404 relations: ABC News, Acting President of the United States, Aegis Combat System, African National Congress, Al Gore, Al-Qaeda, American Broadcasting Company, American Enterprise Institute, American exceptionalism, Aneurysm, Angioplasty, Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency, Apartheid, Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs, Atlantic Free Press, Atrial fibrillation, Bachelor of Arts, Back injury, Baghdad, Bagram Airfield, Barack Obama, Barber Conable, Barton Gellman, Basra, Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey, Benjamin Pierce Cheney, Bill Clinton, Blood vessel, Bloomberg Businessweek, Boris Yeltsin, Bosnian War, Brigham Young University, Bud Shuster, Bush v. Gore, C-SPAN, Camp David, Cardiology, Cardiovascular disease, Carl Levin, Casper, Wyoming, Catheter, Cato Institute, CBS News, Center for Constitutional Rights, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Central Intelligence Agency, Centrifugal pump, Chairman of the House Republican Conference, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Charlie Savage, ..., Chicago, Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington, Civil liberties, Class action, CNN, Coalition of the Gulf War, Cold War, Colin Powell, Colonoscopy, Colorado Rockies, Common Dreams, Condoleezza Rice, Conflict of interest, Conscription in the United States, Coors Brewing Company, Coronary artery bypass surgery, Corpus Christi Caller-Times, Corpus Christi Memorial Hospital, Council on Foreign Relations, Coup d'état, Craig L. Thomas, Craig Unger, Daily Mail, Daily Times (Pakistan), Dan Quayle, Daniel Pfeiffer, Darth Vader, David Addington, David J. Lesar, Deep vein thrombosis, Defendant, Democratic Party (United States), Dennis Hastert, Deseret News, Dirksen Senate Office Building, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, District of Columbia v. Heller, Doctorate, Donald J. Atwood Jr., Donald Rumsfeld, Dresser Industries, Drew University, Driving under the influence, Eastern Bloc, Economic sanctions, Effects of global warming on human health, Efforts to impeach Dick Cheney, Egypt, Electrocardiography, Encyclopædia Britannica, Energy Task Force, Enhanced interrogation techniques, Enron, Enron scandal, Exceptional: Why the World Needs a Powerful America, Expressman, Fahd of Saudi Arabia, Felony, FindLaw, First inauguration of Barack Obama, First Presidency (LDS Church), Flash Video, Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act, Foreign policy, Foreign Policy, Fortune 500, Fossil fuel, Frank Carlucci, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Freedom of Information Act (United States), Gallup (company), General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, George H. W. Bush, George Tenet, George W. Bush, George Washington University, George Washington University Hospital, Gerald Ford, Glenn Greenwald, Google News, Governor of Texas, Grand jury, Great Falls, Virginia, Greenhouse gas, Guillermo Endara, Gulf War, H. Bradford Westerfield, Halliburton, Hamilton Jordan, Harper's Magazine, Harry S. Truman, Harry Whittington, HBO, Head Start (program), Heart arrhythmia, Heart failure, Heart transplantation, Helicopter, Hillary Clinton, History News Network, Honorary degree, Hoover Institution, Huguenots, Human Rights Watch, Humanitarian aid, Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, In My Time: A Personal and Political Memoir, Inova Fairfax Hospital, Inova Health System, Internet Archive, Invasion of Kuwait, Iran, Iran–Contra affair, Iraq, Iraq War, Iraqi Army, Islamism, Jack Kemp, James G. Watt, Jefferson Awards for Public Service, Jerry Lewis (California politician), Jewish Institute for National Security of America, Joe Biden, Joe Lieberman, John Edwards, John Kerry, John McCain, John P. Hannah, John Tower, Judicial Watch, Kenedy County, Texas, Kingsville, Texas, Kuwait City, Lahore, Lawrence Wilkerson, Lawyer, Leon Panetta, Les Aspin, LGM-118 Peacekeeper, Lincoln Public Schools, Lincoln, Nebraska, List of heads of state of Panama, List of United States Representatives from Wyoming, List of United States Republican Party presidential tickets, List of Vice Presidents of the United States, Liz Cheney, Lubbock Avalanche-Journal, Lynne Cheney, MailOnline, Manuel Noriega, Mareen Duvall, Martha Raddatz, Martin Luther King Jr., Martin Luther King Jr. Day, Mary Cheney, Master of Arts, McDonnell Douglas A-12 Avenger II, McLean, Virginia, Medical imaging, Memoir, Mickey Edwards, Mikhail Gorbachev, Military.com, Miniseries, Mitt Romney, MSNBC, Myocardial infarction, National Archives and Records Administration, National Endowment for the Humanities, National Journal, National Military Command Center, National Park Service, National Press Club (United States), National Security Archive, NATO, Natrona County High School, NBC News, Nelson Mandela, New York Daily News, Newsweek, Newt Gingrich, Norman Schwarzkopf Jr., North Korea, Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit, Northwest Airlines Flight 253, NSA warrantless surveillance (2001–2007), Office of Economic Opportunity, Oklahoma, On the Issues, Operation Ivy Bells, Opposition to the Iraq War, Osama bin Laden, Panama, Panamanian Public Forces, Pardon, Party leaders of the United States House of Representatives, Patrick Fitzgerald, Paul Wolfowitz, PBS, Perjury, Persian Gulf, Pete Williams (journalist), Philip Perry, PinkNews, Political science, Politico, Popliteal artery, Presidency of Barack Obama, Presidency of Bill Clinton, Presidency of George W. Bush, Presidency of Gerald Ford, Presidency of Ronald Reagan, President of Iraq, President of Russia, Presidential Medal of Freedom, Presidential Records Act, Princeton, New Jersey, Pulitzer Prize, Pulse, Pundit, Quail, Racket (crime), Republican Party (United States), Richard A. Clarke, Richard Armitage (naval officer), Richard Nixon, Robert H. Michel, Rolling Stone, Ronald Reagan, Russia, Saddam Hussein, Salon (website), Same-sex marriage, Same-sex marriage in the United States, Sarah Palin, Saudi Arabia, Scooter Libby, Sean Hannity, Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, September 11 attacks, Sexual orientation, Seymour Hersh, Showtime (TV network), Slate (magazine), Smithsonian Institution, Somali Civil War, Somalia, Sourcebooks, States' rights, Steering and Policy Committees of the United States House of Representatives, Stent, Stephen L. Johnson, Strain (injury), Sumner, Nebraska, Supreme Court of the United States, Surname, Syria, Taliban, Tea Party movement, Teno Roncalio, Texas, The American Lawyer, The American Prospect, The Atlantic, The Boston Globe, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, The Daily Beast, The Guardian, The McClatchy Company, The New Republic, The New York Times, The New Yorker, The Smoking Gun, The Wall Street Journal, The Washington Post, The Weekly Standard, This Week (ABC TV series), Thomas H. Cruikshank, Time (magazine), Tobacco