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Diamond (gemstone)

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A diamond (from the ἀδάμας adámas, meaning "unbreakable", "proper", or "unalterable") is one of the best-known and most sought-after gemstones. [1]

149 relations: Adornment, Ammonia, Ancient history, Ancient Rome, Anniversary, Antwerp, Antwerp diamond district, Antwerpsche Diamantkring, Art Deco, Arthashastra, Aurora Pyramid of Hope, Austria, Avoirdupois system, Baguette, Barney Barnato, Belgium, Big Hole, Birthstone, Blacklight, Blood diamond, Blue, Blue Nile (company), Blue-green, Borneo, Bravais lattice, Brilliant (diamond cut), Brilliant Earth, British Library, Brown diamonds, Buddhism, Cambridge University Press, Cape Colony, Carat (mass), Cecil Rhodes, Central Africa, Central India, Chanakya, Charles Rudd, Child labour in the diamond industry, China, Chrysoberyl, Complementary colors, Computer simulation, Corundum, Costco, Crete, Cube root, Cubic zirconia, De Beers, De Beers antitrust litigation, ..., De facto, Diamantaire, Diamond, Diamond cut, Diamond cutting, Diamond jubilee, Diamond Sutra, Diamonds as an investment, Dispersion (optics), E-commerce, Encarta, Engagement ring, Engraving, Eureka Diamond, Fluorescence, Gemological Institute of America, Gemology, Gemstone, George Frederick Kunz, Goat, Golkonda, Greek mythology, Green, Hardness, Hearts and arrows, Heraldry, Hierarchy of precious substances, Hinduism, Hope Diamond, Hue, Human rights, Hydrophobe, Incantation, India, Indra, Infection, Insanity, Isidore of Seville, Jade, Jewellery, Kilogram, Kimberley Process Certification Scheme, Kimberley, Northern Cape, Light, List of diamond mines, List of diamonds, Lodestone, Magnet, Magnetite, Marcel Tolkowsky, Market capitalization, Martin Rapaport, Mary of Burgundy, Mathematician, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, Middle Ages, Miracle, Misnomer, Mogao Caves, Natural History (Pliny), News24, Nitrogen, Orange (colour), Orange Free State, Orange River, Ounce, Panic, Physical property, Plato, Pliny the Elder, Princess cut, Rapaport Diamond Report, Red, Robert Boyle, Roman Empire, Royal Asscher Diamond Company, Sampling (statistics), Sanskrit, Sleepwalking, South Africa, Southeast Asia, Spectral color, Spinel, Status symbol, Steam, Sunlight, Supernatural, Surat, Symmetry, Synthetic diamond, The Atlantic, Ultrasonic cleaning, Ultraviolet, United Nations, United States dollar, United States Geological Survey, West Africa, Yellow, Zeus. Expand index (99 more) »

Adornment

An adornment is generally an accessory or ornament worn to enhance the beauty or status of the wearer.

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Ammonia

Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Ancient history

Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.

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Ancient Rome

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.

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Anniversary

An anniversary is the date on which an event took place or an institution was founded in a previous year, and may also refer to the commemoration or celebration of that event.

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Antwerp

Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.

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Antwerp diamond district

Antwerp's diamond district, also known as the Diamond Quarter (Diamantkwartier), and dubbed the Square Mile is an area within the city of Antwerp, Belgium.

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Antwerpsche Diamantkring

The Antwerpsche Diamantkring was established in 1928 in Antwerp, Belgium, to become the first diamond bourse worldwide that is dedicated exclusively to rough diamonds trade.

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Art Deco

Art Deco, sometimes referred to as Deco, is a style of visual arts, architecture and design that first appeared in France just before World War I. Art Deco influenced the design of buildings, furniture, jewelry, fashion, cars, movie theatres, trains, ocean liners, and everyday objects such as radios and vacuum cleaners.

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Arthashastra

The Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on statecraft, economic policy and military strategy, written in Sanskrit.

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Aurora Pyramid of Hope

The Aurora Pyramid of Hope is a collection of 296 natural diamonds in a wide variety of colors, billed as "the most comprehensive natural color diamond collection in the world".

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Austria

Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.

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Avoirdupois system

The avoirdupois system (abbreviated avdp) is a measurement system of weights which uses pounds and ounces as units.

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Baguette

A baguette is a long, thin loaf of French bread that is commonly made from basic lean dough (the dough, though not the shape, is defined by French law).

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Barney Barnato

Barney Barnato (21 February 1851 – 14 June 1897), born Barnet Isaacs, was a British Randlord, one of the entrepreneurs who gained control of diamond mining, and later gold mining, in South Africa from the 1870s.

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Belgium

Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.

