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# Diathermal wall

In thermodynamics, a diathermal wall between two thermodynamic systems allows heat but not matter to pass across it. [1]

In thermodynamics, an adiabatic wall between two thermodynamic systems does not allow heat or matter to pass across it.

## Calorimetry

Calorimetry is the science or act of measuring changes in state variables of a body for the purpose of deriving the heat transfer associated with changes of its state due, for example, to chemical reactions, physical changes, or phase transitions under specified constraints.

## Closed system

A closed system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers (such as transfer of mass and energy transfer) in or out of the system.

## Einstein coefficients

Einstein coefficients are mathematical quantities which are a measure of the probability of absorption or emission of light by an atom or molecule.

## Elsevier

Elsevier is an information and analytics company and one of the world's major providers of scientific, technical, and medical information.

## Emissivity

The emissivity of the surface of a material is its effectiveness in emitting energy as thermal radiation.

## George H. Bryan

George Hartley Bryan FRS (1 March 1864, Cambridge – 13 October 1928, Bordighera) was an English applied mathematician who was an authority on thermodynamics and aeronautics.

## Heat

In thermodynamics, heat is energy transferred from one system to another as a result of thermal interactions.

## Helmholtz reciprocity

The Helmholtz reciprocity principle describes how a ray of light and its reverse ray encounter matched optical adventures, such as reflections, refractions, and absorptions in a passive medium, or at an interface.

## John Gamble Kirkwood

John "Jack" Gamble Kirkwood (May 30, 1907, Gotebo, Oklahoma – August 9, 1959, New Haven, Connecticut) was a noted chemist and physicist, holding faculty positions at Cornell University, the University of Chicago, California Institute of Technology, and Yale University.

## Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation

In heat transfer, Kirchhoff's law of thermal radiation refers to wavelength-specific radiative emission and absorption by a material body in thermodynamic equilibrium, including radiative exchange equilibrium.

## Longman

Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.

## Macroscopic scale

The macroscopic scale is the length scale on which objects or phenomena are large enough to be visible almost practically with the naked eye, without magnifying optical instruments.

## Max Born

Max Born (11 December 1882 – 5 January 1970) was a German physicist and mathematician who was instrumental in the development of quantum mechanics.

## Max Planck

Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, FRS (23 April 1858 &ndash; 4 October 1947) was a German theoretical physicist whose discovery of energy quanta won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.

## Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

## Thermal conduction

Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.

Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.

## Thermodynamic equilibrium

Thermodynamic equilibrium is an axiomatic concept of thermodynamics.

## Thermodynamic system

A thermodynamic system is the material and radiative content of a macroscopic volume in space, that can be adequately described by thermodynamic state variables such as temperature, entropy, internal energy, and pressure.

## Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

## References

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