smoking, Torture, Trent Lott, Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Twenty-fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution, U.S. News & World Report, Ultrasound, Under Secretary of Defense for Policy, Unified Task Force, United Methodist Church, United Nations Security Council, United States Army, United States Central Command, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Commerce, United States Department of Defense, United States Department of Education, United States Department of Homeland Security, United States Department of Justice, United States Deputy Secretary of Defense, United States District Court for the District of Columbia, United States Environmental Protection Agency, United States House Committee on Armed Services, United States House of Representatives, United States House of Representatives Republican Conference, United States invasion of Panama, United States Naval Observatory, United States order of precedence, United States presidential election, 1976, United States presidential election, 1992, United States presidential election, 2000, United States presidential election, 2004, United States presidential election, 2008, United States Secret Service, United States Secretary of Defense, United States Secretary of State, United States Secretary of the Interior, United States Senate, University of Wisconsin–Madison, University of Wyoming, USA Today, Valerie Plame, Vanity Fair (magazine), Ventricle (heart), Ventricular assist device, Vice President of the United States, Vietnam War, Virginia, Wall Street, War in Afghanistan (2001–present), War on Terror, War Powers Resolution, Warsaw Pact, Washington, D.C., Waterboarding, Watergate scandal, Weapon of mass destruction, Welsh Americans, West Wing, White House, White House Chief of Staff, White House Communications Director, Whitehouse.gov, William A. Steiger, William P. Clark Jr., William Perry, William Tecumseh Sherman, Woodburn, Fairfax County, Virginia, World War II, Wyoming, Wyoming's at-large congressional district, Yahoo! News, Yale University, 2014 pro-Russian unrest in Ukraine, 9/11 Commission. Expand index (354 more) » « Shrink index
ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
The Acting President of the United States is a post that was created after the adoption of the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution on January 23, 1933, but it was further defined by the Twenty-fifth Amendment on February 10, 1967.
The Aegis Combat System is an American integrated naval weapons system developed by the Missile and Surface Radar Division of RCA, and now produced by Lockheed Martin.
The African National Congress (ANC) is the Republic of South Africa's governing political party.
Albert Arnold Gore Jr. (born March 31, 1948) is an American politician and environmentalist who served as the 45th Vice President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
The American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, known simply as the American Enterprise Institute (AEI), is a conservative think tank based in Washington, D.C. which researches government, politics, economics and social welfare.
American exceptionalism is an ideology holding the United States as unique among nations in positive or negative connotations, with respect to its ideas of democracy and personal freedom.
An aneurysm is a localized, abnormal, weak spot on a blood vessel wall that causes an outward bulging, likened to a bubble or balloon.
Angioplasty, also known as balloon angioplasty and percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), is a minimally invasive, endovascular procedure to widen narrowed or obstructed arteries or veins, typically to treat arterial atherosclerosis.
Angler: The Cheney Vice Presidency is a book by Washington Post investigative reporter Barton Gellman, published in 2008.
Apartheid started in 1948 in theUnion of South Africa |year_start.
The Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs, or ATSD(PA), is the principal staff advisor and assistant to the Secretary of Defense and Deputy Secretary of Defense for public information, internal information, community relations, information training, and audiovisual matters in support of Department of Defense activities, leading a worldwide public affairs community of some 3,800 military and civilian personnel.
Atlantic Free Press, an online political website, was founded in September 2006 by Publisher Richard Kastelein of V.O.F. Expathos, in Groningen, Netherlands and published over 13,000 articles from over 250 progressive writers worldwide until its closing in October 2011.
Atrial fibrillation (AF or A-fib) is an abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria.
A Bachelor of Arts (BA or AB, from the Latin baccalaureus artium or artium baccalaureus) is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both.
Back injuries result from damage, wear, or trauma to the bones, muscles, or other tissues of the back.
Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.
Bagram Airfield also known as Bagram Air Base is the largest U.S. military base in Afghanistan.
Barack Hussein Obama II (born August 4, 1961) is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from January 20, 2009, to January 20, 2017.
Barber Benjamin Conable Jr. (November 2, 1922 – November 30, 2003) was a U.S. Congressman from New York and former President of the World Bank Group.
Barton David Gellman (born 1960) is an American journalist and bestselling author known for his reports on the September 11 attacks, on Dick Cheney's vice presidency and on the global surveillance disclosure.
Basra (البصرة al-Baṣrah), is an Iraqi city located on the Shatt al-Arab between Kuwait and Iran.
The Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey is an American multi-mission, tiltrotor military aircraft with both vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL), and short takeoff and landing (STOL) capabilities.
Benjamin Pierce Cheney (August 12, 1815 – July 23, 1895) was an American businessman, and a founder of the firm that became American Express.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Bloomberg Businessweek is an American weekly business magazine published by Bloomberg L.P. Businessweek was founded in 1929.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
The Bosnian War was an international armed conflict that took place in Bosnia and Herzegovina between 1992 and 1995.
Brigham Young University (BYU, sometimes referred to colloquially as The Y) is a private, non-profit research university in Provo, Utah, United States completely owned by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormon Church) and run under the auspices of its Church Educational System.
Elmer Greinert "Bud" Shuster (born January 23, 1932) is an American politician who represented Pennsylvania in the United States House of Representatives as a Republican from 1973 to 2001.
