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Diesel engine

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The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression). [1]

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Accelerometer

An accelerometer is a device that measures proper acceleration.

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Actuator

An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving and controlling a mechanism or system, for example by opening a valve.

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Adiabatic process

In thermodynamics, an adiabatic process is one that occurs without transfer of heat or matter between a thermodynamic system and its surroundings.

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Adolphus Busch

Adolphus Busch (10 July 1839 – 10 October 1913) was the German-born co-founder of Anheuser-Busch with his father-in-law, Eberhard Anheuser.

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Air cooling

Air cooling is a method of dissipating heat.

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Air-start system

An air-start system is a power source used to provide the initial rotation to start large diesel and gas turbine engines.

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Air–fuel ratio

Air–fuel ratio (AFR) is the mass ratio of air to a solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel present in a combustion process.

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Aircraft diesel engine

The aircraft diesel engine or aero diesel has not been widely used as an aircraft engine.

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Airship

An airship or dirigible balloon is a type of aerostat or lighter-than-air aircraft that can navigate through the air under its own power.

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Alfa Romeo 156

The Alfa Romeo 156 (Tipo 932) is a compact executive car produced by the Italian automobile manufacturer Alfa Romeo.

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Alternator

An alternator is an electrical generator that converts mechanical energy to electrical energy in the form of alternating current.

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Arachis

Arachis is a genus of about 70 species of annual and perennial flowering plants in the pea family (Fabaceae), native to South America, and was recently assigned to the informal monophyletic Pterocarpus clade of the Dalbergieae.

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Aspirator (pump)

An aspirator is a type of ejector-jet pump, which produces vacuum by means of the Venturi effect.

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Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway

The Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, often referred to as the Santa Fe or AT&SF, was one of the larger railroads in the United States.

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Atmosphere (unit)

The standard atmosphere (symbol: atm) is a unit of pressure defined as.

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Audi 100

The Audi 100 and Audi 200 are four-door, front-engine, front- or all-wheel drive full-size/executive sedans manufactured and marketed by the Audi division of the Volkswagen Group for model years 1968 through 1994 — across four generations (C1-C4), with a two-door model available in the first and second generation (C1-2) and a five-door wagon available in the third (C3) generation.

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Audi R10 TDI

The Audi R10 TDI, usually abbreviated to R10, is a racing car from the German car manufacturer Audi.

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Autocar (magazine)

Autocar is a weekly British automobile magazine published by Haymarket Motoring Publications Ltd.

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Škoda Octavia

The Škoda Octavia is a small family car produced by the Czech manufacturer Škoda Auto since 1996.

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Barton Transport

Barton Transport Bartons Public Limited Company formerly Barton Transport plc was a bus company that operated in Nottinghamshire from 1908 until 1989.

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Beardmore Tornado

The Beardmore Tornado was an eight-cylinder inline aircraft Diesel engine built in 1927 by William Beardmore and Company of Glasgow, Scotland, and used in the British R101 airship when petrol engines were thought unsafe in the tropics.

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Biodiesel

Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.

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Biofuel

A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.

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Blackstone & Co

Blackstone & Co. was a farm implement maker at Stamford, Lincolnshire, United Kingdom.

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Bladder cancer

Bladder cancer is any of several types of cancer arising from the tissues of the urinary bladder.

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Block heater

A block heater warms an engine to increase the chances that the engine will start as well as warm up the vehicle faster than it normally would in extremely cold weather.

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BMW

BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.

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BMW 114

The BMW 114 was a nine-cylinder air-cooled radial engine intended for military aircraft use.

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Bonneville Salt Flats

The Bonneville Salt Flats is a densely packed salt pan in Tooele County in northwestern Utah.

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Bore (engine)

The bore or cylinder bore is a part of a piston engine.

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Branobel

The Petroleum Production Company Nobel Brothers, Limited, or Branobel (short for братьев Нобель "brat'yev Nobel" — "Nobel Brothers" in Russian), was an oil company set up by Ludvig Nobel and Baron Peter von Bilderling, mainly in Baku, Azerbaijan but also in Cheleken, Turkmenistan.

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Brayton cycle

The Brayton cycle is a thermodynamic cycle named after George Brayton who describes the workings of a constant-pressure heat engine.

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Budd Company

The Budd Company was a 20th-century metal fabricator, a major supplier of body components to the automobile industry and a manufacturer of stainless steel passenger rail cars, airframes, missile and space vehicles, and various defense products.