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Big Hole

The Big Hole, Open Mine, Kimberley Mine or Tim Kuilmine (Groot Gat) is an open-pit and underground mine in Kimberley, South Africa, and claimed to be the largest hole excavated by hand, although this claim is disputed.

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Birthstone

A birthstone is a gemstone that represents a person's month of birth.

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Blacklight

A blacklight (or often black light), also referred to as a UV-A light, Wood's lamp, or simply ultraviolet light, is a lamp that emits long-wave (UV-A) ultraviolet light and not much visible light.

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Blood diamond

Blood diamonds (also called conflict diamonds, war diamonds, hot diamonds, or red diamonds) is a term used for a diamond mined in a war zone and sold to finance an insurgency, an invading army's war efforts, or a warlord's activity.

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Blue

Blue is one of the three primary colours of pigments in painting and traditional colour theory, as well as in the RGB colour model.

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Blue Nile (company)

Blue Nile is an online jewelry retailer founded in 1999.

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Blue-green

Blue-green/bottle green is a color that is a representation of the color that is between green and blue on a typical traditional old-fashioned RYB color wheel.

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Borneo

Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.

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Bravais lattice

In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.

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Brilliant (diamond cut)

A brilliant is a diamond or other gemstone cut in a particular form with numerous facets so as to have exceptional brilliance.

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Brilliant Earth

Brilliant Earth is a company that designs and sells engagement rings and other jewelry that it certifies as being ethically sourced.

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British Library

The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest national library in the world by number of items catalogued.

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Brown diamonds

Brown diamonds are the most common color variety of natural diamonds.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Cape Colony

The Cape of Good Hope, also known as the Cape Colony (Kaapkolonie), was a British colony in present-day South Africa, named after the Cape of Good Hope.

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Carat (mass)

The carat (ct) (not to be confused with the karat, sometimes spelled carat, a unit of purity of gold alloys), is a unit of mass equal to 200 mg (0.2 g; 0.007055 oz) and is used for measuring gemstones and pearls.

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Cecil Rhodes

Cecil John Rhodes PC (5 July 1853 – 26 March 1902) was a British businessman, mining magnate and politician in southern Africa who served as Prime Minister of the Cape Colony from 1890 to 1896.

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Central Africa

Central Africa is the core region of the African continent which includes Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Rwanda.

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Central India

Central India is a loosely defined region of India consisting of the states of Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.

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Chanakya

Chanakya (IAST:,; fl. c. 4th century BCE) was an Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor.

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Charles Rudd

Charles Dunell Rudd (22 October 1844 – 15 November 1916) was the main business associate of Cecil Rhodes.

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Child labour in the diamond industry

Child labour in the diamond industry is a widely reported and criticized issue on diamond industry for using child labour in diamond mines and polishing procedures in poor conditions mainly in India and Africa.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Chrysoberyl

The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl is an aluminate of beryllium with the formula BeAl2O4.

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Complementary colors

Complementary colors are pairs of colors which, when combined, cancel each other out.

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Computer simulation

Computer simulation is the reproduction of the behavior of a system using a computer to simulate the outcomes of a mathematical model associated with said system.

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Corundum

Corundum is a crystalline form of aluminium oxide typically containing traces of iron, titanium, vanadium and chromium.

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Costco

Costco Wholesale Corporation, trading as Costco, is an American multinational corporation which operates a chain of membership-only warehouse clubs.

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Crete

Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.

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Cube root

In mathematics, a cube root of a number x is a number y such that y3.

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Cubic zirconia

Cubic zirconia (CZ) is the cubic crystalline form of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2).

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De Beers

The De Beers Group of Companies is an international corporation that specialises in diamond exploration, diamond mining, diamond retail, diamond trading and industrial diamond manufacturing sectors.

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De Beers antitrust litigation

The De Beers diamonds antitrust class action sought to end an alleged 60-year conspiracy to fix the price of rough diamonds in the U.S. by the De Beers group of companies.

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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Diamantaire

A diamantaire (French origin) is a gem-quality diamond manufacturer or producer, master diamond cutter, and graduate gemologist specialized in diamonds.

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Diamond

Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.

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Diamond cut

A diamond cut is a style or design guide used when shaping a diamond for polishing such as the brilliant cut.

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Diamond cutting

Diamond cutting is the practice of changing a diamond from a rough stone into a faceted gem.

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Diamond jubilee

A diamond jubilee is a celebration held to mark a 60th anniversary of an event related to a person (e.g. accession to the throne, wedding, etc.). In the case of an event not relating to a person (e.g. the founding of an organization), a diamond jubilee is observed at the 75th anniversary.

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Diamond Sutra

The Diamond Sūtra (Sanskrit:Vajracchedikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra) is a Mahāyāna (Buddhist) sūtra from the Prajñāpāramitā sutras or 'Perfection of Wisdom' genre.