Bush v. Gore,, was a decision of the United States Supreme Court that settled a recount dispute in Florida's 2000 presidential election.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
Camp David is the country retreat for the President of the United States.
Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Carl Milton Levin (born June 28, 1934) is an American attorney and retired politician who served as a United States Senator from Michigan from 1979 - 2015.
Casper is a city in and the county seat of Natrona County, Wyoming, United States.
In medicine, a catheter is a thin tube made from medical grade materials serving a broad range of functions.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
The Center for Constitutional Rights.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is the leading national public health institute of the United States.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Centrifugal pumps are a sub-class of dynamic axisymmetric work-absorbing turbomachinery.
This is a list of Republican Conference Chairmen of the United States House of Representatives.
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is, by U.S. law, the highest-ranking and senior-most military officer in the United States Armed Forces 10 USC 152.
Charlie Savage is an author and newspaper reporter in Washington, D.C., with The New York Times. In 2007, when employed by The Boston Globe, he was a recipient of the Pulitzer Prize.
Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.
Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington (CREW) is a nonprofit 501(c)(3) and nonpartisan U.S. government ethics and accountability watchdog organization.
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.
A class action, class suit, or representative action is a type of lawsuit where one of the parties is a group of people who are represented collectively by a member of that group.
Cable News Network (CNN) is an American basic cable and satellite television news channel and an independent subsidiary of AT&T's WarnerMedia.
Below is the American-led coalition against the Iraqi government in the 1990s.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colin Luther Powell (born April 5, 1937) is an American statesman and a retired four-star general in the United States Army.
Colonoscopy or coloscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large bowel and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus.
The Colorado Rockies are an American professional baseball team based in Denver, Colorado.
Common Dreams NewsCenter, often referred to simply as Common Dreams, is a 501(c)3 nonprofit U.S.-based progressive news website.
Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is an American political scientist and diplomat.
A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization is involved in multiple interests, financial or otherwise, and serving one interest could involve working against another.
Conscription in the United States, commonly known as the draft, has been employed by the federal government of the United States in five conflicts: the American Revolution, the American Civil War, World War I, World War II, and the Cold War (including both the Korean War and the Vietnam War).
The Coors Brewing Company is a regional division of the world's third-largest brewing company, the Molson Coors Brewing Company.
Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery.
The Corpus Christi Caller-Times is the newspaper of record for Corpus Christi, Texas.
Corpus Christi Memorial Hospital is a hospital in Corpus Christi, Texas.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR), founded in 1921, is a United States nonprofit think tank specializing in U.S. foreign policy and international affairs.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Craig Lyle Thomas (February 17, 1933 – June 4, 2007) was an American politician who served as United States Senator from Wyoming from 1995 to 2007.
Craig Unger is an American journalist and writer.
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust and published in London.
The Daily Times (DT) is an English-language Pakistani newspaper.
James Danforth "Dan" Quayle (born February 4, 1947) is an American politician and lawyer who served as the 44th Vice President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
Howard Daniel Pfeiffer (born December 24, 1975) is an American activist, podcaster, and former Senior Advisor to U.S. President Barack Obama for Strategy and Communications.
Darth Vader (birth name Anakin Skywalker) is a fictional character in the Star Wars franchise.
David Spears Addington (born January 22, 1957) is an American lawyer, who was legal counsel (2001–2005) and Chief of Staff (2005–2009) to Vice President Dick Cheney.
David John Lesar (born May 30, 1953) is an American businessman who is the Chairman of Halliburton Energy Services.
Deep vein thrombosis (DVT), is the formation of a blood clot in a deep vein, most commonly the legs.
A defendant is a person accused of committing a crime in criminal prosecution or a person against whom some type of civil relief is being sought in a civil case.
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party (nicknamed the GOP for Grand Old Party).
John Dennis Hastert (born January 2, 1942) is a former American congressman who served as the 51st Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1999 to 2007, representing from 1987 to 2007.
The Deseret News is a newspaper published in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
The Dirksen Senate Office Building is the second office building constructed for members of the United States Senate in Washington, D.C., and was named for the late Minority Leader Everett Dirksen from Illinois in 1972.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008), is a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to possess a firearm unconnected with service in a militia for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self-defense within the home, and that Washington, D.C.'s handgun ban and requirement that lawfully-owned rifles and shotguns be kept "unloaded and disassembled or bound by a trigger lock" violated this guarantee.
A doctorate (from Latin docere, "to teach") or doctor's degree (from Latin doctor, "teacher") or doctoral degree (from the ancient formalism licentia docendi) is an academic degree awarded by universities that is, in most countries, a research degree that qualifies the holder to teach at the university level in the degree's field, or to work in a specific profession.
Donald Jesse Atwood Jr. (May 25, 1924 – April 24, 1994) was appointed Deputy Secretary of Defense for U.S. President George H. W. Bush in 1989.
Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a retired American political figure and businessman.
Dresser Industries was a multinational corporation headquartered in Dallas, Texas, United States, which provided a wide range of technology, products, and services used for developing energy and natural resources.
Drew University is a private university in Madison, New Jersey.
Driving under the influence (DUI), driving while impaired/driving while intoxicated (DWI), operating while intoxicated (OWI), or drink-driving (UK) is currently the crime or offense of driving or operating a motor vehicle while impaired by alcohol or other drugs (including recreational drugs and those prescribed by physicians), to a level that renders the driver incapable of operating a motor vehicle safely.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
The effects of global warming include its effects on human health.
In April 2007, United States Representative Dennis Kucinich (D-Ohio) filed an impeachment resolution against Vice President Dick Cheney, seeking his trial in the Senate on three charges.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
The Energy Task Force, officially the National Energy Policy Development Group (NEPDG), was a task force created by then-U.S. President George W. Bush in 2001 during his second week in office.
"Enhanced interrogation techniques" or "enhanced interrogation" is a euphemism for the U.S. government's program of systematic torture of detainees by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and various components of the U.S. Armed Forces at black sites around the world, including Bagram, Guantanamo Bay, and Abu Ghraib, authorized by officials of the George W. Bush administration.