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Bus

A bus (archaically also omnibus, multibus, motorbus, autobus) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers.

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Camshaft

A camshaft is a shaft to which a cam is fastened or of which a cam forms an integral part.

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Candle wick

A candle wick is usually a braided cotton that holds the flame of an oil lamp or candle.

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Car

A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Carbureted compression ignition model engine

A carbureted compression ignition model engine, popularly known as a model diesel engine, is a simple compression ignition engine made for model propulsion, usually model aircraft but also model boats.

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Carburetor

A carburetor (American English) or carburettor (British English; see spelling differences) is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper ratio for combustion.

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Carnot cycle

The Carnot cycle is a theoretical thermodynamic cycle proposed by French physicist Sadi Carnot in 1824 and expanded upon by others in the 1830s and 1840s.

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Catalytic reforming

Catalytic reforming is a chemical process used to convert petroleum refinery naphthas distilled from crude oil (typically having low octane ratings) into high-octane liquid products called reformates, which are premium blending stocks for high-octane gasoline.

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Caterpillar Inc.

Caterpillar Inc. is an American Fortune 100 corporation which designs, develops, engineers, manufactures, markets and sells machinery, engines, financial products and insurance to customers via a worldwide dealer network.

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Century of Progress

A Century of Progress International Exposition was a World's Fair registered under the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE), which was held in Chicago, as The Chicago World's Fair, from 1933 to 1934 to celebrate the city's centennial.

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Cetane number

Cetane number (cetane rating) is an indicator of the combustion speed of diesel fuel and compression needed for ignition.

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Charles F. Kettering

Charles Franklin Kettering (August 29, 1876 – November 25, 1958) sometimes known as Charles "Boss" Kettering was an American inventor, engineer, businessman, and the holder of 186 patents.

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Christmas

Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Christmas and holiday season

The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.

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Christmas Eve

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.

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Christmas traditions

Christmas traditions vary from country to country.

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Citroën

Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën (1878–1935).

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Clean Air Act (United States)

The Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C.) is a United States federal law designed to control air pollution on a national level.

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Clessie Cummins

Clessie Lyle Cummins (December 27, 1888 – August 17, 1968) was the founder of the Cummins Engine Co.

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Coal dust

Coal dust is a fine powdered form of coal, which is created by the crushing, grinding, or pulverizing of coal.

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Coffman engine starter

The Coffman engine starter (also known as a "shotgun starter") was a starting system used on many piston engines in aircraft and armored vehicles of the 1930s and 1940s.

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Cogeneration

Cogeneration or combined heat and power (CHP) is the use of a heat engine or power station to generate electricity and useful heat at the same time.

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Cold filter plugging point

Cold filter plugging point (CFPP) is the lowest temperature, expressed in degrees Celsius (°C), at which a given volume of diesel type of fuel still passes through a standardized filtration device in a specified time when cooled under certain conditions.

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Combined cycle

In electric power generation a combined cycle is an assembly of heat engines that work in tandem from the same source of heat, converting it into mechanical energy, which in turn usually drives electrical generators.

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Combined gas law

The combined gas law is a gas law that combines Charles's law, Boyle's law, and Gay-Lussac's law.

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Combustibility and flammability

Flammable materials are those that ignite more easily than other materials, whereas those that are harder to ignite or burn less vigorously are combustible.

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Combustion

Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.

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Combustion chamber

A combustion chamber is that part of an internal combustion engine (ICE) in which the fuel/air mix is burned.

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Common ethanol fuel mixtures

Several common ethanol fuel mixtures are in use around the world.

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Common rail

Common rail direct fuel injection is a direct fuel injection system for diesel engines.

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Compression ratio

The static compression ratio of an internal combustion engine or external combustion engine is a value that represents the ratio of the volume of its combustion chamber from its largest capacity to its smallest capacity.

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Compression release engine brake

A compression release engine brake, frequently called a Jacobs brake or Jake brake, is an engine braking mechanism installed on some diesel engines.

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Compressor

A compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.

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Control theory

Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.

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Copper in heat exchangers

Heat exchangers are devices that transfer heat in order to achieve desired heating or cooling.

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Cost of electricity by source

In electrical power generation, the distinct ways of generating electricity incur significantly different costs.

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Cranfield University

Cranfield University is a British postgraduate and research-based public university specialising in science, engineering, technology and management.

