96 relations: Allophone, Arabic poetry, Beijing, Buffalo, New York, Canadian English, Castilian Spanish, Charlottesville, Virginia, Chinese characters, Chinese language, Christmas and holiday season, Close front rounded vowel, Communicative competence, Comparative method, Critical period, Critical period hypothesis, Daniel Jones (phonetician), Derek Bickerton, Dialect, Dialectology, Diasystem, Einar Haugen, England, Ernst Pulgram, General American, General Chinese, Generative grammar, Greek language, Hamza, Hans Kurath, Harold E. Palmer, Hawaiian language, Hawaiian Pidgin, Hopi language, Huastec language, Huave language, Hypercorrection, International Phonetic Alphabet, International Phonetic Alphabet chart for English dialects, Isomorphism (sociology), John C. Wells, Kirkwall, Language contact, Language transfer, Lexical set, Loch, Mid vowel, Middle English phonology, Morphology (linguistics), Morphophonology, Multilingualism, ..., Mutual intelligibility, Nanjing, New Mexican Spanish, New York City, Norwich, Old English, Orthography, Peter Trudgill, Philadelphia, Phoneme, Phonemic contrast, Phonetic transcription, Phonological history of English diphthongs, Phonological history of English vowels, Phonology, Phonotactics, Pidgin, Post-creole continuum, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Received Pronunciation, Rhoticity in English, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico, Robert A. Hall Jr., San Luis Potosí, Scottish English, Sociolinguistics, Southern American English, Southern United States, Spanish language, Structural linguistics, Sugar plantations in Hawaii, Syllable, Syntax, The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, The Sound Pattern of English, Toronto, Transfer of training, Uriel Weinreich, Variable rules analysis, Varieties of Chinese, Variety (linguistics), Washington, D.C., Western Pennsylvania, William Labov, Wu Chinese, Yuen Ren Chao. Expand index (46 more) » « Shrink index
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
Arabic poetry (الشعر العربي ash-shi‘ru al-‘Arabīyyu) is the earliest form of Arabic literature.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
Buffalo is the second largest city in the state of New York and the 81st most populous city in the United States.
Canadian English (CanE, CE, en-CA) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Canada.
In English, Castilian Spanish sometimes refers to the variety of Peninsular Spanish spoken in northern and central Spain or as the language standard for radio and TV speakers.
Charlottesville, colloquially known as C'ville and officially named the City of Charlottesville, is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
The close front rounded vowel, or high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
Communicative competence is a term in linguistics which refers to a language user's grammatical knowledge of syntax, morphology, phonology and the like, as well as social knowledge about how and when to use utterances appropriately.
In linguistics, the comparative method is a technique for studying the development of languages by performing a feature-by-feature comparison of two or more languages with common descent from a shared ancestor, in order to extrapolate back to infer the properties of that ancestor.
In developmental psychology and developmental biology, a critical period is a maturational stage in the lifespan of an organism during which the nervous system is especially sensitive to certain environmental stimuli.
The critical period hypothesis is the subject of a long-standing debate in linguistics and language acquisition over the extent to which the ability to acquire language is biologically linked to age.
Daniel Jones (12 September 1881 – 4 December 1967) was a London-born British phonetician who studied under Paul Passy, professor of phonetics at the École des Hautes Études at the Sorbonne (University of Paris).
Derek Bickerton (March 25, 1926 – March 5, 2018) was an English-born American linguist and academic who was Professor Emeritus at the University of Hawaii in Manoa.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
Dialectology (from Greek διάλεκτος, dialektos, "talk, dialect"; and -λογία, -logia) is the scientific study of linguistic dialect, a sub-field of sociolinguistics.
In the field of dialectology, a diasystem or polylectal grammar is a linguistic analysis set up to encode or represent a range of related varieties in a way that displays their structural differences.
Einar Ingvald Haugen (April 19, 1906 – June 20, 1994) was an American linguist, author and Professor at University of Wisconsin–Madison and Harvard University.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Ernst Pulgram (September 18, 1915 – August 17, 2005) was an American linguist of Austrian origins whose main interest lay in the Italic and Romance languages.
General American (abbreviated as GA or GenAm) is the umbrella variety of American English—the continuum of accents—spoken by a majority of Americans and popularly perceived, among Americans, as lacking any distinctly regional, ethnic, or socioeconomic characteristics.
General Chinese (Tung-dzih) is a diaphonemic orthography invented by Yuen Ren Chao to represent the pronunciations of all major varieties of Chinese simultaneously.
Generative grammar is a linguistic theory that regards grammar as a system of rules that generates exactly those combinations of words that form grammatical sentences in a given language.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Hamza (همزة) (ء) is a letter in the Arabic alphabet, representing the glottal stop.
Hans Kurath (13 December 1891 – 2 January 1992) was an American linguist of Austrian origin.
Harold Edward Palmer, usually just Harold E. Palmer (6 March 1877 – 16 November 1949), was an English linguist, phonetician and pioneer in the field of English language learning and teaching.
The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.
Hawaiian Pidgin English (alternately Hawaiian Creole English or HCE, known locally as Pidgin) is an English-based creole language spoken in Hawaiʻi (L1: 600,000; L2: 400,000).