Enron Corporation was an American energy, commodities, and services company based in Houston, Texas.
The Enron scandal was a financial scandal that eventually led to the bankruptcy of the Enron Corporation, an American energy company based in Houston, Texas, and the de facto dissolution of Arthur Andersen, which was one of the five largest audit and accountancy partnerships in the world.
Exceptional: Why the World Needs a Powerful America is a 2015 book on American foreign policy co-authored by Dick Cheney, who served as the 46th Vice President of the United States from 2001 to 2009, and his daughter, Liz Cheney, a former official of the United States Department of State.
An expressman (pl. expressmen) refers to anyone who has the duty of packing, managing, and ensuring the delivery of any cargo.
Fahd bin Abdulaziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques (فهد بن عبد العزيز آل سعود; 16 March 1921 – 1 August 2005) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1982 to 2005.
The term felony, in some common law countries, is defined as a serious crime.
FindLaw is a business of Thomson Reuters that provides online legal information and online marketing services for law firms.
The first inauguration of Barack Obama as the 44th President of the United States took place on Tuesday, January 20, 2009.
The First Presidency, also called the Quorum of the Presidency of the ChurchDoctrine and Covenants.
Flash Video is a container file format used to deliver digital video content (e.g., TV shows, movies, etc.) over the Internet using Adobe Flash Player version 6 and newer.
The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978 ("FISA") is a United States federal law which establishes procedures for the physical and electronic surveillance and collection of "foreign intelligence information" between "foreign powers" and "agents of foreign powers" suspected of espionage or terrorism.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
Foreign Policy is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy.
The Fortune 500 is an annual list compiled and published by Fortune magazine that ranks 500 of the largest United States corporations by total revenue for their respective fiscal years.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
Frank Charles Carlucci III (October 18, 1930 – June 3, 2018) was an American politician and diplomat who served as the United States Secretary of Defense from 1987 to 1989 in the administration of President Ronald Reagan.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA),, is a federal freedom of information law that allows for the full or partial disclosure of previously unreleased information and documents controlled by the United States government.
Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) is an American politician who served as the 41st President of the United States from 1989 to 1993.
George John Tenet (born January 5, 1953) is a former Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) for the United States Central Intelligence Agency as well as a Distinguished Professor in the Practice of Diplomacy at Georgetown University.
George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
The George Washington University Hospital is located in Washington, D.C. in the United States.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.
Glenn Edward Greenwald (born March 6, 1967) is an American lawyer, journalist, and author, best known for his role in a series of reports published by The Guardian newspaper beginning in June 2013, detailing the United States and British global surveillance programs, and based on classified documents disclosed by Edward Snowden.
Google News is a news aggregator and app developed by Google.
The Governor of Texas is the head of the executive branch of Texas's government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces.
A grand jury is a legal body empowered to conduct official proceedings and investigate potential criminal conduct, and determine whether criminal charges should be brought.
Great Falls is a census-designated place (CDP) in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States.
A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.
Guillermo David Endara Galimany (May 12, 1936 – September 28, 2009) was President of Panama from 1989 to 1994.
The Gulf War (2 August 199028 February 1991), codenamed Operation Desert Shield (2 August 199017 January 1991) for operations leading to the buildup of troops and defense of Saudi Arabia and Operation Desert Storm (17 January 199128 February 1991) in its combat phase, was a war waged by coalition forces from 35 nations led by the United States against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.
Holt Bradford Westerfield (March 7, 1928 – January 19, 2008) was a Damon Wells Professor of International Studies and professor of political science at Yale University.
Halliburton is an American multinational corporation.
William Hamilton McWhorter Jordan (September 21, 1944 – May 20, 2008) was Chief of Staff to President of the United States Jimmy Carter.
Harper's Magazine (also called Harper's) is a monthly magazine of literature, politics, culture, finance, and the arts.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
Harry M. Whittington (born March 3, 1927) is an American lawyer, real estate investor, and political figure from Austin, Texas who received international media attention on February 11, 2006, when he was shot by Vice President Dick Cheney while hunting quail with two women on a ranch in Kenedy County, Texas, near Corpus Christi.
Home Box Office (HBO) is an American premium cable and satellite television network of Home Box Office, Inc..
Head Start is a program of the United States Department of Health and Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education, health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income children and their families.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
A heart transplant, or a cardiac transplant, is a surgical transplant procedure performed on patients with end-stage heart failure or severe coronary artery disease when other medical or surgical treatments have failed.
A helicopter is a type of rotorcraft in which lift and thrust are supplied by rotors.
Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton (born October 26, 1947) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001, U.S. Senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, 67th United States Secretary of State from 2009 to 2013, and the Democratic Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2016 election.
History News Network (HNN) at George Washington University is a platform for historians writing about current events.
An honorary degree, in Latin a degree honoris causa ("for the sake of the honor") or ad honorem ("to the honor"), is an academic degree for which a university (or other degree-awarding institution) has waived the usual requirements, such as matriculation, residence, a dissertation and the passing of comprehensive examinations.
The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.
Huguenots (Les huguenots) are an ethnoreligious group of French Protestants who follow the Reformed tradition.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Humanitarian aid is material and logistic assistance to people who need help.
An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) is a device implantable inside the body, able to perform cardioversion, defibrillation, and (in modern versions) pacing of the heart.
In My Time: A Personal and Political Memoir is a memoir written by former Vice President of the United States Dick Cheney with Elizabeth Cheney.
Inova Fairfax Hospital is the largest hospital in Northern Virginia and the flagship hospital of Inova Health System.
Inova Health System is a non-profit health organization based in Falls Church, Virginia, near Washington, D.C. The system is a network of hospitals, outpatient services, assisted living and long-term care facilities, and healthcare centers.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
The Invasion of Kuwait on 2 August 1990 was a 2-day operation conducted by Iraq against the neighboring state of Kuwait, which resulted in the seven-month-long Iraqi occupation of the country.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iran–Contra affair (ماجرای ایران-کنترا, caso Irán-Contra), also referred to as Irangate, Contragate or the Iran–Contra scandal, was a political scandal in the United States that occurred during the second term of the Reagan Administration.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
The Iraqi Army, officially the Iraqi Ground Forces, is the ground force component of the Iraqi Armed Forces, having been active in various incarnations throughout the 20th and 21st centuries.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
Jack French Kemp (July 13, 1935 – May 2, 2009) was an American politician and a professional gridiron football player.