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Crankshaft

A crankshaft—related to crank—is a mechanical part able to perform a conversion between reciprocating motion and rotational motion.

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Crosshead

A crosshead is a mechanism used in long reciprocating engines and reciprocating compressors to eliminate sideways pressure on the piston.

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Cummins

Cummins Inc. is an American Fortune 500 corporation that designs, manufactures, and distributes engines, filtration, and power generation products.

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CuproBraze

CuproBraze is a copper-alloy heat exchanger technology for harsh temperature and pressure environments such as those in the latest generations of cleaner diesel engines mandated by global environmental regulations.

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Cylinder (engine)

A cylinder is the central working part of a reciprocating engine or pump, the space in which a piston travels.

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Cylinder head

In an internal combustion engine, the cylinder head (often informally abbreviated to just head) sits above the cylinders on top of the cylinder block.

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DAF Trucks

DAF Trucks NV is a Dutch truck manufacturing company and a division of Paccar.

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Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft

Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (DMG) (Daimler Motors Corporation) was a German engineer and later automobile manufacturer, in operation from 1890 until 1926.

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Daimler-Benz

Daimler-Benz AG was a German manufacturer of motor vehicles and internal combustion engines, which was founded in 1926.

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Dead centre (engineering)

In a reciprocating engine, the dead centre is the position of a piston in which it is farthest from, or nearest to, the crankshaft.

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Denso

is a global automotive components manufacturer headquartered in the city of Kariya, Aichi Prefecture, Japan.

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Detroit Diesel

Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) is an American diesel engine manufacturer headquartered in Detroit, Michigan, United States and a subsidiary of Daimler Trucks North America, itself a wholly owned subsidiary of the German Daimler AG.

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Detroit Diesel Series 71

The Detroit Diesel Series 71 is a two-stroke diesel engine series, available in both inline and V configurations, with the inline models including one, two, three, four and six cylinders, and the V-types including six, eight, 12, 16 and 24 cylinders.

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Deutsches Institut für Normung

Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN; in English, the German Institute for Standardization) is the German national organization for standardization and is the German ISO member body.

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Deutschland-class cruiser

The Deutschland class was a series of three Panzerschiffe ("armored ships"), a form of heavily armed cruiser, built by the Reichsmarine officially in accordance with restrictions imposed by the Treaty of Versailles.

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Deutz AG

Deutz AG is an internal combustion engine manufacturer, based in Porz, Cologne, Germany.

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Diesel automobile racing

Diesel automobile racing can refer to any use of diesel as a fuel for racing cars.

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Diesel cycle

The Diesel cycle is a combustion process of a reciprocating internal combustion engine.

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Diesel engine

The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).

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Diesel exhaust

Diesel exhaust is the gaseous exhaust produced by a diesel type of internal combustion engine, plus any contained particulates.

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Diesel exhaust fluid

Diesel exhaust fluid (DEF) is an aqueous urea solution made with 32.5% urea and 67.5% deionized water.

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Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel.

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Diesel generator

A diesel generator is the combination of a diesel engine with an electric generator (often an alternator) to generate electrical energy.

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Diesel locomotive

A diesel locomotive is a type of railway locomotive in which the prime mover is a diesel engine.

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Diesel motorcycle

A diesel motorcycle is a motorcycle with a diesel engine.

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Diesel multiple unit

A diesel multiple unit or DMU is a multiple-unit train powered by on-board diesel engines.

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Diesel–electric transmission

A diesel–electric transmission, or diesel–electric powertrain, is used by a number of vehicle and ship types for providing locomotion.

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Dieselisation

Dieselisation or dieselization is a term generally used for the increasingly common use of diesel fuel in vehicles, or known to be said "Rise of diesel power" as opposed to gasoline or steam engines.

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Dimethyl ether

Dimethyl ether (DME), also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3, simplified to C2H6O.

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Discovery Channel

Discovery Channel (known as The Discovery Channel from 1985 to 1995, and often referred to as simply Discovery) is an American pay television channel that is the flagship television property of Discovery Inc., a publicly traded company run by CEO David Zaslav.

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Doosan Group

Doosan Group is a South Korean conglomerate company.

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E-boat

E-boat was the Western Allies' designation for the fast attack craft (German: Schnellboot, or S-Boot, meaning "fast boat") of the Kriegsmarine during World War II.