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Diamonds as an investment

The value of diamonds as an investment is of significant interest to the general public, because they are expensive gemstones, often purchased in engagement rings, due in part to a successful 20th century marketing campaign by De Beers.

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Dispersion (optics)

In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.

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E-commerce

E-commerce is the activity of buying or selling of products on online services or over the Internet.

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Encarta

Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.

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Engagement ring

An engagement ring is a ring indicating that the person wearing it is engaged to be married, especially in Western cultures.

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Engraving

Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, usually flat surface by cutting grooves into it.

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Eureka Diamond

The Eureka Diamond was the first diamond discovered in South Africa.

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Fluorescence

Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.

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Gemological Institute of America

The Gemological Institute of America, or GIA, is a nonprofit institute dedicated to research and education in the field of gemology and the jewelry arts.

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Gemology

Gemology or gemmology is the science dealing with natural and artificial gemstone materials.

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Gemstone

A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.

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George Frederick Kunz

George Frederick Kunz (September 29, 1856 – June 29, 1932) was an American mineralogist and mineral collector.

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Goat

The domestic goat (Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe.

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Golkonda

Golkonda, also known as Golconda, Gol konda ("Round shaped hill"), or Golla konda, (Shepherd's Hill) is a citadel and fort in Southern India and was the capital of the medieval sultanate of the Qutb Shahi dynasty (c.1518–1687), is situated west of Hyderabad.

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Greek mythology

Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.

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Green

Green is the color between blue and yellow on the visible spectrum.

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Hardness

Hardness is a measure of the resistance to localized plastic deformation induced by either mechanical indentation or abrasion.

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Hearts and arrows

Hearts and Arrows diamonds are precision-cut variations of the traditional 57 faceted round brilliant cut.

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Heraldry

Heraldry is a broad term, encompassing the design, display, and study of armorial bearings (known as armory), as well as related disciplines, such as vexillology, together with the study of ceremony, rank, and pedigree.

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Hierarchy of precious substances

In popular culture, sets of precious substances may form hierarchies which express conventional perceived relative value or merit.

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Hinduism

Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.

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Hope Diamond

The Hope Diamond is one of the most famous jewels in the world, with ownership records dating back almost four centuries.

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Hue

Hue is one of the main properties (called color appearance parameters) of a color, defined technically (in the CIECAM02 model), as "the degree to which a stimulus can be described as similar to or different from stimuli that are described as red, green, blue, and yellow", (which in certain theories of color vision are called unique hues).

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Human rights

Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.

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Hydrophobe

In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule (known as a hydrophobe) that is seemingly repelled from a mass of water.

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Incantation

An incantation, enchantment, or magic spell is a set of words, spoken or unspoken, which are considered by its user to invoke some magical effect.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indra

(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.

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Infection

Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Insanity

Insanity, craziness, or madness is a spectrum of both group and individual behaviors characterized by certain abnormal mental or behavioral patterns.

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Isidore of Seville

Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.

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Jade

Jade is an ornamental mineral, mostly known for its green varieties, which is featured prominently in ancient Asian art.

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Jewellery

Jewellery (British English) or jewelry (American English)see American and British spelling differences consists of small decorative items worn for personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, pendants, bracelets, and cufflinks.

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Kilogram

The kilogram or kilogramme (symbol: kg) is the base unit of mass in the International System of Units (SI), and is defined as being equal to the mass of the International Prototype of the Kilogram (IPK, also known as "Le Grand K" or "Big K"), a cylinder of platinum-iridium alloy stored by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures at Saint-Cloud, France.

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Kimberley Process Certification Scheme

The Kimberley Process Certification Scheme (KPCS) is the process established in 2000 to prevent "conflict diamonds" from entering the mainstream rough diamond market by United Nations General Assembly Resolution 55/56 following recommendations in the Fowler Report.

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Kimberley, Northern Cape

Kimberley is the capital and largest city of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

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Light

Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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List of diamond mines

There are a limited number of commercially aviable diamond mines currently operating in the world, with the 50 largest mines accounting for approximately 90% of global supply.

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List of diamonds

A number of large or extraordinary diamonds have gained fame, both as exquisite examples of the beautiful nature of diamonds and because of the famous people who wore, bought, and sold them.

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Lodestone

A lodestone is a naturally magnetized piece of the mineral magnetite.

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Magnet

A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.

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Magnetite

Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.

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Marcel Tolkowsky

Marcel Tolkowsky (25 December 1899 – 10 February 1991) Obituary.

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Market capitalization

Market capitalization (market cap) is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares.

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Martin Rapaport

Martin Rapaport is chairman of the Rapaport Group, founder of the Rapaport Diamond Report and the RapNet online diamond trading network.