James Gaius Watt (born January 31, 1938) served as U.S. Secretary of the Interior from 1981 to 1983.
The Jefferson Awards Foundation was created in 1972 by the American Institute for Public Service.
Charles Jeremy Lewis (born October 21, 1934) is an American politician who was a U.S. Representative, last serving.
The Jewish Institute for National Security of America (JINSA) is a Washington, D.C.-based pro-Israel non-profit think-tank.
Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. (born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who served as the 47th Vice President of the United States from 2009 to 2017.
Joseph Isadore Lieberman (born February 24, 1942) is an American politician and attorney who was a United States Senator for Connecticut from 1989 to 2013.
Johnny Reid "John" Edwards (born June 10, 1953) is an American lawyer and former politician who served as a U.S. Senator from North Carolina.
John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is an American politician who served as the 68th United States Secretary of State from 2013 to 2017.
John Sidney McCain III (born August 29, 1936) is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Arizona, a seat he was first elected to in 1986.
John Peter Hannah (born January 5, 1962) is a senior counselor at Foundation for Defense of Democracies, and a senior advisor to Chairman Ron Wahid of Arcanum, a global strategic intelligence company and a subsidiary of Magellan Investment Holdings.
John Goodwin Tower (September 29, 1925 – April 5, 1991) was the first Republican United States Senator from Texas since Reconstruction.
Judicial Watch (JW) is an American conservative activist group and self-styled watchdog group that files Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) lawsuits to investigate alleged misconduct by government officials.
Kenedy County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas.
Kingsville is a city in the southern region of the U.S. state of Texas.
Kuwait City (مدينة الكويت) is the capital and largest city of Kuwait.
Lahore (لاہور, لہور) is the capital city of the Pakistani province of Punjab, and is the country’s second-most populous city after Karachi.
Lawrence B. "Larry" Wilkerson (born 15 June 1945) is a retired United States Army Colonel and former chief of staff to United States Secretary of State Colin Powell.
A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney, attorney at law, barrister, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor at law, or solicitor, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary.
Leon Edward Panetta (born June 28, 1938) is an American politician who has served in several different public office positions, such as Secretary of Defense, Director of the CIA, White House Chief of Staff, Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and as a U.S. Representative from California.
Leslie "Les" Aspin Jr. (July 21, 1938 – May 21, 1995) was a United States Representative from 1971 to 1993, and the United States Secretary of Defense under President Bill Clinton from January 21, 1993 to February 3, 1994.
The LGM-118 Peacekeeper, also known as the MX missile (for Missile-eXperimental), was a land-based ICBM deployed by the United States starting in 1986.
Lincoln Public Schools is the second largest public school district in Nebraska, located in the heart of the plains, renowned for its long-standing legacy of educational excellence and tradition of rigorous academic achievement.
Lincoln is the capital of the U.S. state of Nebraska and the county seat of Lancaster County.
This article lists the heads of state of Panama since the short-lived first independence from the Republic of New Granada in 1840 and the final separation from Colombia in 1903.
The following is an alphabetical list of members of the United States House of Representatives from the state of Wyoming.
This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States of the Republican Party of the United States.
There have been 48 Vice Presidents of the United States since the office came into existence in 1789.
Elizabeth Lynne Cheney Perry (born July 28, 1966) is an American attorney and politician serving as the U.S. Representative for since 2017.
Lubbock Avalanche-Journal is a newspaper based in Lubbock, Texas, United States.
Lynne Ann Cheney (née Vincent; born August 14, 1941) is an American author, scholar, and former talk-show host.
MailOnline (also known as dailymail.co.uk) is the website of the Daily Mail, a newspaper in the United Kingdom, and of its sister paper The Mail on Sunday.
Manuel Antonio Noriega Moreno (February 11, 1934 – May 29, 2017) was a Panamanian politician and military officer who was the de facto ruler of Panama from 1983 to 1989.
Mareen Duvall (1625–1699) was a French Huguenot and an early American settler.
Martha Raddatz (born February 14, 1953) is an American reporter with ABC News.
Martin Luther King Jr. (January 15, 1929 – April 4, 1968) was an American Baptist minister and activist who became the most visible spokesperson and leader in the civil rights movement from 1954 until his death in 1968.
Martin Luther King Jr.
Mary Claire Cheney (born March 14, 1969) is the second daughter of Dick Cheney, the former Vice President of the United States, and his wife, Lynne Cheney.
A Master of Arts (Magister Artium; abbreviated MA; also Artium Magister, abbreviated AM) is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech.
The McDonnell Douglas/General Dynamics A-12 Avenger II was a proposed American attack aircraft from McDonnell Douglas and General Dynamics.
McLean is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) in Fairfax County in Northern Virginia.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
A memoir (US: /ˈmemwɑːr/; from French: mémoire: memoria, meaning memory or reminiscence) is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or events, both public or private, that took place in the subject's life.
Marvin Henry "Mickey" Edwards (born July 12, 1937) is a former Republican congressman who served Oklahoma's 5th congressional district from 1977 to 1993.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Military.com is a website that provides news and information about benefits to military members, veterans, their families and those with military affinity.
A miniseries (or mini-series, also known as a serial in the UK) is a television program that tells a story in a predetermined, limited number of episodes.
Willard Mitt Romney (born March 12, 1947) is an American businessman and politician who served as the 70th Governor of Massachusetts from 2003 to 2007 and was the Republican Party's nominee for President of the United States in the 2012 election.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.
The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the U.S. government, established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965, dedicated to supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities.
National Journal is a research and advisory services company based in Washington, D.C. offering services in government affairs, advocacy communications and policy brands research for government and business leaders.
The National Military Command Center (NMCC) is a Pentagon command and communications center for the National Command Authority (i.e., the President of the United States and the United States Secretary of Defense).
