136 relations: Adiabatic process, Arthur R. von Hippel, Axon, Birefringence, Capacitance, Capacitor, Castor oil, Causality, Cell biophysics, Cell membrane, Ceramic, Ceramic capacitor, Cf., Chemical bond, Chemical polarity, Clausius–Mossotti relation, Coating, Cole–Cole equation, Convolution, Convolution theorem, Corona discharge, Crystal, Curie–von Schweidler law, Dendrite, Dielectric, Dielectric absorption, Dielectric gas, Dielectric loss, Dielectric resonator antenna, Dielectric spectroscopy, Dielectric strength, Dipole, Dirac delta function, Dispersion (optics), Dissipation factor, Electret, Electric dipole moment, Electric displacement field, Electric field, Electric susceptibility, Electrical conductor, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electronics, Electrophorus, Electrostatic discharge, Encyclopædia Britannica, Energy storage, Ferroelectricity, Ferromagnetism, Fourier transform, ..., Frequency, Friction, Gibbs free energy, Glass, Group velocity dispersion, Havriliak–Negami relaxation, Hertz, High voltage, High-κ dielectric, Homogeneity (physics), Hysteresis, Inductor, Infrared, Insulator (electricity), Ion, Ionic crystal, Ionization, Isotropy, John Wiley & Sons, Kelvin, Kramers–Kronig relations, Leakage (electronics), Linear response function, Linear system, Lithium niobate, Low-κ dielectric, Magnetic field, Membrane potential, Metamaterial, Michael Faraday, Microwave, Mineral oil, Mitochondrion, Molecular beam epitaxy, Na+/K+-ATPase, Nitrogen, Nonlinear optics, Nonlinear system, Optics, Oscillation, Oxford University Press, Paramagnetism, Parylene, Paschen's law, Perfect conductor, Permittivity, Perovskite, Perovskite (structure), Peter Debye, Physics, Piezoelectricity, Plastic, Polarizability, Polarization density, Polymer, Porcelain, Proton pump, RC time constant, Refractive index, Relative permittivity, Relaxation (physics), Resonance, Resting potential, Rotational Brownian motion, Rotational symmetry, Self-focusing, Sodium chloride, Solid, Solid-state physics, Soma (biology), Speed of light, Stress (mechanics), Stretched exponential function, Strontium oxide, Strontium titanate, Sulfur hexafluoride, Superposition principle, Tensor, Torque, Transformer, Triboelectric effect, Vacuum, Vacuum permittivity, Van de Graaff generator, Viscosity, William Whewell. Expand index (86 more) » « Shrink index
In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.
Arthur Robert von Hippel (November 19, 1898 – December 31, 2003) was a German American materials scientist and physicist.
An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.
Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.
Capacitance is the ratio of the change in an electric charge in a system to the corresponding change in its electric potential.
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.
Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis).
Causality (also referred to as causation, or cause and effect) is what connects one process (the cause) with another process or state (the effect), where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first.
Cell biophysics (or cellular biophysics) is a sub-field of biophysics that focuses on physical principles underlying cell function.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
A ceramic capacitor is a fixed-value capacitor in which ceramic material acts as the dielectric.
The abbreviation cf. (short for the confer/conferatur, both meaning "compare") is used in writing to refer the reader to other material to make a comparison with the topic being discussed.
A chemical bond is a lasting attraction between atoms, ions or molecules that enables the formation of chemical compounds.
In chemistry, polarity is a separation of electric charge leading to a molecule or its chemical groups having an electric dipole or multipole moment.
The Clausius–Mossotti relation expresses the dielectric constant (relative permittivity) εr of a material in terms of the atomic polarizibility α of the material's constituent atoms and/or molecules, or a homogeneous mixture thereof.
A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate.
The Cole–Cole equation is a relaxation model that is often used to describe dielectric relaxation in polymers.
In mathematics (and, in particular, functional analysis) convolution is a mathematical operation on two functions (f and g) to produce a third function, that is typically viewed as a modified version of one of the original functions, giving the integral of the pointwise multiplication of the two functions as a function of the amount that one of the original functions is translated.
In mathematics, the convolution theorem states that under suitable conditions the Fourier transform of a convolution is the pointwise product of Fourier transforms.
A corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid such as air surrounding a conductor that is electrically charged.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
The Curie–von Schweidler law refers to the response of dielectric material to the step input of a direct current (DC) voltage first observed by Jacques Curie and Egon Ritter von Schweidler.
Dendrites (from Greek δένδρον déndron, "tree"), also dendrons, are branched protoplasmic extensions of a nerve cell that propagate the electrochemical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project.
A dielectric (or dielectric material) is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.
Dielectric absorption is the name given to the effect by which a capacitor, that has been charged for a long time, discharges only incompletely when briefly discharged.
