118 relations: Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Alkane, Anvil, Anvil press, Argon, Atmosphere (unit), Bar (unit), Beryllium, Boron, Boron nitride, Brillouin scattering, Calibration, Carat (mass), Carnegie Institution for Science, Compressibility, Copper, Cryostat, Crystal, Crystal structure, Crystallography, Culet, D-DIA, Deformation (mechanics), Degree (angle), Diamond, Diffraction, Earth, Elasticity (physics), Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrode, Electromagnet, Electromagnetic spectrum, Electron paramagnetic resonance, Emission spectrum, Equation of state, Escherichia coli, Ethanol, Exoplanet, Experiment, Extended X-ray absorption fine structure, Facet, Fluorescence, Force, Formate, Gamma ray, Gasket, Gemstone, General Electric, Harvard University, Helium, ..., High pressure, Hydraulics, Hydrogen, Hydrostatics, Index ellipsoid, Infrared, Infrared spectroscopy, Interstellar travel, Joule, Lever, Magnetoresistance, Material properties of diamond, Mössbauer spectroscopy, Metallic hydrogen, Methanol, Microscope, Millimetre, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Nature (journal), Nuclear magnetic resonance, Optical microscope, Orders of magnitude (pressure), Panspermia, Parallel (geometry), Pascal (unit), Percy Williams Bridgman, Phase (matter), Phase boundary, Phenomenon, Photoluminescence, Planet, Platinum, Pneumatics, Positron annihilation spectroscopy, Pressure, Pressure experiment, Programmable logic controller, Pyrometer, Raman scattering, Recrystallization (chemistry), Rhenium, Ruby, Ruby laser, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Science (journal), Screw (simple machine), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Shewanella oneidensis, Spectroscopy, Statics, Steel, Superconductivity, Synchrotron, Temperature, Tungsten, Tungsten carbide, Ultraviolet, University of California, Berkeley, University of Chicago, University of Rochester, Wavelength, X-ray, X-ray absorption near edge structure, X-ray crystallography, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray scattering techniques, Xenon, Yttrium aluminium garnet. Expand index (68 more) » « Shrink index
In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.
In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
An anvil is a metalworking tool consisting of a large block of metal (usually forged or cast steel), with a flattened top surface, upon which another object is struck (or "worked").
A multi-anvil press, or anvil press is a type of device related to a machine press that is used to create extraordinarily high pressures within a small volume.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.
The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Boron nitride is a heat and chemically resistant refractory compound of boron and nitrogen with the chemical formula BN.
Brillouin scattering, named after Léon Brillouin, refers to the interaction of light and material waves within a medium.
Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy.
The carat (ct) (not to be confused with the karat, sometimes spelled carat, a unit of purity of gold alloys), is a unit of mass equal to 200 mg (0.2 g; 0.007055 oz) and is used for measuring gemstones and pearls.
The Carnegie Institution of Washington (the organization's legal name), known also for public purposes as the Carnegie Institution for Science (CIS), is an organization in the United States established to fund and perform scientific research.
In thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, compressibility (also known as the coefficient of compressibility or isothermal compressibility) is a measure of the relative volume change of a fluid or solid as a response to a pressure (or mean stress) change.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
A cryostat (from cryo meaning cold and stat meaning stable) is a device used to maintain low cryogenic temperatures of samples or devices mounted within the cryostat.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of atoms in crystalline solids (see crystal structure).
In gemology, a culet is a flat face on the bottom of a gemstone.
The D-DIA or deformation-DIA is an apparatus used for high pressure and high temperature deformation experiments.
Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.
A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e.g. a semiconductor, an electrolyte, a vacuum or air).
An electromagnet is a type of magnet in which the magnetic field is produced by an electric current.
The electromagnetic spectrum is the range of frequencies (the spectrum) of electromagnetic radiation and their respective wavelengths and photon energies.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) or electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a method for studying materials with unpaired electrons.
The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.
In physics and thermodynamics, an equation of state is a thermodynamic equation relating state variables which describe the state of matter under a given set of physical conditions, such as pressure, volume, temperature (PVT), or internal energy.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) includes both Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES).
Facets are flat faces on geometric shapes.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
In physics, a force is any interaction that, when unopposed, will change the motion of an object.
Formate (IUPAC name: methanoate) is the anion derived from formic acid.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
gasket A gasket is a mechanical seal which fills the space between two or more mating surfaces, generally to prevent leakage from or into the joined objects while under compression.
A gemstone (also called a gem, fine gem, jewel, precious stone, or semi-precious stone) is a piece of mineral crystal which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
Harvard University is a private Ivy League research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
In science and engineering the study of high pressure examines its effects on materials and the design and construction of devices, such as a diamond anvil cell, which can create high pressure.
Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Fluid statics or hydrostatics is the branch of fluid mechanics that studies fluids at rest.