The National Park Service (NPS) is an agency of the United States federal government that manages all national parks, many national monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations.
The National Press Club is a professional organization and business center for journalists and communications professionals.
The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-governmental, non-profit research and archival institution located on the campus of the George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 to check rising government secrecy, the National Security Archive is an investigative journalism center, open government advocate, international affairs research institute, and is the largest repository of declassified U.S. documents outside the federal government.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Natrona County High School (NCHS) is a public secondary school (grades 9–12) located in Casper, Wyoming, United States.
NBC News is the news division of the American broadcast television network NBC, formerly known as the National Broadcasting Company when it was founded on radio.
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela (18 July 1918 – 5 December 2013) was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist, who served as President of South Africa from 1994 to 1999.
The New York Daily News, officially titled Daily News, is an American newspaper based in New York City.
Newsweek is an American weekly magazine founded in 1933.
Newton Leroy Gingrich (né McPherson; born June 17, 1943) is an American politician and author, born in Pennsylvania, later representing Georgia in Congress, and ultimately serving as 50th Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from 1995 to 1999.
Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. (August 22, 1934 – December 27, 2012) was a United States Army general.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
The Northrop (later Northrop Grumman) B-2 Spirit, also known as the Stealth Bomber, is an American heavy penetration strategic bomber, featuring low observable stealth technology designed for penetrating dense anti-aircraft defenses; it is a flying wing design with a crew of two.
Northwest Airlines Flight 253 was an international passenger flight from Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in Haarlemmermeer, Netherlands, to Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport in Romulus, Michigan, United States.
NSA warrantless surveillance (also commonly referred to as "warrantless-wiretapping" or "-wiretaps") refers to the surveillance of persons within the United States, including United States citizens, during the collection of notionally foreign intelligence by the National Security Agency (NSA) as part of the Terrorist Surveillance Program.
The Office of Economic Opportunity was the agency responsible for administering most of the War on Poverty programs created as part of United States President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society legislative agenda.
Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.
On the Issues or OnTheIssues is an American non-partisan, non-profit organization providing information to voters about candidates, primarily via their web site.
Operation Ivy Bells was a joint United States Navy, CIA, and National Security Agency (NSA) mission whose objective was to place wire taps on Soviet underwater communication lines during the Cold War.
Significant opposition to the Iraq War occurred worldwide, both before and during the initial 2003 invasion of Iraq by the United States, United Kingdom, and smaller contingents from other nations, and throughout the subsequent occupation.
Usama ibn Mohammed ibn Awad ibn Ladin (أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن), often anglicized as Osama bin Laden (March 10, 1957 – May 2, 2011), was a founder of, the organization responsible for the September 11 attacks in the United States and many other mass-casualty attacks worldwide.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
The Panamanian Public Forces (Fuerza Pública de la República de Panamá) are the national security forces of Panama.
A pardon is a government decision to allow a person to be absolved of guilt for an alleged crime or other legal offense, as if the act never occurred.
Party leaders and whips of the United States House of Representatives, also known as floor leaders, are elected by their respective parties in a closed-door caucus by secret ballot.
Patrick J. Fitzgerald (born December 22, 1960) is an American lawyer and partner at the law firm of Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom since October 2012.
Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is an American political scientist and diplomat who served as the 10th President of the World Bank, United States Ambassador to Indonesia, U.S. Deputy Secretary of Defense, and former dean of the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Perjury is the intentional act of swearing a false oath or falsifying an affirmation to tell the truth, whether spoken or in writing, concerning matters a generation material to an official proceeding.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Louis Alan "Pete" Williams (born February 28, 1952) is an American journalist and former government official.
Philip J. Perry (born October 16, 1964) is an American attorney and was a political appointee in the administration of George W. Bush.
PinkNews is a UK-based online newspaper marketed to the lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender community (LGBT).
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Politico, known earlier as The Politico, is an American political journalism company based in Arlington County, Virginia, that covers politics and policy in the United States and internationally.
The popliteal artery is a deeply placed continuation of the femoral artery after it passes through the adductor hiatus, or opening in the distal portion of the adductor magnus muscle.
The presidency of Barack Obama began at noon EST on January 20, 2009, when Barack Obama was inaugurated as 44th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2017.
The presidency of Bill Clinton began at noon EST on January 20, 1993, when Bill Clinton was inaugurated as 42nd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2001.
The presidency of George W. Bush began at noon EST on January 20, 2001, when George W. Bush was inaugurated as 43rd President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 2009.
The presidency of Gerald Ford began on August 9, 1974, when Gerald Ford became President of the United States upon the resignation of Richard Nixon from office, and ended on January 20, 1977, a period of days.
The presidency of Ronald Reagan began at noon EST on January 20, 1981, when Ronald Reagan was inaugurated as 40th President of the United States, and ended on January 20, 1989.
The President of Iraq is the head of state of Iraq and "safeguards the commitment to the Constitution and the preservation of Iraq's independence, sovereignty, unity, the security of its territories in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution".
The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.
The Presidential Medal of Freedom is an award bestowed by the President of the United States and is—along with the comparable Congressional Gold Medal—the highest civilian award of the United States.
The Presidential Records Act (PRA) of 1978,, is an Act of Congress of the United States governing the official records of Presidents and Vice Presidents created or received after January 20, 1981, and mandating the preservation of all presidential records.
Princeton is a municipality with a borough form of government in Mercer County, New Jersey, United States, that was established in its current form on January 1, 2013, through the consolidation of the Borough of Princeton and Princeton Township.
The Pulitzer Prize is an award for achievements in newspaper, magazine and online journalism, literature, and musical composition in the United States.
In medicine, a pulse represents the tactile arterial palpation of the heartbeat by trained fingertips.
A pundit is a person who offers to mass media his or her opinion or commentary on a particular subject area (most typically political analysis, the social sciences, technology or sport) on which he or she is knowledgeable (or can at least appear to be knowledgeable), or considered a scholar in said area.
Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized birds generally placed in the order Galliformes.