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Electric generator

In electricity generation, a generator is a device that converts motive power (mechanical energy) into electrical power for use in an external circuit.

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Electric locomotive

An electric locomotive is a locomotive powered by electricity from overhead lines, a third rail or on-board energy storage such as a battery or a supercapacitor.

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Electro-Motive Diesel

Electro-Motive Diesel (EMD) is an American manufacturer of diesel-electric locomotives, locomotive products and diesel engines for the rail industry.

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Electromagnetic interference

Electromagnetic interference (EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.

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Electronic control unit

An Electronic Control Unit (ECU) is any embedded system in automotive electronics that controls one or more of the electrical systems or subsystems in a vehicle.

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Electronic Diesel Control

Electronic Diesel Control is a diesel engine fuel injection control system for the precise metering and delivery of fuel into the combustion chamber of modern diesel engines used in trucks and cars.

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EMD 1010

The EMD 1010 or EMD 265 is a line of four-stroke diesel engines manufactured by Electro-Motive Diesel.

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EMD 567

The EMD 567 is a line of large medium-speed diesel engines built by General Motors' Electro-Motive Division.

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EMD 645

The EMD 645 family of diesel engines was designed and manufactured by the Electro-Motive Division of General Motors.

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EMD 710

The EMD 710 is a line of diesel engines built by Electro-Motive Diesel (previously General Motors' Electro-Motive Division).

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Emma Mærsk

Emma Mærsk is the first container ship in the E-class of eight owned by the A. P. Moller-Maersk Group.

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EN 590

EN 590 is a standard published by the European Committee for Standardization that describes the physical properties that all automotive diesel fuel must meet if it is to be sold in the European Union and several other European countries.

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Engine efficiency

Engine efficiency of thermal engines is the relationship between the total energy contained in the fuel, and the amount of energy used to perform useful work.

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Engine tuning

Engine tuning is an adjustment, modification of the internal combustion engine, or modification to its control unit, otherwise known as its ECU (Engine Control Unit).

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Engine-generator

An engine-generator or portable generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine (prime mover) mounted together to form a single piece of equipment.

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English Channel

The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Ethanol fuel

Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel.

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Ether

Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.

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European emission standards

European emission standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in EU and EEA member states.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Exhaust gas

Exhaust gas or flue gas is emitted as a result of the combustion of fuels such as natural gas, gasoline, petrol, biodiesel blends, diesel fuel, fuel oil, or coal.

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Exhaust gas recirculation

In internal combustion engines, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is a nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions reduction technique used in petrol/gasoline and diesel engines.

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Expansion ratio

The expansion ratio of a liquefied and cryogenic substance is the volume of a given amount of that substance in liquid form compared to the volume of the same amount of substance in gaseous form, at room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure.

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Exposition Universelle (1900)

The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 14 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next.

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External combustion engine

An external combustion engine (EC engine) is a heat engine where a working fluid, contained internally, is heated by combustion in an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger.

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Fairbanks-Morse

Fairbanks Morse and Company was an American manufacturing company in the late 19th and early 20th century.

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Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile

The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA, English: International Automobile Federation) is an association established as the Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus (AIACR, English: 'International Association of Recognized Automobile Clubs') on 20 June 1904 to represent the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users.

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Fiat Croma

Fiat Croma is the name used for two different large family cars produced by Italian automaker Fiat, one a five door liftback built from 1985 to 1996, and the other a crossover station wagon built from 2005 to 2010.

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Fischer–Tropsch process

The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.

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Flash point

The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source.

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Flat engine

A flat engine is an internal combustion engine with horizontally-opposed cylinders.

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Forced induction

Forced induction is the process of delivering compressed air to the intake of an internal combustion engine.

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Four-stroke engine

A four-stroke (also four-cycle) engine is an internal combustion (IC) engine in which the piston completes four separate strokes while turning the crankshaft.

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Fram

Fram ("Forward") is a ship that was used in expeditions of the Arctic and Antarctic regions by the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen between 1893 and 1912.

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Front-wheel drive

Front-wheel drive (FWD) is a form of engine and transmission layout used in motor vehicles, where the engine drives the front wheels only.

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Fuel economy in automobiles

The fuel economy of an automobile is the relationship between the distance traveled and the amount of fuel consumed by the vehicle.

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Fuel efficiency

Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio from effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work.

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Fuel injection

Fuel injection is the introduction of fuel in an internal combustion engine, most commonly automotive engines, by the means of an injector.