A dielectric gas, or insulating gas, is a dielectric material in gaseous state.
Dielectric loss quantifies a dielectric material's inherent dissipation of electromagnetic energy (e.g. heat).
A dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) is a radio antenna mostly used at microwave frequencies and higher, that consists of a block of ceramic material of various shapes, the dielectric resonator, mounted on a metal surface, a ground plane.
Dielectric spectroscopy (which falls in a subcategory of impedance spectroscopy) measures the dielectric properties of a medium as a function of frequency.
In physics, the term dielectric strength has the following meanings.
In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.
In mathematics, the Dirac delta function (function) is a generalized function or distribution introduced by the physicist Paul Dirac.
In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.
In physics, the dissipation factor (DF) is a measure of loss-rate of energy of a mode of oscillation (mechanical, electrical, or electromechanical) in a dissipative system.
Electret (formed of electr- from "electricity" and -et from "magnet") is a dielectric material that has a quasi-permanent electric charge or dipole polarisation.
The electric dipole moment is a measure of the separation of positive and negative electrical charges within a system, that is, a measure of the system's overall polarity.
In physics, the electric displacement field, denoted by D, is a vector field that appears in Maxwell's equations.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
In electricity (electromagnetism), the electric susceptibility (\chi_; Latin: susceptibilis "receptive") is a dimensionless proportionality constant that indicates the degree of polarization of a dielectric material in response to an applied electric field.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.
An electrophorus or electrophore is a simple manual capacitive electrostatic generator used to produce electrostatic charge via the process of electrostatic induction.
Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is the sudden flow of electricity between two electrically charged objects caused by contact, an electrical short, or dielectric breakdown.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Energy storage is the capture of energy produced at one time for use at a later time.
Ferroelectricity is a characteristic of certain materials that have a spontaneous electric polarization that can be reversed by the application of an external electric field.
Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.
The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
In thermodynamics, the Gibbs free energy (IUPAC recommended name: Gibbs energy or Gibbs function; also known as free enthalpy to distinguish it from Helmholtz free energy) is a thermodynamic potential that can be used to calculate the maximum of reversible work that may be performed by a thermodynamic system at a constant temperature and pressure (isothermal, isobaric).
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
In optics, group velocity dispersion (GVD) is a characteristic of a dispersive medium, used most often to determine how the medium will affect the duration of an optical pulse traveling through it.
Havriliak–Negami relaxation is an empirical modification of the Debye relaxation model, accounting for the asymmetry and broadness of the dielectric dispersion curve.
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
The term high voltage usually means electrical energy at voltages high enough to inflict harm on living organisms.
The term high-κ dielectric refers to a material with a high dielectric constant κ (as compared to silicon dioxide).
In physics, a homogeneous material or system has the same properties at every point; it is uniform without irregularities.
Hysteresis is the dependence of the state of a system on its history.
An inductor, also called a coil, choke or reactor, is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field when electric current flows through it.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
An ionic crystal is a crystal consisting of ions bound together by their electrostatic attraction.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Isotropy is uniformity in all orientations; it is derived from the Greek isos (ἴσος, "equal") and tropos (τρόπος, "way").
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
The Kelvin scale is an absolute thermodynamic temperature scale using as its null point absolute zero, the temperature at which all thermal motion ceases in the classical description of thermodynamics.
The Kramers–Kronig relations are bidirectional mathematical relations, connecting the real and imaginary parts of any complex function that is analytic in the upper half-plane.
In electronics, leakage may refer to a gradual loss of energy from a charged capacitor.
A linear response function describes the input-output relationship of a signal transducer such as a radio turning electromagnetic waves into music or a neuron turning synaptic input into a response.
A linear system is a mathematical model of a system based on the use of a linear operator.
Lithium niobate is a compound of niobium, lithium, and oxygen.
In semiconductor manufacturing, a low-κ is a material with a small dielectric constant relative to silicon dioxide.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
The term "membrane potential" may refer to one of three kinds of membrane potential.
A metamaterial (from the Greek word μετά meta, meaning "beyond") is a material engineered to have a property that is not found in nature.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum.
The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.
Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is an epitaxy method for thin-film deposition of single crystals.
-ATPase (sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, also known as the pump or sodium–potassium pump) is an enzyme (an electrogenic transmembrane ATPase) found in the plasma membrane of all animal cells.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
Nonlinear optics (NLO) is the branch of optics that describes the behavior of light in nonlinear media, that is, media in which the dielectric polarization P responds nonlinearly to the electric field E of the light.
In mathematics and science, a nonlinear system is a system in which the change of the output is not proportional to the change of the input.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Paramagnetism is a form of magnetism whereby certain materials are weakly attracted by an externally applied magnetic field, and form internal, induced magnetic fields in the direction of the applied magnetic field.