A racket is a planned or organized criminal act, usually in which the criminal act is a form of business or a way to earn illegal or extorted money regularly or briefly but repeatedly.
The Republican Party, also referred to as the GOP (abbreviation for Grand Old Party), is one of the two major political parties in the United States, the other being its historic rival, the Democratic Party.
Richard Alan Clarke (born October 27, 1950) is the former National Coordinator for Security, Infrastructure Protection and Counter-terrorism for the United States.
Richard Lee Armitage (born April 26, 1945) is an American former naval officer who served three combat tours of duty in the Vietnam War as an advisor in contexts of riverine warfare.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Robert Henry 'Bob' Michel (pronounced "Michael"; March 2, 1923 – February 17, 2017) was an American Republican Party politician who was a member of the United States House of Representatives for 38 years.
Rolling Stone is an American monthly magazine that focuses on popular culture.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
Salon is an American news and opinion website, created by David Talbot in 1995 and currently owned by the Salon Media Group.
Same-sex marriage (also known as gay marriage) is the marriage of a same-sex couple, entered into in a civil or religious ceremony.
Same-sex marriage in the United States was initially established on a state-by-state basis, expanding from 1 state in 2004 to 36 states in 2015, when, on June 26, 2015, same-sex marriage was established in all 50 states as a result of the ruling of the Supreme Court of the United States in the landmark civil rights case of Obergefell v. Hodges, in which it was held that the right of same-sex couples to marry on the same terms and conditions as opposite-sex couples, with all the accompanying rights and responsibilities, is guaranteed by both the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.
Sarah Louise Palin (née Heath; born February 11, 1964) is an American politician, commentator, author, and reality television personality, who served as the ninth Governor of Alaska from 2006 until her resignation in 2009.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
Sean Patrick Hannity (born December 30, 1961) is an American talk show host and conservative political commentator.
The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms and was adopted on December 15, 1791, as part of the first ten amendments contained in the Bill of Rights.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender.
Seymour Myron "Sy" Hersh (born April 8, 1937) is an American investigative journalist and political writer based in Washington, D.C. He is a longtime contributor to The New Yorker magazine on national security matters and has also written for the London Review of Books since 2013.
Showtime is an American premium cable and satellite television network that serves as the flagship service of the Showtime Networks subsidiary of CBS Corporation, which also owns sister services The Movie Channel and Flix.
Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
The Somali Civil War (Dagaalkii Sokeeye ee Soomaaliya, الحرب الأهلية الصومالية) is an ongoing civil war taking place in Somalia.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
Sourcebooks, Inc., is an independent book publisher founded by Dominique Raccah located in Naperville, Illinois, in the western suburbs of Chicago.
In American political discourse, states' rights are political powers held for the state governments rather than the federal government according to the United States Constitution, reflecting especially the enumerated powers of Congress and the Tenth Amendment.
In the United States House of Representatives, the two major political parties maintain policy and steering committees.
In medicine, a stent is a metal or plastic tube inserted into the lumen of an anatomic vessel or duct to keep the passageway open, and stenting is the placement of a stent.
Stephen Lee Johnson (born March 21, 1951) was the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under President George W. Bush during the second term of his administration.
A strain (also known colloquially as a pulled muscle or torn muscle) is an acute or chronic soft tissue injury that occurs to a muscle, tendon, or both (contractile components).
Sumner is a village in Dawson County, Nebraska, United States.
The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Taliban (طالبان "students"), alternatively spelled Taleban, which refers to itself as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan (IEA), is a Sunni Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan currently waging war (an insurgency, or jihad) within that country.
The Tea Party movement is an American conservative movement within the Republican Party.
Teno Roncalio (March 23, 1916 – March 30, 2003) was a Democratic politician from Wyoming who served in the United States House of Representatives from 1965 to 1967, and again from 1971 until 1978.
Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.
The American Lawyer is a monthly law magazine published by ALM.
The American Prospect is a daily online and quarterly print American political and public policy magazine dedicated to American liberalism and progressivism.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Boston Globe (sometimes abbreviated as The Globe) is an American daily newspaper founded and based in Boston, Massachusetts, since its creation by Charles H. Taylor in 1872.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The Daily Beast is an American news and opinion website focused on politics and pop culture.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The McClatchy Company is a publicly traded American publishing company based in Sacramento, California.
The New Republic is a liberal American magazine of commentary on politics and the arts, published since 1914, with influence on American political and cultural thinking.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The Smoking Gun is a website that posts legal documents, arrest records, and police mugshots on a daily basis.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
The Weekly Standard is an American conservative opinion magazine published 48 times per year.
This Week, currently billed as This Week with George Stephanopoulos, is an American Sunday morning political affairs program airing on the ABC television network.
Thomas H. Cruikshank was chairman and CEO of Halliburton Energy Services from 1989 to 1995.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Tobacco smoking is the practice of smoking tobacco and inhaling tobacco smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases).
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Chester Trent Lott Sr. (born October 9, 1941) is an American politician and author.
The Twelfth Amendment (Amendment XII) to the United States Constitution provides the procedure for electing the President and Vice President.
The Twenty-fifth Amendment (Amendment XXV) to the United States Constitution deals with succession to the Presidency and establishes procedures both for filling a vacancy in the office of the Vice President as well as responding to Presidential disabilities.
U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.
Ultrasound is sound waves with frequencies higher than the upper audible limit of human hearing.
The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (USDP) is a high level civilian official in the United States Department of Defense.
The Unified Task Force (UNITAF) was a US-led, United Nations-sanctioned multinational force, which operated in Somalia between 5 December 1992 – 4 May 1993.
The United Methodist Church (UMC) is a mainline Protestant denomination and a major part of Methodism.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Central Command (USCENTCOM or CENTCOM) is a theater-level Unified Combatant Command of the U.S. Department of Defense.
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.
The United States Department of Commerce is the Cabinet department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Department of Education (ED or DoED), also referred to as the ED for (the) Education Department, is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government.
The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries.