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Fuel oil

Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.

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Fuel pump

A fuel pump is a frequently (but not always) essential component on a car or other internal combustion engined device.

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Fuel tank

A fuel tank (or petrol tank) is a safe container for flammable fluids.

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Gale Banks Engineering

Gale Banks Engineering and its four divisions, Banks Power, Banks Technology, Banks Marine, and Banks Racing, are companies created by Southern California hot rodder and automobile engineer Gale Banks.

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Gas engine

A gas engine is an internal combustion engine which runs on a gas fuel, such as coal gas, producer gas, biogas, landfill gas or natural gas.

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Gas turbine

A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.

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Gasoline

Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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Gasoline direct injection

In non-diesel internal combustion engines, gasoline direct injection (GDI), also known as petrol direct injection, direct petrol injection, spark-ignited direct injection (SIDI) and fuel-stratified injection (FSI), is a variant of fuel injection employed in modern two-stroke and four-stroke gasoline engines.

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Gear train

A gear train is a mechanical system formed by mounting gears on a frame so the teeth of the gears engage.

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General Motors

General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.

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George Brayton

George Brayton (October 3, 1830 – December 17, 1892) was born in Rhode Island, son of William H. and Minerva (Bailey) Brayton.

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Glow plug (model engine)

A glow plug engine, or glow engine, is a type of small internal combustion engine typically used in model aircraft, model cars and similar applications.

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Glowplug

A glowplug (alternatively spelled as glow plug or glow-plug) is a heating device used to aid starting diesel engines.

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Governor (device)

A governor, or speed limiter or controller, is a device used to measure and regulate the speed of a machine, such as an engine.

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Groove (engineering)

In manufacturing or mechanical engineering a groove is a long and narrow indentation built into a material, generally for the purpose of allowing another material or part to move within the groove and be guided by it.

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Hanomag

Hanomag (Hannoversche Maschinenbau AG) was a German producer of steam locomotives, tractors, trucks and military vehicles in Hanover.

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Harry Ricardo

Sir Harry Ralph Ricardo (26 January 1885 – 18 May 1974) was one of the foremost engine designers and researchers in the early years of the development of the internal combustion engine.

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Heat of combustion

The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.

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Heavy equipment

Heavy equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations.

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Herbert Akroyd Stuart

Herbert Akroyd-Stuart (28 January 1864, Halifax, Yorkshire, England – 19 February 1927, Halifax) was an English inventor who is noted for his invention of the hot bulb engine, or heavy oil engine.

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Hertz

The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.

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Hesselman engine

The Hesselman engine is a hybrid between a petrol engine and a Diesel engine introduced by Swedish engineer Jonas Hesselman in 1925.

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Hino Motors

Hino Motors, Ltd. (日野自動車株式会社, Hino Jidōsha), commonly known as simply Hino, is a Japanese manufacturer of commercial vehicles and diesel engines (including for trucks, buses and other vehicles) headquartered in Hino-shi, Tokyo.

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History of the internal combustion engine

Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines.

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Homogeneous charge compression ignition

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) is a form of internal combustion in which well-mixed fuel and oxidizer (typically air) are compressed to the point of auto-ignition.

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Hornsby-Akroyd oil engine

The Hornsby-Akroyd oil engine was the first successful design of internal combustion engine using "heavy oil" as a fuel.

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Hot-bulb engine

The hot-bulb engine is a type of internal combustion engine in which fuel ignites by coming in contact with a red-hot metal surface inside a bulb, followed by the introduction of air (oxygen) compressed into the hot-bulb chamber by the rising piston.

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Hulsebos-Hesselman axial oil engines

Hulsebos-Hesselman axial oil engines were five cylinder, four stroke, wobble plate engines that originated in and were used throughout the Netherlands during the late 1930s.

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Hydrocarbon

In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Ignition system

An ignition system generates a spark or heats an electrode to a high temperature to ignite a fuel-air mixture in spark ignition internal combustion engines oil-fired and gas-fired boilers, rocket engines, etc.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Indirect injection

Indirect injection in an internal combustion engine is fuel injection where fuel is not directly injected into the combustion chamber.

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Injection pump

An Injection Pump is the device that pumps diesel (as the fuel) into the cylinders of a diesel engine.

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Injector

A steam injector is typically used to deliver cold water to a boiler against its own pressure using its own live or exhaust steam, replacing any mechanical pump.

