151 relations: Abdominal pain, Acute (medicine), Adenoviridae, Africa, Altered level of consciousness, American English, Ancient Greek, Antibiotic, Antibiotic-associated diarrhea, Antimicrobial resistance, Asia, Astrovirus, Bacteria, Bile acid, Bile acid malabsorption, Bile acid sequestrant, Bismuth subsalicylate, Blastocystis, BRAT diet, Breastfeeding, Calcium-dependent chloride channel, Campylobacter, Chemotherapy, Chloride, Cholera, Cholera toxin, Chronic diarrhea of infancy, Clostridium difficile (bacteria), Codeine, Coeliac disease, Colestyramine, Constipation, Contraindication, Crohn's disease, Cryptosporidium, Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cystic fibrosis, Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, Defecation, Dehydration, Developing country, Diphenoxylate, Drinking water, Dysentery, Electrolyte imbalance, English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Entamoeba histolytica, Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, Environmental enteropathy, Enzyme, ..., Epithelial sodium channel, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Ethanol, Feces, Fever, Food allergy, Food intolerance, Fructose malabsorption, Gastroenteritis, Gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal tract, George C. Williams (biologist), Giardia, Hand washing, Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, Helminths, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome, Human feces, Human waste, Hyperthyroidism, Immune system, Improved sanitation, Infant mortality, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Inflammatory bowel disease, Intravenous therapy, Ion, Irritable bowel syndrome, Ischemia, Kidney failure, Lactase, Lactobacillus, Lactose, Lactose intolerance, Large intestine, Laxative, Loperamide, Magnesium, Malabsorption, Malnutrition, Microscopic colitis, Na+/K+-ATPase, Na-K-Cl cotransporter, Nasogastric intubation, Nitazoxanide, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Norovirus, Nursing home care, Open defecation, Oral rehydration therapy, Orlistat, Pallor, Pancreas, Pancreatitis, Parasitism, Pathogenic bacteria, Pedialyte, Pneumonia, Probiotic, Protozoa, Radiation enteropathy, Randolph M. Nesse, Rectum, Rotavirus, Rotavirus vaccine, Salmonella, Sanitary sewer, Sanitation, SeHCAT, Serotonin, Shigella, Short bowel syndrome, Side effects of penicillin, SLC26A3, SLC5A1, Soft drink, Species, Standard hydrogen electrode, Stool test, Stunted growth, Sugar, Tachycardia, Therapeutic effect, Toilet, Traveler's diarrhea, Ulcerative colitis, UNICEF, Urination, Virus, Vitamin A deficiency, Vitamin B12, Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, Vitamin C, WASH, Water supply, Weight loss, World Gastroenterology Organisation, World Health Organization, Zinc deficiency, Zinc sulfate (medical use). Expand index (101 more) » « Shrink index
Abdominal pain, also known as a stomach ache, is a symptom associated with both non-serious and serious medical issues.
In medicine, describing a disease as acute denotes that it is of short duration and, as a corollary of that, of recent onset.
Adenoviruses (members of the family Adenoviridae) are medium-sized (90–100 nm), nonenveloped (without an outer lipid bilayer) viruses with an icosahedral nucleocapsid containing a double stranded DNA genome.
Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).
An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) results from an imbalance in the colonic microbiota caused by antibiotic therapy.
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Astrovirus is a type of virus that was first discovered in 1975 using electron microscopes following an outbreak of diarrhea in humans.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.
Bile acid malabsorption, known also as bile acid diarrhea, is a cause of several gut-related problems, the main one being chronic diarrhea.
The bile acid sequestrants are a group of resins used to bind certain components of bile in the gastrointestinal tract.
Bismuth subsalicylate, sold under the brand name Pepto-Bismol, is an antacid medication used to treat temporary discomforts of the stomach and gastrointestinal tract, such as diarrhea, indigestion, heartburn and nausea.
Blastocystis is a genus of single-celled heterokont parasites belonging to a group of organisms known as the Stramenopiles (also called Heterokonts) that includes algae, diatoms, and water molds.
The BRAT diet is a diet that has been recommended for people with vomiting, diarrhea or gastroenteritis.
Breastfeeding, also known as nursing, is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
The Calcium-Dependent Chloride Channel (Ca-ClC) proteins (or calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs), are heterogeneous groups of ligand-gated ion channels for chloride that have been identified in many epithelial and endothelial cell types as well as in smooth muscle cells. They include proteins from several structurally different families: chloride channel accessory (CLCA), bestrophin (BEST), and calcium-dependent chloride channel anoctamin (ANO or TMEM16) channels ANO1 is highly expressed in human gastrointestinal interstitial cells of Cajal, which are proteins which serve as intestinal pacemakers for peristalsis. In addition to their role as chloride channels some CLCA proteins function as adhesion molecules and may also have roles as tumour suppressors. These eukaryotic proteins are "required for normal electrolyte and fluid secretion, olfactory perception, and neuronal and smooth muscle excitability" in animals. Members of the Ca-CIC family are generally 600 to 1000 amino acyl residues (aas) in length and exhibit 7 to 10 transmembrane segments (TMSs).