Hopi (Hopi: Hopílavayi) is a Uto-Aztecan language spoken by the Hopi people (a Pueblo group) of northeastern Arizona, United States, but some Hopi are now monolingual English-speakers.
The Wasteko (Huasteco) language is a Mayan language of Mexico, spoken by the Huastecos living in rural areas of San Luis Potosí and northern Veracruz.
Huave (also spelled Wabe) is a language isolate spoken by the indigenous Huave people on the Pacific coast of the Mexican state of Oaxaca.
In linguistics or usage, hypercorrection is a non-standard usage that results from the over-application of a perceived rule of grammar or a usage prescription.
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.
This concise chart shows the most common applications of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to represent English language pronunciations.
In sociology, an isomorphism is a similarity of the processes or structure of one organization to those of another, be it the result of imitation or independent development under similar constraints.
John Christopher Wells (born 11 March 1939 in Bootle, Lancashire) is a British phonetician and Esperantist.
Kirkwall (Scottish Gaelic: Bàgh na h-Eaglaise) is the main settlement of the Northern Isles and capital of Orkney, an archipelago in the north of Scotland, as well as the largest island settlement in Scotland.
Language contact occurs when speakers of two or more languages or varieties interact and influence each other.
Language transfer (also known as L1 interference, linguistic interference, and crosslinguistic influence) refers to speakers or writers applying knowledge from one language to another language.
A lexical set is a group of words that share a similar phonological feature.
Loch is the Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Scots word for a lake or for a sea inlet.
A mid vowel (or a true-mid vowel) is any in a class of vowel sounds used in some spoken languages.
Middle English phonology is necessarily somewhat speculative, since it is preserved only as a written language.
In linguistics, morphology is the study of words, how they are formed, and their relationship to other words in the same language.
Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.
Multilingualism is the use of more than one language, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
New Mexican Spanish (Spanish: español neomexicano) is a variant of Spanish spoken in the United States, primarily in the northern part of the state of New Mexico and the southern part of the state of Colorado by the Hispanos of New Mexico.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Norwich (also) is a city on the River Wensum in East Anglia and lies approximately north-east of London.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Peter Trudgill, FBA (born 7 November 1943) is a sociolinguist, academic and author.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonemic contrast refers to a minimal phonetic difference, that is, small differences in speech sounds, that makes a difference in how the sound is perceived by listeners, and can therefore lead to different mental lexical entries for words.
Phonetic transcription (also known as phonetic script or phonetic notation) is the visual representation of speech sounds (or phones).
English diphthongs have undergone many changes since the Old and Middle English periods.
In the history of English phonology, there were many diachronic sound changes affecting vowels, especially involving phonemic splits and mergers.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.
A pidgin, or pidgin language, is a grammatically simplified means of communication that develops between two or more groups that do not have a language in common: typically, its vocabulary and grammar are limited and often drawn from several languages.
A post-creole continuum or simply creole continuum is a dialect continuum of varieties of a creole language between those most and least similar to the superstrate language (that is, a closely related language whose speakers assert dominance of some sort).
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.
Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.
Rio Arriba County is a county in the U.S. state of New Mexico.
Robert Anderson Hall Jr. (1911–1997) was an American linguist and specialist in the Romance languages.
San Luis Potosí, officially the Free and Sovereign State of San Luis Potosí (Estado Libre y Soberano de San Luis Potosí), is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico.
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context, on the way language is used, and society's effect on language.
Southern American English or Southern U.S. English is a large collection of related American English dialects spoken throughout the Southern United States, though increasingly in more rural areas and primarily by white Americans.
The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Structural linguistics is an approach to linguistics originating from the work of Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure and is part of the overall approach of structuralism.
Sugarcane was introduced to Hawaii by its first inhabitants and was observed by Captain Hegwood upon arrival in the islands in 1841Deerr, 1949 Sugar quickly turned into a big business and generated rapid population growth in the islands with 337,000 people immigrating over the span of a century.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
The Cambridge Grammar of the English Language, often abbreviated CGEL by its adherents, is a comprehensive reference book on English language grammar.
The Sound Pattern of English (frequently referred to as SPE) is a 1968 work on phonology (a branch of linguistics) by Noam Chomsky and Morris Halle.
Toronto is the capital city of the province of Ontario and the largest city in Canada by population, with 2,731,571 residents in 2016.
Transfer of training refers to the gg effect that knowledge or abilities acquired in one area have on problem solving or knowledge acquisition in other areas.
Uriel Weinreich (אוריאל ווײַנרײַך Uriel Vaynraykh,; 23 May 1926 – 30 March 1967) was a Polish-American linguist.
In linguistics, variable rules analysis is a set of statistical analysis methods commonly used in sociolinguistics and historical linguistics to describe patterns of variation between alternative forms in language use.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Western Pennsylvania refers to the western third of the state of Pennsylvania in the United States.
William "Bill" Labov (born December 4, 1927) is an American linguist, widely regarded as the founder of the discipline of variationist sociolinguistics.
Wu (Shanghainese:; Suzhou dialect:; Wuxi dialect) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole Zhejiang province, city of Shanghai, and the southern half of Jiangsu province, as well as bordering areas.
Yuen Ren Chao (3 November 1892 – 25 February 1982) was a Chinese-American linguist, educator, scholar, poet, and composer, who contributed to the modern study of Chinese phonology and grammar.