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Inlet manifold

In automotive engineering, an inlet manifold or intake manifold (in American English) is the part of an engine that supplies the fuel/air mixture to the cylinders.

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Intercooler

An intercooler is any mechanical device used to cool a fluid, including liquids or gases, between stages of a multi-stage compression process, typically a heat exchanger that removes waste heat in a gas compressor.

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Internal combustion engine

An internal combustion engine (ICE) is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit.

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International Harvester

The International Harvester Company (abbreviated first IHC and later IH) was a United States manufacturer of agricultural machinery, construction equipment, trucks, and household and commercial products.

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Iveco

Iveco, an acronym for Industrial Vehicles Corporation, is an Italian industrial vehicle manufacturing company based in Turin, Italy, and entirely controlled by CNH Industrial Group.

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JCB Dieselmax

The JCB Dieselmax is a diesel-engined 'streamliner' car designed for the purpose of breaking the land speed record for a diesel-engined vehicle.

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Jet fuel

Jet fuel, aviation turbine fuel (ATF), or avtur, is a type of aviation fuel designed for use in aircraft powered by gas-turbine engines.

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John Deere

John Deere is the brand name of Deere & Company, an American corporation that manufactures agricultural, construction, and forestry machinery, diesel engines, drivetrains (axles, transmissions, gearboxes) used in heavy equipment, and lawn care equipment.

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Joule

The joule (symbol: J) is a derived unit of energy in the International System of Units.

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Junkers

Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG (JFM, earlier JCO or JKO in World War I), more commonly Junkers, was a major German aircraft and aircraft engine manufacturer.

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Junkers Jumo 204

The Junkers Jumo 204 was the second in a series of German aircraft Diesel engines.

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Junkers Jumo 205

The Junkers Jumo 205 aircraft engine was the most famous of a series of aircraft Diesel engines that were the first, and for more than half a century the only successful aviation Diesel powerplants.

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Karl Benz

Karl Friedrich Benz (25 November 1844 – 4 April 1929) was a German engine designer and automobile engineer.

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Kawasaki Heavy Industries

is a Japanese public multinational corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of motorcycles, heavy equipment, aerospace and defense equipment, rolling stock and ships.

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Kerosene

Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.

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Kharkiv model V-2

The Kharkiv model V-2 (В-2) was a Soviet diesel tank V-12 engine designed at the Kharkiv Locomotive Factory by Konstantin Chelpan and his team.

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Kilowatt hour

The kilowatt hour (symbol kWh, kW⋅h or kW h) is a unit of energy equal to 3.6 megajoules.

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Krupp

The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.

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Ligier

Ligier is a French automobile and minibus maker created by former racing driver and rugby player Guy Ligier, specialized in the manufacturing of microcars.

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Lipid

In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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List of agricultural machinery

Agricultural equipment is any kind of machinery used on a farm to help with farming.

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List of automobile manufacturers of Japan

This is a list of current and defunct automobile manufacturers of Japan.

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List of IARC Group 1 carcinogens

Substances, mixtures and exposure circumstances in this list have been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as Group 1: The agent (mixture) is carcinogenic to humans.

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Locomotive

A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train.

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Lombardini S.r.l.

Lombardini Srl is an Italian manufacturer of Diesel engines up to 134HP.

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Lubrication

Lubrication is the process or technique of using a lubricant to reduce friction and/or wear in a contact between two surfaces.

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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LZ 129 Hindenburg

LZ 129 Hindenburg (Luftschiff Zeppelin #129; Registration: D-LZ 129) was a large German commercial passenger-carrying rigid airship, the lead ship of the ''Hindenburg'' class, the longest class of flying machine and the largest airship by envelope volume.

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M4 Sherman

The M4 Sherman, officially Medium Tank, M4, was the most widely used medium tank by the United States and Western Allies in World War II.

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Maersk

A.P. Moller–Maersk Group (Danish: A.P. Møller–Mærsk A/S), also known as Maersk, is a Danish business conglomerate with activities in the transport, logistics and energy sectors.

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MAN Diesel

MAN Diesel SE is a European manufacturer of large-bore diesel engines for marine propulsion systems and power plant applications.

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MAN SE

MAN SE (abbreviation of Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Nürnberg), formerly MAN AG, is a German mechanical engineering company and parent company of the MAN Group.

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Marine propulsion

Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water.

