut and polished into gems), which are designed to improve the visual gemological characteristics of the diamond in one or more ways.

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Diamond Exchange District

The Diamond Exchange District (In Israel called "Bursa") is a diamond district in the Israeli city of Ramat Gan.

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Diamond knife

A diamond knife is a very sharp knife in which the edge is made from diamond, invented by Humberto Fernández Morán in 1955.

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Diamond simulant

A diamond simulant, diamond imitation or imitation diamond is an object or material with gemological characteristics similar to those of a diamond.

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Diamond Trading Company

The Diamond Trading Company (DTC) is the rough diamond sales and distribution arm of the De Beers Family of Companies.

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Diamond-like carbon

Diamond-like carbon (DLC) is a class of amorphous carbon material that displays some of the typical properties of diamond.

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In chemistry, diamondoids are variants of the carbon cage molecule known as adamantane (C10H16), the smallest unit cage structure of the diamond crystal lattice.

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Diavik Diamond Mine

The Diavik Diamond Mine is a diamond mine in the North Slave Region of the Northwest Territories, Canada, about northeast of Yellowknife.

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Disdyakis dodecahedron

In geometry, a disdyakis dodecahedron, (also hexoctahedron, hexakis octahedron, octakis cube, octakis hexahedron, kisrhombic dodecahedron), is a Catalan solid with 48 faces and the dual to the Archimedean truncated cuboctahedron.

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Dispersion (optics)

In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.

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Distribution (marketing)

Distribution (or place) is one of the four elements of the marketing mix.

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Doping (semiconductor)

In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.

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Drill bit

Drill bits are cutting tools used to remove material to create holes, almost always of circular cross-section.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Eclogite is a mafic metamorphic rock.

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Electric arc

An electric arc, or arc discharge, is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge.

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Electrical resistivity tomography

Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) or electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) is a geophysical technique for imaging sub-surface structures from electrical resistivity measurements made at the surface, or by electrodes in one or more boreholes.

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Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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Electronics Letters

Electronics Letters is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published biweekly by the Institution of Engineering and Technology.

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The Embryophyta are the most familiar group of green plants that form vegetation on earth.

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Engagement ring

An engagement ring is a ring indicating that the person wearing it is engaged to be married, especially in Western cultures.

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Euhedral and anhedral

Euhedral crystals are those that are well-formed, with sharp, easily recognised faces.

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Eur-Lex (stylized EUR-Lex) is an official website of European Union law and other public documents of the European Union (EU), published in 24 official languages of the EU.

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Facets are flat faces on geometric shapes.

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In chemistry, ferrous (Fe2+), indicates a divalent iron compound (+2 oxidation state), as opposed to ferric, which indicates a trivalent iron compound (+3 oxidation state).

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Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.

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Gas giant

A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.

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Gemological Institute of America

The Gemological Institute of America, or GIA, is a nonprofit institute dedicated to research and education in the field of gemology and the jewelry arts.

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Gemology or gemmology is the science dealing with natural and artificial gemstone materials.

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Geophysical survey

Geophysical survey is the systematic collection of geophysical data for spatial studies.

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Geothermobarometry is the science of measuring the previous pressure and temperature history of a metamorphic or intrusive igneous rocks.

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Godavari River

The Godavari is India's second longest river after the Ganga.

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Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.

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Gravimetry is the measurement of the strength of a gravitational field.

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Grinding (abrasive cutting)

Grinding is an abrasive machining process that uses a grinding wheel as the cutting tool.

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Guerrilla News Network

Guerrilla News Network, Inc. (GNN) was a privately owned news web site and television production company that operated from 2000 to 2009.

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Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.

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Guntur district

Guntur district is an administrative district in the Coastal Andhra region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.

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Harzburgite, an ultramafic, igneous rock, is a variety of peridotite consisting mostly of the two minerals, olivine and low-calcium (Ca) pyroxene (enstatite); it is named for occurrences in the Harz Mountains of Germany.

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Hearts and arrows

Hearts and Arrows diamonds are precision-cut variations of the traditional 57 faceted round brilliant cut.

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Heat sink

A heat sink (also commonly spelled heatsink) is a passive heat exchanger that transfers the heat generated by an electronic or a mechanical device to a fluid medium, often air or a liquid coolant, where it is dissipated away from the device, thereby allowing regulation of the device's temperature at optimal levels.

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Hermann–Mauguin notation

In geometry, Hermann–Mauguin notation is used to represent the symmetry elements in point groups, plane groups and space groups.

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History of the world

The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.