The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is a federal executive department of the U.S. government, responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice in the United States, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries. The department was formed in 1870 during the Ulysses S. Grant administration. The Department of Justice administers several federal law enforcement agencies including the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), and the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). The department is responsible for investigating instances of financial fraud, representing the United States government in legal matters (such as in cases before the Supreme Court), and running the federal prison system. The department is also responsible for reviewing the conduct of local law enforcement as directed by the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. The department is headed by the United States Attorney General, who is nominated by the President and confirmed by the Senate and is a member of the Cabinet. The current Attorney General is Jeff Sessions.
The Deputy Secretary of Defense (acronym: DEPSECDEF) is a statutory office and the second-highest-ranking official in the Department of Defense of the United States of America.
The United States District Court for the District of Columbia (in case citations, D.D.C.) is a federal district court.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The U.S. House Committee on Armed Services, commonly known as the House Armed Services Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives.
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber.
The House Republican Conference is the party caucus for Republicans in the United States House of Representatives.
The United States Invasion of Panama, code named Operation Just Cause occurred between mid-December 1989 and late January 1990.
The United States Naval Observatory (USNO) is one of the oldest scientific agencies in the United States, with a primary mission to produce Positioning, Navigation and Timing (PNT) for the United States Navy and the United States Department of Defense.
The United States order of precedence lists the ceremonial order for domestic and foreign government officials (military and civilian) at diplomatic, ceremonial, and social events within the United States and abroad.
The United States presidential election of 1976 was the 48th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1976.
The United States presidential election of 1992 was the 52nd quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2000 was the 54th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States presidential election of 2004, the 55th quadrennial presidential election, was held on Tuesday, November 2, 2004.
The United States presidential election of 2008 was the 56th quadrennial presidential election.
The United States Secret Service (also USSS or Secret Service) is a federal law enforcement agency under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security, charged with conducting criminal investigations and protecting the nation's leaders.
The Secretary of Defense (SecDef) is the leader and chief executive officer of the Department of Defense, the executive department of the Armed Forces of the United States of America.
The Secretary of State is a senior official of the federal government of the United States of America, and as head of the U.S. Department of State, is principally concerned with foreign policy and is considered to be the U.S. government's equivalent of a Minister for Foreign Affairs.
The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the U.S. Department of the Interior.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The University of Wisconsin–Madison (also known as University of Wisconsin, Wisconsin, UW, or regionally as UW–Madison, or simply Madison) is a public research university in Madison, Wisconsin, United States.
The University of Wyoming is a land-grant university located in Laramie, Wyoming, situated on Wyoming's high Laramie Plains, at an elevation of 7,220 feet (2194 m), between the Laramie and Snowy Range mountains.
USA Today is an internationally distributed American daily, middle-market newspaper that serves as the flagship publication of its owner, the Gannett Company.
Valerie Elise Plame Wilson (née Plame; born August 13, 1963), known as Valerie Plame, Valerie E. Wilson, and Valerie Plame Wilson, is a former operations officer who worked at the United States Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), a writer, and a spy novelist.
Vanity Fair is a magazine of popular culture, fashion, and current affairs published by Condé Nast in the United States.
A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.
A ventricular assist device (VAD) is an electromechanical device for assisting cardiac circulation, which is used either to partially or to completely replace the function of a failing heart.
The Vice President of the United States (informally referred to as VPOTUS, or Veep) is a constitutional officer in the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States as the President of the Senate under Article I, Section 3, Clause 4, of the United States Constitution, as well as the second highest executive branch officer, after the President of the United States.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Wall Street is an eight-block-long street running roughly northwest to southeast from Broadway to South Street, at the East River, in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan in New York City.
The War in Afghanistan (or the U.S. War in Afghanistan; code named Operation Enduring Freedom – Afghanistan (2001–2014) and Operation Freedom's Sentinel (2015–present)) followed the United States invasion of Afghanistan of October 7, 2001.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
The War Powers Resolution (also known as the War Powers Resolution of 1973 or the War Powers Act) (50 U.S.C. 1541–1548) is a federal law intended to check the president's power to commit the United States to an armed conflict without the consent of the U.S. Congress.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Waterboarding is a form of water torture in which water is poured over a cloth covering the face and breathing passages of an immobilized captive, causing the individual to experience the sensation of drowning.
The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States during the early 1970s, following a break-in by five men at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972, and President Richard Nixon's administration's subsequent attempt to cover up its involvement.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
Welsh Americans are an American ethnic group whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Wales.
The West Wing of the White House houses the offices of the President of the United States.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
The White House Chief of Staff has traditionally been the highest-ranking non-elected employee of the White House.
The White House Communications Director or White House Director of Communications, also known officially as Assistant to the President for Communications, is part of the senior staff of the President of the United States, and is responsible for developing and promoting the agenda of the President and leading its media campaign.
whitehouse.gov is the official website of the White House and is owned by the United States government.
William Albert "Bill" Steiger (May 15, 1938 – December 4, 1978) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1967 until his death from a heart attack in Washington, D.C. in 1978.
William Patrick Clark Jr. (October 23, 1931August 10, 2013) was an American rancher, judge, and public servant who served under President Ronald Reagan as the Deputy Secretary of State from 1981 to 1982, United States National Security Advisor from 1982 to 1983, and the Secretary of the Interior from 1983 to 1985.
William James Perry (born October 11, 1927) is an American mathematician, engineer, and businessman who was the United States Secretary of Defense from February 3, 1994, to January 23, 1997, under President Bill Clinton.
William Tecumseh Sherman (February 8, 1820 – February 14, 1891) was an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author.
Woodburn is a census-designated place in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.
Wyoming's at-large Congressional District is the sole congressional district for the state of Wyoming.
Yahoo! News is a news website that originated as an internet-based news aggregator by Yahoo!.
Yale University is an American private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.
From the end of February 2014, demonstrations by pro-Russian and anti-government groups took place in major cities across the eastern and southern regions of Ukraine, in the aftermath of the Euromaidan movement and the 2014 Ukrainian revolution.
The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, also known as the 9/11 Commission, was set up on November 27, 2002, "to prepare a full and complete account of the circumstances surrounding the September 11 attacks", including preparedness for and the immediate response to the attacks.
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