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Maybach

Maybach Motorenbau is a defunct German car manufacturer that today exists as a sub-brand of Mercedes-Benz.

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Mercedes-Benz

Mercedes-Benz is a global automobile marque and a division of the German company Daimler AG.

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Mercedes-Benz 260 D

The Mercedes-Benz 260 D, coded Mercedes-Benz W 138 according to internal works designation, was one of the first two diesel engined series produced passenger cars, together with the diesel version of the Hanomag Rekord.

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Mercedes-Benz OM636

The Mercedes-Benz OM 636 is a diesel engine produced by Daimler-Benz.

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Methane

Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).

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Methanol

Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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Microvan

A microvan is a van or minivan that fits into Japanese kei car classification or similar, which is smaller than a mini MPV In China, these vehicles are nicknamed mian bao che ("bread loaf vehicle") because of their shape, in a similar fashion, in several Hispanic American countries these vehicles are called Pan de Molde, which means "bread loaf".

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Mineral oil

Mineral oil is any of various colorless, odorless, light mixtures of higher alkanes from a mineral source, particularly a distillate of petroleum.

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Mitsubishi 4N1 engine

The Mitsubishi 4N1 engine is a family of all-alloy four-cylinder diesel engines developed by Mitsubishi Motors, produced at the company's powertrain facility in Kyoto, Japan for use in Mitsubishi's small to mid-sized global passenger cars.

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Mitsubishi Heavy Industries

is a Japanese multinational engineering, electrical equipment and electronics company headquartered in Tokyo, Japan.

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Mitsubishi Motors

is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan.

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Motorcycle

A motorcycle, often called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two-> or three-wheeled motor vehicle.

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Multiple unit

A multiple-unit train or simply multiple unit (MU) is a self-propelled train composed of one or more carriages joined together, which when coupled to another multiple unit can be controlled by a single driver.

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Napier Deltic

The Napier Deltic engine is a British opposed-piston valveless, supercharged uniflow scavenged, two-stroke Diesel engine used in marine and locomotive applications, designed and produced by D. Napier & Son.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Nürburgring

The Nürburgring is a 150,000 person capacity motorsports complex located in the town of Nürburg, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.

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New London Ship and Engine Company

The New London Ship and Engine Company (NELSECO) was established in Groton, Connecticut as a subsidiary of the Electric Boat Company to manufacture diesel engines.

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New Year

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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New Year's Eve

In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.

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Nicéphore Niépce

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce (7 March 1765 – 5 July 1833) was a French inventor, now usually credited as the inventor of photography and a pioneer in that field.

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Nitrogen oxide

Nitrogen oxide may refer to a binary compound of oxygen and nitrogen, or a mixture of such compounds.

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Non-road engine

Non-road engine (which may include non-road equipment and non-road vehicle) is an internal combustion engine or a gas turbine engine used for other purposes than being an engine of a vehicle operated on public roadways.

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Octane

Octane is a hydrocarbon and an alkane with the chemical formula C8H18, and the condensed structural formula CH3(CH2)6CH3.

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Off-road vehicle

An off-road vehicle is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface.

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Oil field

An "oil field" or "oilfield" is a region with an abundance of oil wells extracting petroleum (crude oil) from below ground.

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Oldsmobile Diesel engine

Oldsmobile produced three versions of a diesel engine between 1978 to 1985: a 350 CID (5.7 litre) V8 in 1978-85, a 263 CID (4.3 litre) V8 in 1979, and a 261 CID (4.3 litre) V6 1982-1985.

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Opel Vectra

The Opel Vectra is a large family car that was engineered and produced by the German automaker Opel.

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Operating temperature

An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.

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Opposed-piston engine

An opposed-piston engine is a reciprocating internal combustion engine in which each cylinder has a piston at both ends, and no cylinder head.

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Oscillation

Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.

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Otto cycle

An Otto cycle is an idealized thermodynamic cycle that describes the functioning of a typical spark ignition piston engine.

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Otto engine

The Otto engine was a large stationary single-cylinder internal combustion four-stroke engine designed by Nikolaus Otto.

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Partially premixed combustion

Partially premixed combustion (PPC), also known as PPCI (partially-premixed compression ignition) or GDCI (gasoline direct-injection compression-ignition) is a modern combustion process intended to be used in internal combustion engines of automobiles and other motorized vehicles in the future.

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Peanut oil

Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a mild-tasting vegetable oil derived from peanuts.