Campylobacter (meaning "curved bacteria") is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria.
Chemotherapy (often abbreviated to chemo and sometimes CTX or CTx) is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx or CT) is protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Chronic diarrhea of infancy, also called toddler's diarrhea, is a common condition typically affecting children between ages 6–30 months, usually resolving by age 4.
Clostridium difficile (etymology and pronunciation), also known as C. difficile, C. diff, or sometimes CDF/cdf, is a species of Gram-positive spore-forming bacterium.
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may occur when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Evidence does not support its use for acute cough suppression in children or adults. In Europe it is not recommended as a cough medicine in those under twelve years of age. It is generally taken by mouth. It typically starts working after half an hour with maximum effect at two hours. The total duration of its effects last for about four to six hours. Common side effects include vomiting, constipation, itchiness, lightheadedness, and drowsiness. Serious side effects may include breathing difficulties and addiction. It is unclear if its use in pregnancy is safe. Care should be used during breastfeeding as it may result in opiate toxicity in the baby. Its use as of 2016 is not recommended in children. Codeine works following being broken down by the liver into morphine. How quickly this occurs depends on a person's genetics. Codeine was discovered in 1832 by Pierre Jean Robiquet. In 2013 about 361,000 kilograms of codeine were produced while 249,000 kilograms were used. This makes it the most commonly taken opiate. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is between 0.04 and 0.29 USD per dose as of 2014. In the United States it costs about one dollar a dose. Codeine occurs naturally and makes up about 2% of opium.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Colestyramine (INN) or cholestyramine (USAN) (trade names Questran, Questran Light, Cholybar, Olestyr) is a bile acid sequestrant, which binds bile in the gastrointestinal tract to prevent its reabsorption.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
In medicine, a contraindication is a condition or factor that serves as a reason to withhold a certain medical treatment due to the harm that it would cause the patient.
Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
Cryptosporidium is a genus of apicomplexan parasitic alveolates that can cause a respiratory and gastrointestinal illness (cryptosporidiosis) that primarily involves watery diarrhea (intestinal cryptosporidiosis) with or without a persistent cough (respiratory cryptosporidiosis) in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient humans.
Cyclospora cayetanensis is a protozoan that causes disease in humans, and perhaps primates.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disorder that affects mostly the lungs, but also the pancreas, liver, kidneys, and intestine.
Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a membrane protein and chloride channel in vertebrates that is encoded by the CFTR gene.
Defecation is the final act of digestion, by which organisms eliminate solid, semisolid, or liquid waste material from the digestive tract via the anus.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Diphenoxylate is a centrally active opioid drug of the phenylpiperidine series that is used in a combination drug with atropine for the treatment of diarrhea.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
Electrolyte imbalance is an abnormality in the concentration of electrolytes in the body.
The use of the English language in most member countries of the Commonwealth of Nations was inherited from British colonisation.
Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic amoebozoan, part of the genus Entamoeba.
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a type of Escherichia coli and one of the leading bacterial causes of diarrhea in the developing world, as well as the most common cause of travelers' diarrhea.
Environmental enteropathy (EE) (also known as tropical enteropathy or environmental enteric dysfunction) is a disorder of chronic intestinal inflammation.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
The epithelial sodium channel (short: eNaC, also: amiloride-sensitive sodium channel) is a membrane-bound ion channel that is selectively permeable to Na+ ions and that is assembled as a heterotrimer composed of three homologous subunits α or δ, β, and γ, These subunits are encoded by four genes: SCNN1A, SCNN1B, SCNN1G, and SCNN1D.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a serotype of the bacterial species Escherichia coli and is one of the Shiga toxin–producing types of E. coli.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
Fever, also known as pyrexia and febrile response, is defined as having a temperature above the normal range due to an increase in the body's temperature set-point.
A food allergy is an abnormal immune response to food.
Food intolerance is a detrimental reaction, often delayed, to a food, beverage, food additive, or compound found in foods that produces symptoms in one or more body organs and systems, but generally refers to reactions other than food allergy.
Fructose malabsorption, formerly named "dietary fructose intolerance" (DFI), is a digestive disorder in which absorption of fructose is impaired by deficient fructose carriers in the small intestine's enterocytes.
Gastroenteritis, also known as infectious diarrhea, is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract -- the stomach and small intestine.
Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
George Christopher Williams (May 12, 1926 – September 8, 2010) was an American evolutionary biologist.
Giardia is a genus of anaerobic flagellated protozoan parasites of the phylum Sarcomastigophora that colonise and reproduce in the small intestines of several vertebrates, causing giardiasis.
Hand washing, also known as hand hygiene, is the act of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing soil, dirt, and microorganisms.
Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine is an American textbook of internal medicine.
Helminths, also commonly known as parasitic worms, are large multicellular parasites, which can generally be seen with the naked eye when they are mature.
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a disease characterized by a triad of hemolytic anemia (anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells), acute kidney failure (uremia), and a low platelet count (thrombocytopenia).