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Mary of Burgundy

Mary (Marie; Maria; 13 February 1457 – 27 March 1482), Duchess of Burgundy, reigned over many of the territories of the Duchy of Burgundy, now mainly in France and the Low Countries, from 1477 until her death.

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Mathematician

A mathematician is someone who uses an extensive knowledge of mathematics in his or her work, typically to solve mathematical problems.

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Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor

Maximilian I (22 March 1459 – 12 January 1519) was King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans) from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death, though he was never crowned by the Pope, as the journey to Rome was always too risky.

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Middle Ages

In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Miracle

A miracle is an event not explicable by natural or scientific laws.

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Misnomer

A misnomer is a name or term that suggests an idea that is known to be wrong.

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Mogao Caves

The Mogao Caves, also known as the Thousand Buddha Grottoes or Caves of the Thousand Buddhas, form a system of 492 temples southeast of the center of Dunhuang, an oasis strategically located at a religious and cultural crossroads on the Silk Road, in Gansu province, China.

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Natural History (Pliny)

The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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News24

News24.com is an English-language South African online news publication created in October 1998 by the multinational media company, Naspers.

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Nitrogen

Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.

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Orange (colour)

Orange is the colour between yellow and red on the spectrum of visible light.

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Orange Free State

The Orange Free State (Oranje-Vrijstaat, Oranje-Vrystaat, abbreviated as OVS) was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century, which later became a British colony and a province of the Union of South Africa.

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Orange River

The Orange River (from Afrikaans/Dutch: Oranjerivier) is the longest river in South Africa and the Orange River Basin extends extensively into Namibia and Botswana to the north.

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Ounce

The ounce (abbreviated oz; apothecary symbol: ℥) is a unit of mass, weight, or volume used in most British derived customary systems of measurement.

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Panic

Panic is a sudden sensation of fear, which is so strong as to dominate or prevent reason and logical thinking, replacing it with overwhelming feelings of anxiety and frantic agitation consistent with an animalistic fight-or-flight reaction.

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Physical property

A physical property is any property that is measurable, whose value describes a state of a physical system.

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Plato

Plato (Πλάτων Plátōn, in Classical Attic; 428/427 or 424/423 – 348/347 BC) was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Princess cut

The Princess cut is the second most popular cut shape for diamonds, next to a round brilliant.

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Rapaport Diamond Report

The Rapaport Price List is the diamond industry standard for the pricing of diamonds.

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Red

Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.

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Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Royal Asscher Diamond Company

The Royal Asscher Diamond Company (Koninklijke Asscher Diamant Maatschappij) was founded in 1854 by the Asscher family.

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Sampling (statistics)

In statistics, quality assurance, and survey methodology, sampling is the selection of a subset (a statistical sample) of individuals from within a statistical population to estimate characteristics of the whole population.

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Sanskrit

Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.

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Sleepwalking

Sleepwalking, also known as somnambulism or noctambulism, is a phenomenon of combined sleep and wakefulness.

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South Africa

South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.

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Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.

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Spectral color

A spectral color is a color that is evoked in a normal human by a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum, or by a relatively narrow band of wavelengths, also known as monochromatic light.

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Spinel

Spinel is the magnesium aluminium member of the larger spinel group of minerals.

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Status symbol

A status symbol is a perceived visible, external denotation of one's social position and perceived indicator of economic or social status.

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Steam

Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.

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Sunlight

Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.

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Supernatural

The supernatural (Medieval Latin: supernātūrālis: supra "above" + naturalis "natural", first used: 1520–1530 AD) is that which exists (or is claimed to exist), yet cannot be explained by laws of nature.

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Surat

Surat is a city in the Indian state of Gujarat.

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Symmetry

Symmetry (from Greek συμμετρία symmetria "agreement in dimensions, due proportion, arrangement") in everyday language refers to a sense of harmonious and beautiful proportion and balance.

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Synthetic diamond

A synthetic diamond (also known as an artificial diamond, cultured diamond, or cultivated diamond) is diamond produced in an artificial process, as opposed to natural diamonds, which are created by geological processes.

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The Atlantic

The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.

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Ultrasonic cleaning

Ultrasonic cleaning is a process that uses ultrasound (usually from 20–400 kHz) and an appropriate cleaning solvent (sometimes ordinary tap water) to clean items.

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Ultraviolet

Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.

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United States dollar

The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.

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United States Geological Survey

The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.

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West Africa

West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.

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Yellow

Yellow is the color between orange and green on the spectrum of visible light.

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Zeus

Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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Redirects here:

4 Cs, Brilliance (gemstone), Diamonds (gemstone), Three Cs.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diamond_(gemstone)

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