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Hot-filament ionization gauge

The hot-filament ionization gauge, sometimes called a hot-filament gauge or hot-cathode gauge, is the most widely used low-pressure (vacuum) measuring device for the region from 10−3 to 10−10 Torr.

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Human body temperature

Normal human body temperature, also known as normothermia or euthermia, is the typical temperature range found in humans.

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Hydraulic fracturing

Hydraulic fracturing (also fracking, fraccing, frac'ing, hydrofracturing or hydrofracking) is a well stimulation technique in which rock is fractured by a pressurized liquid.

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Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.

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A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.

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In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.

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Ice is water frozen into a solid state.

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Ice VII is a cubic crystalline form of ice.

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An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn "image") is a religious work of art, most commonly a painting, from the Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, and certain Eastern Catholic churches.

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Igneous rock

Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.

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Inclusion (mineral)

In mineralogy, an inclusion is any material that is trapped inside a mineral during its formation.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indiana is a U.S. state located in the Midwestern and Great Lakes regions of North America.

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Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is a professional association with its corporate office in New York City and its operations center in Piscataway, New Jersey.

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Institution of Engineering and Technology

The Institution of Engineering and Technology (IET) is a multidisciplinary professional engineering institution.

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Insulator (electricity)

An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.

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International Gemological Institute

International Gemological Institute (IGI) is a diamond, colored stone and jewelry certification organization.

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Intrusive rock

Intrusive rock (also called plutonic rock) is formed when magma crystallizes and solidifies underground to form intrusions, for example plutons, batholiths, dikes, sills, laccoliths, and volcanic necks.

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Irradiation is the process by which an object is exposed to radiation.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Jwaneng diamond mine

The Jwaneng diamond mine is the richest diamond mine in the world and is located in south-central Botswana about west of the city of Gaborone, in the Naledi river valley of the Kalahari.

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Kalsilite (KAlSiO4) is a vitreous white to grey feldspathoidal mineral that is found in some potassium-rich lavas, such as from Chamengo Crater in Uganda.

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Kimberley Process Certification Scheme

The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) is the process established in 2000 to prevent "conflict diamonds" from entering the mainstream rough diamond market by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 55/56 following recommendations in the Fowler Report.

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Kimberley, Northern Cape

Kimberley is the capital and largest city of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

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Kimberlite is an igneous rock, which sometimes contains diamonds.

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Krishna district

Krishna district is an administrative district in the Coastal Andhra region of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.

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Krishna River

The Krishna River is the fourth-biggest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganga, Godavari and Brahmaputra.

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Lamproite is an ultrapotassic mantle-derived volcanic or subvolcanic rock.

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Lamprophyres (Greek λαµπρός (lamprós).

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A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.

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Lazare Kaplan International

Lazare Kaplan International Inc.

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Lherzolite is a type of ultramafic igneous rock.

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Lipophilicity (from Greek λίπος "fat" and φίλος "friendly"), refers to the ability of a chemical compound to dissolve in fats, oils, lipids, and non-polar solvents such as hexane or toluene.

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List of diamond mines

There are a limited number of commercially aviable diamond mines currently operating in the world, with the 50 largest mines accounting for approximately 90% of global supply.

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List of diamonds

A number of large or extraordinary diamonds have gained fame, both as exquisite examples of the beautiful nature of diamonds and because of the famous people who wore, bought, and sold them.

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List of largest rough diamonds

This is a partial list of the largest non-synthetic diamonds with a rough stone (uncut) weight of over 200 carats (40 grams).

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List of minerals

This is a list of minerals for which there are articles on Wikipedia.

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Lonsdaleite (named in honour of Kathleen Lonsdale), also called hexagonal diamond in reference to the crystal structure, is an allotrope of carbon with a hexagonal lattice.

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A loupe is a simple, small magnification device used to see small details more closely.

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Lustre (mineralogy)

Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.

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LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton SE, also known as LVMH, is a French multinational luxury goods conglomerate headquartered in Paris.

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Macle is a term used in crystallography.

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Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.

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Magnesium oxide

Magnesium oxide (MgO), or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium (see also oxide).

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Mahājanapada (lit, from maha, "great", and janapada "foothold of a tribe, country") was one of the sixteen kingdoms or oligarchic republics that existed in ancient India from the sixth to fourth centuries BCE.

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Majorite is a type of garnet mineral found in the upper mantle of the Earth.

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Mantle (geology)

The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.

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Melilite refers to a mineral of the melilite group.

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Metamorphic rock

Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".

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Metasomatism is the chemical alteration of a rock by hydrothermal and other fluids.

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In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.