Human feces (or faeces in British English; fæx) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, but has been rotted down by bacteria in the large intestine.
Human waste (or human excreta) is a waste type usually used to refer to byproducts of digestion, such as feces and urine.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Improved sanitation is a term used to categorize types or levels of sanitation for monitoring purposes.
Infant mortality refers to deaths of young children, typically those less than one year of age.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Intravenous therapy (IV) is a therapy that delivers liquid substances directly into a vein (intra- + ven- + -ous).
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
Ischemia or ischaemia is a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen that is needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
Kidney failure, also known as end-stage kidney disease, is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work.
Lactase is an enzyme produced by many organisms.
Lactobacillus is a genus of Gram-positive, facultative anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria.
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
Laxatives, purgatives, or aperients are substances that loosen stools and increase bowel movements.
Loperamide, sold under the brand name Imodium among others, is a medication used to decrease the frequency of diarrhea.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Malabsorption is a state arising from abnormality in absorption of food nutrients across the gastrointestinal (GI) tract.
Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.
Microscopic colitis refers to two related medical conditions which cause diarrhea: collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis.
-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC) is a protein that aids in the active transport of sodium, potassium, and chloride into cells.
Nasogastric intubation is a medical process involving the insertion of a plastic tube (nasogastric tube or NG tube) through the nose, past the throat, and down into the stomach.
Nitazoxanide is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic and broad-spectrum antiviral drug that is used in medicine for the treatment of various helminthic, protozoal, and viral infections.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
Norovirus, sometimes referred to as the winter vomiting bug, is the most common cause of gastroenteritis.
Nursing homes are a type of residential care that provide around-the-clock nursing care for elderly people.
Open defecation is the human practice of defecating outside (in the open environment) rather than into a toilet.
Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) is a type of fluid replacement used to prevent and treat dehydration, especially that due to diarrhea.
Orlistat is a drug designed to treat obesity.
Pallor is a pale color of the skin that can be caused by illness, emotional shock or stress, stimulant use, or anemia, and is the result of a reduced amount of oxyhaemoglobin and is visible in skin conjuctivae or mucous membrane.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
Pedialyte is an oral electrolyte solution manufactured by Abbott Laboratories and marketed for use in children.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Radiation enteropathy or radiation enteritis is a syndrome that may develop following abdominal or pelvic radiation therapy for cancer.
Randolph M. Nesse (born 1948) is an American physician and evolutionary biologist.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhoeal disease among infants and young children.
Rotavirus vaccine is a vaccine used to protect against rotavirus infections.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
A sanitary sewer or "foul sewer" is an underground carriage system specifically for transporting sewage from houses and commercial buildings through pipes to treatment facilities or disposal.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
SeHCAT (23-seleno-25-homotaurocholic acid, selenium homocholic acid taurine, or tauroselcholic acid) is a drug used in a clinical test to diagnose bile acid malabsorption.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli.
Short bowel syndrome (SBS, or simply short gut) is a malabsorption disorder caused by a lack of functional small intestine.
The side effects of penicillin are bodily responses to penicillin and closely related antibiotics that do not relate directly to its effect on bacteria.
Solute carrier family 26, member 3, also known as CLD (chloride anion exchanger), or DRA (downregulated-in-adenoma) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC26A3 gene.
Sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 also known as solute carrier family 5 member 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC5A1 gene.
A soft drink (see terminology for other names) typically contains carbonated water (although some lemonades are not carbonated), a sweetener, and a natural or artificial flavoring.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
The Standard hydrogen electrode (abbreviated SHE), is a redox electrode which forms the basis of the thermodynamic scale of oxidation-reduction potentials.
A stool test involves the collection and analysis of fecal matter to diagnose the presence or absence of a medical condition.
Stunted growth, also known as stunting and nutritional stunting, is a reduced growth rate in human development.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
Therapeutic effect refers to the responses(s) after a treatment of any kind, the results of which are judged to be desirable and beneficial.
A toilet is a piece of hardware used for the collection or disposal of human urine and feces.
Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is a stomach and intestinal infection.
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a long-term condition that results in inflammation and ulcers of the colon and rectum.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
Urination is the release of urine from the urinary bladder through the urethra to the outside of the body.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) or hypovitaminosis A is a lack of vitamin A in blood and tissues.
Vitamin B12, also called cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin that is involved in the metabolism of every cell of the human body: it is a cofactor in DNA synthesis, and in both fatty acid and amino acid metabolism.
Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia, of which pernicious anemia is a type, is a disease in which not enough red blood cells are produced due to a deficiency of vitamin B12.
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
WASH (or Watsan, WaSH) is an acronym that stands for "water, sanitation and hygiene".
Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.
The World Gastroenterology Organisation (WGO) is an international federation of over 100 national GI societies and 4 regional associations of gastroenterology representing over 50,000 individual members.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
Zinc deficiency is defined either as insufficient zinc to meet the needs of the body, or as a serum zinc level below the normal range.
Zinc sulfate is used medically as a dietary supplement.
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