Parylene is the trade name for a variety of chemical vapor deposited poly(p-xylylene) polymers used as moisture and dielectric barriers.
Paschen's law is an equation that gives the breakdown voltage, that is, the voltage necessary to start a discharge or electric arc, between two electrodes in a gas as a function of pressure and gap length.
A perfect conductor or perfect electric conductor (PEC) is an idealized material exhibiting infinite electrical conductivity or, equivalently, zero resistivity (cf. perfect dielectric).
In electromagnetism, absolute permittivity, often simply called permittivity, usually denoted by the Greek letter ε (epsilon), is the measure of resistance that is encountered when forming an electric field in a particular medium.
Perovskite (pronunciation) is a calcium titanium oxide mineral composed of calcium titanate (Ca Ti O3).
A perovskite is any material with the same type of crystal structure as calcium titanium oxide (CaTiO3), known as the perovskite structure, or XIIA2+VIB4+X2−3 with the oxygen in the edge centers.
Peter Joseph William Debye (March 24, 1884 – November 2, 1966) was a Dutch-American physicist and physical chemist, and Nobel laureate in Chemistry.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.
Plastic is material consisting of any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic compounds that are malleable and so can be molded into solid objects.
Polarizability is the ability to form instantaneous dipoles.
In classical electromagnetism, polarization density (or electric polarization, or simply polarization) is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced electric dipole moments in a dielectric material.
A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.
Porcelain is a ceramic material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between.
A proton pump is an integral membrane protein that builds up a proton gradient across a biological membrane.
The RC time constant, also called tau, the time constant (in seconds) of an RC circuit, is equal to the product of the circuit resistance (in ohms) and the circuit capacitance (in farads), i.e. It is the time required to charge the capacitor, through the resistor, from an initial charge voltage of zero to ≈63.2 percent of the value of an applied DC voltage, or to discharge the capacitor through the same resistor to ≈36.8 percent of its initial charge voltage.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
The relative permittivity of a material is its (absolute) permittivity expressed as a ratio relative to the permittivity of vacuum.
In the physical sciences, relaxation usually means the return of a perturbed system into equilibrium.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
The relatively static membrane potential of quiescent cells is called the resting membrane potential (or resting voltage), as opposed to the specific dynamic electrochemical phenomena called action potential and graded membrane potential.
Rotational Brownian motion is the random change in the orientation of a polar molecule due to collisions with other molecules.
Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in biology, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn.
Self-focusing is a non-linear optical process induced by the change in refractive index of materials exposed to intense electromagnetic radiation.
Sodium chloride, also known as salt, is an ionic compound with the chemical formula NaCl, representing a 1:1 ratio of sodium and chloride ions.
Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).
Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.
The soma (pl. somata or somas), perikaryon (pl. perikarya), neurocyton, or cell body is the bulbous, non-process portion of a neuron or other brain cell type, containing the cell nucleus.
The speed of light in vacuum, commonly denoted, is a universal physical constant important in many areas of physics.
In continuum mechanics, stress is a physical quantity that expresses the internal forces that neighboring particles of a continuous material exert on each other, while strain is the measure of the deformation of the material.
The stretched exponential function is obtained by inserting a fractional power law into the exponential function.
Strontium oxide or strontia, SrO, is formed when strontium reacts with oxygen.
Strontium titanate is an oxide of strontium and titanium with the chemical formula SrTiO3.
Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) is an inorganic, colorless, odorless, non-flammable, extremely potent greenhouse gas, and an excellent electrical insulator.
In physics and systems theory, the superposition principle, also known as superposition property, states that, for all linear systems, the net response caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses that would have been caused by each stimulus individually.
In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.
Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.
A transformer is a static electrical device that transfers electrical energy between two or more circuits through electromagnetic induction.
The triboelectric effect (also known as triboelectric charging) is a type of contact electrification on which certain materials become electrically charged after they come into frictional contact with a different material.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
The physical constant (pronounced as "epsilon nought"), commonly called the vacuum permittivity, permittivity of free space or electric constant, is an ideal, (baseline) physical constant, which is the value of the absolute dielectric permittivity of classical vacuum.
A Van de Graaff generator is an electrostatic generator which uses a moving belt to accumulate electric charge on a hollow metal globe on the top of an insulated column, creating very high electric potentials.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
William Whewell (24 May 1794 – 6 March 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science.
Debye equation, Debye relaxation, Dialectric, Dielectric dispersion, Dielectric level, Dielectric material, Dielectric materials, Dielectric media, Dielectric medium, Dielectric polarization, Dielectric properties, Dielectric relaxation, Dielectric relaxation as a chemical rate process, Dielectric relaxation asa chemical rate process, Dielectric response, Dielectrics, Dipolar polarization, Ionic polarization, Paraelectric, Paraelectricity, Perfect dielectric, Relaxation time of electrons.