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A meteorite is a solid piece of debris from an object, such as a comet, asteroid, or meteoroid, that originates in outer space and survives its passage through the atmosphere to reach the surface of a planet or moon.

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Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.

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Mir mine

The Mir mine (Кимберлитовая алмазная трубка «Мир» Kimberlitovaya Almaznaya Trubka "Mir"; English: kimberlite diamond pipe "Peace"), also called the Mirny mine, is an open pit diamond mine located in Mirny, Sakha Republic, in the Siberian region of eastern Russia.

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Mohs scale of mineral hardness

The Mohs scale of mineral hardness is a qualitative ordinal scale characterizing scratch resistance of various minerals through the ability of harder material to scratch softer material.

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Moissanite is naturally occurring silicon carbide and its various crystalline polymorphs.

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Montana is a state in the Northwestern United States.

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Murowa diamond mine

The Murowa diamond mine is a diamond mine located in Mazvihwa, south central Zimbabwe, about 40 kilometres from the asbestos mining town of Zvishavane in the Midlands province.

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N. W. Ayer & Son


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Nanodiamonds or diamond nanoparticles (medical use) are diamonds with a size below 1 micrometre.

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National Science Foundation

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.

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Native element minerals

Native element minerals are those elements that occur in nature in uncombined form with a distinct mineral structure.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

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New England (New South Wales)

New England or New England North West is the name given to a generally undefined region in the north of the state of New South Wales, Australia about 60 kilometres (37 miles) inland, that includes the Northern Tablelands (or New England Tablelands) and the North West Slopes regions.

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New Mexico

New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.

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New South Wales

New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.

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Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Northeastern Japan Arc

The Northeastern Japan Arc, also Northeastern Honshū Arc, is an island arc on the Pacific Ring of Fire.

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Northern Australia

The term Northern Australia includes Queensland and the Northern Territory (NT).

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Northwest Territories

The Northwest Territories (NT or NWT; French: les Territoires du Nord-Ouest, TNO; Athabaskan languages: Denendeh; Inuinnaqtun: Nunatsiaq; Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᖅ) is a federal territory of Canada.

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In geometry, an octahedron (plural: octahedra) is a polyhedron with eight faces, twelve edges, and six vertices.

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The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.

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Orbital hybridisation

In chemistry, orbital hybridisation (or hybridization) is the concept of mixing atomic orbitals into new hybrid orbitals (with different energies, shapes, etc., than the component atomic orbitals) suitable for the pairing of electrons to form chemical bonds in valence bond theory.

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An orogeny is an event that leads to a large structural deformation of the Earth's lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the interaction between plate tectonics.

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Oxy-fuel welding and cutting

Principle of the burn cutting Oxy-fuel welding (commonly called oxyacetylene welding, oxy welding, or gas welding in the U.S.) and oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, respectively.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Panna district

Panna district is a district of the Sagar Division, within the Madhya Pradesh state in central India.

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Paragon (diamond)

A paragon is a perfect diamond — flawless and without inclusions.

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A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.

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Pascal (unit)

The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.

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Penguin Books

Penguin Books is a British publishing house.

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Penna River

The Penna (also known as Pennar, Penner, Penneru or North Pinākinī) is a river of southern India.

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Peridotite is a dense, coarse-grained igneous rock consisting mostly of the minerals olivine and pyroxene.

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Perseus Project

The Perseus Project (version 4 also known as "Perseus Hopper") is a digital library project of Tufts University, which is located in Medford and Somerville, near Boston, in the U.S. state of Massachusetts.

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Peter Thrower

Peter Thrower (born 1938) is a professor emeritus of materials science and engineering at Pennsylvania State University, and a former editor-in-chief of the scientific journal Carbon, a post he has held between 1982 and 2013.

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Petra Diamonds

Petra Diamonds Ltd is a diamond mining group headquartered in Jersey.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences is a fortnightly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.

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Phlogopite is a yellow, greenish, or reddish-brown member of the mica family of phyllosilicates.

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Phoenix Cut Diamond

The Phoenix CutTM is an octagonal shaped fancy cut diamond similar in shape to an Emerald cut.

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Photoluminescence (abbreviated as PL) is light emission from any form of matter after the absorption of photons (electromagnetic radiation).

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Physical Review B

Physical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (also known as PRB) is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal, published by the American Physical Society (APS).

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Physical Review E

Physical Review E is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal, published monthly by the American Physical Society.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or using a chemical action, leaving a surface with a significant specular reflection (still limited by the index of refraction of the material according to the Fresnel equations.) In some materials (such as metals, glasses, black or transparent stones), polishing is also able to reduce diffuse reflection to minimal values.