In optics, an index ellipsoid is a diagram of an ellipsoid that depicts the orientation and relative magnitude of refractive indices in a crystal.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy) involves the interaction of infrared radiation with matter.
Interstellar travel is the term used for hypothetical crewed or uncrewed travel between stars or planetary systems.
The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.
A lever is a simple machine consisting of a beam or rigid rod pivoted at a fixed hinge, or fulcrum.
Magnetoresistance is the tendency of a material (preferably ferromagnetic) to change the value of its electrical resistance in an externally-applied magnetic field.
Diamond is the allotrope of carbon in which the carbon atoms are arranged in the specific type of cubic lattice called diamond cubic.
Mössbauer spectroscopy is a spectroscopic technique based on the Mössbauer effect.
Metallic hydrogen is a phase of hydrogen in which it behaves like an electrical conductor.
Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
The millimetre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI unit symbol mm) or millimeter (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousandth of a metre, which is the SI base unit of length.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
The optical microscope, often referred to as the light microscope, is a type of microscope that uses visible light and a system of lenses to magnify images of small subjects.
This is a tabulated listing of the orders of magnitude in relation to pressure expressed in pascals.
Panspermia is the hypothesis that life exists throughout the Universe, distributed by space dust, meteoroids, asteroids, comets, planetoids, and also by spacecraft carrying unintended contamination by microorganisms.
In geometry, parallel lines are lines in a plane which do not meet; that is, two lines in a plane that do not intersect or touch each other at any point are said to be parallel.
The pascal (symbol: Pa) is the SI derived unit of pressure used to quantify internal pressure, stress, Young's modulus and ultimate tensile strength.
Percy Williams Bridgman (21 April 1882 – 20 August 1961) was an American physicist who won the 1946 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the physics of high pressures.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
In thermal equilibrium, each phase (i.e. liquid, solid etc.) of physical matter comes to an end at a transitional point, or spatial interface, called a phase boundary, due to the immiscibility of the matter with the matter on the other side of the boundary.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
Photoluminescence (abbreviated as PL) is light emission from any form of matter after the absorption of photons (electromagnetic radiation).
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Platinum is a chemical element with symbol Pt and atomic number 78.
Pneumatics (From Greek: πνεύμα) is a branch of engineering that makes use of gas or pressurized air.
Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) or sometimes specifically referred to as Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is a non-destructive spectroscopy technique to study voids and defects in solids.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Pressure experiments are experiments performed at pressures lower or higher than atmospheric pressure, called low-pressure experiments and high-pressure experiments, respectively.
A programmable logic controller (PLC), or programmable controller is an industrial digital computer which has been ruggedized and adapted for the control of manufacturing processes, such as assembly lines, or robotic devices, or any activity that requires high reliability control and ease of programming and process fault diagnosis.
A pyrometer is a type of remote-sensing thermometer used to measure the temperature of a surface.
Raman scattering or the Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon by molecules which are excited to higher vibrational or rotational energy levels.
In chemistry, recrystallization is a technique used to purify chemicals.
Rhenium is a chemical element with symbol Re and atomic number 75.
A ruby is a pink to blood-red colored gemstone, a variety of the mineral corundum (aluminium oxide).
A ruby laser is a solid-state laser that uses a synthetic ruby crystal as its gain medium.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
A screw is a mechanism that converts rotational motion to linear motion, and a torque (rotational force) to a linear force.
The Scripps Institution of Oceanography (sometimes referred to as SIO, Scripps Oceanography, or Scripps) in La Jolla, California, founded in 1903, is one of the oldest and largest centers for ocean and Earth science research, public service, undergraduate and graduate training in the world.
Shewanella oneidensis is a bacterium notable for its ability to reduce metal ions and live in environments with or without oxygen.
Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation.
Statics is the branch of mechanics that is concerned with the analysis of loads (force and torque, or "moment") acting on physical systems that do not experience an acceleration (a.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.
A synchrotron is a particular type of cyclic particle accelerator, descended from the cyclotron, in which the accelerating particle beam travels around a fixed closed-loop path.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Tungsten carbide (chemical formula: WC) is a chemical compound (specifically, a carbide) containing equal parts of tungsten and carbon atoms.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public research university in Berkeley, California.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
The University of Rochester (U of R or UR) frequently referred to as Rochester, is a private research university in Rochester, New York.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), also known as near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), is a type of absorption spectroscopy that indicates the features in the X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of condensed matter due to the photoabsorption cross section for electronic transitions from an atomic core level to final states in the energy region of 50–100 eV above the selected atomic core level ionization energy, where the wavelength of the photoelectron is larger than the interatomic distance between the absorbing atom and its first neighbour atoms.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the emission of characteristic "secondary" (or fluorescent) X-rays from a material that has been excited by bombarding with high-energy X-rays or gamma rays.
X-ray scattering techniques are a family of non-destructive analytical techniques which reveal information about the crystal structure, chemical composition, and physical properties of materials and thin films.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group.