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Popigai crater

The Popigai crater (or astrobleme) in Siberia, Russia is tied with the Manicouagan Crater as the fourth largest verified impact crater on Earth.

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Popular Mechanics

Popular Mechanics is a classic magazine of popular science and technology.

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Premier Mine

The Premier Mine is an underground diamond mine owned by Petra Diamonds.

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Pressure experiment

Pressure experiments are experiments performed at pressures lower or higher than atmospheric pressure, called low-pressure experiments and high-pressure experiments, respectively.

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Product placement

Product placement, also known as embedded marketing, is a marketing technique in which references to specific brands or products are incorporated into another work, such as a film or television program, with specific promotional intent.

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Pyroclastic rock

Pyroclastic rocks or pyroclastics (derived from the πῦρ, meaning fire; and κλαστός, meaning broken) are clastic rocks composed solely or primarily of volcanic materials.

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The pyroxenes (commonly abbreviated to Px) are a group of important rock-forming inosilicate minerals found in many igneous and metamorphic rocks.

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Radical (chemistry)

In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.

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Raman spectroscopy

Raman spectroscopy (named after Indian physicist Sir C. V. Raman) is a spectroscopic technique used to observe vibrational, rotational, and other low-frequency modes in a system.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Refractive index

In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.

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Rhenium–osmium dating

Rhenium-Osmium dating is a form of radiometric dating based on the beta decay of the isotope 187Re to 187Os.

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In geometry, the rhombicosidodecahedron, or small rhombicosidodecahedron, is an Archimedean solid, one of thirteen convex isogonal nonprismatic solids constructed of two or more types of regular polygon faces.

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RIA Novosti

RIA Novosti (РИА Новости), sometimes RIA (РИА) for short, was Russia's international news agency until 2013 and continues to be the name of a state-operated domestic Russian-language news agency.

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Rio Tinto Group

Rio Tinto Group is an Australian-British multinational and one of the world's largest metals and mining corporations.

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Routledge is a British multinational publisher.

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Rubidium–strontium dating

The rubidium-strontium dating method is a radiometric dating technique used by scientists to determine the age of rocks and minerals from the quantities they contain of specific isotopes of rubidium (87Rb) and strontium (87Sr, 86Sr).

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Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Sakha Republic

The Sakha (Yakutia) Republic (p; Sakha Öröspüübülükete), simply Sakha (Yakutia) (Саха (Якутия); Sakha Sire), is a federal subject of Russia (a republic).

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Samarium–neodymium dating

Samarium–neodymium dating is a radiometric dating method useful for determining the ages of rocks and meteorites, based on radioactive decay of a long-lived samarium (Sm) isotope to a radiogenic neodymium (Nd) isotope.

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Scratch hardness

Scratch hardness tests are used to determine the hardness of a material to scratches and abrasion.

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Sediment transport

Sediment transport is the movement of solid particles (sediment), typically due to a combination of gravity acting on the sediment, and/or the movement of the fluid in which the sediment is entrained.

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A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.

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Serpentine subgroup

The serpentine subgroup (part of the kaolinite-serpentine group) are greenish, brownish, or spotted minerals commonly found in serpentinite rocks.

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Serpentinite is a rock composed of one or more serpentine group minerals, the name originating from the similarity of the texture of the rock to that of the skin of a snake.

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A shore or a shoreline is the fringe of land at the edge of a large body of water, such as an ocean, sea, or lake.

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Silicon carbide

Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Clinker nodules produced by sintering Sintering is the process of compacting and forming a solid mass of material by heat or pressure without melting it to the point of liquefaction.

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Smithson Tennant

Smithson Tennant FRS (30 November 1761 – 22 February 1815) was an English chemist.

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Smithsonian (magazine)

Smithsonian is the official journal published by the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. The first issue was published in 1970.

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Solid solution

A solid solution is a solid-state solution of one or more solutes in a solvent.

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South India

South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.

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Southern Africa

Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.

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Spectral color

A spectral color is a color that is evoked in a normal human by a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum, or by a relatively narrow band of wavelengths, also known as monochromatic light.

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Spiegel Online

Spiegel Online (SPON) is one of the most widely read German-language news websites.

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Stable nuclide

Stable nuclides are nuclides that are not radioactive and so (unlike radionuclides) do not spontaneously undergo radioactive decay.

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Standard conditions for temperature and pressure

Standard conditions for temperature and pressure are standard sets of conditions for experimental measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of data.

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Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.

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Superhard material

A superhard material is a material with a hardness value exceeding 40 gigapascals (GPa) when measured by the Vickers hardness test.

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A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.

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Surat is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat.

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Surface energy

Surface Free energy, or interfacial free energy, quantifies the disruption of intermolecular bonds that occur when a surface is created.

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Swiss Gemmological Institute

The Swiss Gemmological Institute SSEF is a gemmology laboratory located in Basel, Switzerland.

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Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.

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Synthetic diamond

A synthetic diamond (also known as an artificial diamond, cultured diamond, or cultivated diamond) is diamond produced in an artificial process, as opposed to natural diamonds, which are created by geological processes.

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Tel Aviv

Tel Aviv (תֵּל אָבִיב,, تل أَبيب) is the second most populous city in Israel – after Jerusalem – and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area.

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A terrane in geology, in full a tectonostratigraphic terrane, is a fragment of crustal material formed on, or broken off from, one tectonic plate and accreted or "sutured" to crust lying on another plate.

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Tetrahedral-octahedral honeycomb

The tetrahedral-octahedral honeycomb, alternated cubic honeycomb is a quasiregular space-filling tessellation (or honeycomb) in Euclidean 3-space.

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Tetrakis hexahedron

In geometry, a tetrakis hexahedron (also known as a tetrahexahedron, hextetrahedron, tetrakis cube, and kiscube) is a Catalan solid.

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Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.

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The Astrophysical Journal

The Astrophysical Journal, often abbreviated ApJ (pronounced "ap jay") in references and speech, is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of astrophysics and astronomy, established in 1895 by American astronomers George Ellery Hale and James Edward Keeler.

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The Atlantic

The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.

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The Daily Telegraph

The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.

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The Montana Standard

The Montana Standard is a Lee Enterprises daily newspaper and website in Butte, Montana.

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.

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A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance is dependent on temperature, more so than in standard resistors.

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Closeup of glacial till. Note that the larger grains (pebbles and gravel) in the till are completely surrounded by the matrix of finer material (silt and sand), and this characteristic, known as ''matrix support'', is diagnostic of till. Glacial till with tufts of grass Till or glacial till is unsorted glacial sediment.

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Time (magazine)

Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.

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In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the ability of a material to absorb energy and plastically deform without fracturing.

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Transition zone (Earth)

The transition zone is part of the Earth’s mantle, and is located between the lower mantle and the upper mantle, between a depth of 410 and 660 km (250 to 400 mi).

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Transparency and translucency

In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through the material without being scattered.

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Types of volcanic eruptions

Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.

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Udachnaya pipe

The Udachnaya pipe (тру́бка Уда́чная, literally lucky pipe) is a diamond deposit in the Daldyn-Alakit kimberlite field in Sakha Republic, Russia.

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Ultra-high-pressure metamorphism

Ultra-high-pressure metamorphism refers to metamorphic processes at pressures high enough to stabilize coesite, the high-pressure polymorph of SiO2.

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Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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Uranium–lead dating

Uranium–lead dating, abbreviated U–Pb dating, is one of the oldestBoltwood, B.B., 1907, On the ultimate disintegration products of the radio-active elements.

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Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.

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Vacuum is space devoid of matter.

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Valence and conduction bands

In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid.

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Vickers hardness test

The Vickers hardness test was developed in 1921 by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials.

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Volatility (chemistry)

In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.

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Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.

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Wedding ring

A wedding ring or wedding band is a finger ring that indicates that its wearer is married.

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.

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Western Australia

Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.

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White dwarf

A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.

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Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.

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A window is an opening in a wall, door, roof or vehicle that allows the passage of light, sound, and air.

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Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States, in the Midwest and Great Lakes regions.

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Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond

The Wittelsbach-Graff Diamond is a deep-blue diamond with internally flawless clarity.

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World Diamond Congress

The World Diamond Congress is a bi-annual industry event organized by World Federation of Diamond Bourses and the International Diamond Manufacturers Association.

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World Diamond Council

The World Diamond Council is an organization representing the entire diamond value chain including representatives from diamond mining, manufacturing, trading and retail.

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World Federation of Diamond Bourses

The World Federation of Diamond Bourses, founded in 1947, was created to provide bourses trading in rough and polished diamonds and precious stones with a common set of trading practices.

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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X-ray fluorescence

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.

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A xenolith ("foreign rock") is a rock fragment that becomes enveloped in a larger rock during the latter's development and solidification.

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2000s energy crisis

From the mid-1980s to September 2003, the inflation-adjusted price of a barrel of crude oil on NYMEX was generally under US$25/barrel.

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47th Street (Manhattan)

47th Street is an east–west running street between First Avenue and the West Side Highway in the borough of Manhattan in New York City.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond

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