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Perkins Engines

Perkins Engines (officially Perkins Engines Company Limited), a subsidiary of Caterpillar Inc., is primarily a diesel engine manufacturer for several markets including Agricultural, Construction, Material Handling, Power Generation and Industrial.

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Petrol engine

A petrol engine (known as a gasoline engine in American English) is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol (gasoline) and similar volatile fuels.

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Petroleum

Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Peugeot

Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA.

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Peugeot 204

The Peugeot 204 is a small family car produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot between 1965 and 1976.

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Peugeot 604

The Peugeot 604 is an executive car produced by the French manufacturer Peugeot from 1975 to 1985.

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Piaggio

Piaggio & C. SpA (Piaggio) is an Italian motor vehicle manufacturer, which via its subsidiaries designs, engineers, manufactures and distributes two wheeled motor vehicles and compact commercial vehicles under seven brands: Piaggio, Vespa, Gilera, Aprilia, Moto Guzzi, Derbi, and Scarabeo.

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Piezoelectricity

Piezoelectricity is the electric charge that accumulates in certain solid materials (such as crystals, certain ceramics, and biological matter such as bone, DNA and various proteins) in response to applied mechanical stress.

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Pioneer Zephyr

The Pioneer Zephyr is a diesel-powered railroad train formed of railroad cars permanently articulated together with Jacobs bogies, built by the Budd Company in 1934 for the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad (CB&Q), commonly known as the Burlington.

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Pipeline transport

Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.

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Piston

A piston is a component of reciprocating engines, reciprocating pumps, gas compressors and pneumatic cylinders, among other similar mechanisms.

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Piston ring

A piston ring is a split ring that fits into a groove on the outer diameter of a piston in a reciprocating engine such as an internal combustion engine or steam engine.

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Power (physics)

In physics, power is the rate of doing work, the amount of energy transferred per unit time.

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Power-to-weight ratio

Power-to-weight ratio (or specific power or power-to-mass ratio) is a calculation commonly applied to engines and mobile power sources to enable the comparison of one unit or design to another.

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Propane

Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.

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Propeller

A propeller is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust.

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Prosper L'Orange

Prosper L'Orange (born 1 February 1876, Beirut; died 30 July 1939, Stuttgart) was a German engineer and inventor who pioneered the precombustion chamber (or prechamber), which made possible high-speed diesel engines that did not require an air compressor, and enabled them to be built small enough for use in road vehicles.

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Prototype

A prototype is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.

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Pump

A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action.

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Pyréolophore

The Pyréolophore (pea-ray-oh-loh-for) was the world's first internal combustion engine. It was invented in the early 19th century in Chalon-sur-Saône, France, by the Niépce brothers: Nicéphore (who went on to invent photography) and Claude. In 1807 the brothers ran a prototype internal combustion engine, and on 20 July 1807 a patent was granted by Napoleon Bonaparte after it had successfully powered a boat upstream on the river Saône. The Pyréolophore ran on what were believed to be "controlled dust explosions" of various experimental fuels. The fuels included mixtures of Lycopodium powder (the spores of Lycopodium, or clubmoss), finely crushed coal dust, and resin. Operating independently, in 1807 the Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built the De Rivaz engine, a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine. These practical engineering projects may have followed the 1673 theoretical design of an internal combustion engine by the Dutch scientist Christiaan Huygens. The separate, virtually contemporaneous implementations of this design in different modes of transport means that the de Rivaz engine may be correctly described as the first use of an internal combustion engine in an automobile (1808), whilst the Pyréolophore was the first use of an internal combustion engine in a boat (1807).

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R101

R101 was one of a pair of British rigid airships completed in 1929 as part of a British government programme to develop civil airships capable of service on long-distance routes within the British Empire.

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Raúl Pateras Pescara

Raúl Pateras Pescara de Castelluccio (1890 – 1966), marquis of Pateras-Pescara, was an engineer and inventor from Argentina who specialized in automobiles, helicopters and free-piston engines.

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Radio telescope

A radio telescope is a specialized antenna and radio receiver used to receive radio waves from astronomical radio sources in the sky in radio astronomy.

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Rail freight transport

Rail freight transport is the use of railroads and trains to transport cargo as opposed to human passengers.

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Ralph Budd

Ralph Budd (August 20, 1879 – February 2, 1962) was an American railroad executive.

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Rapeseed

Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.

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Renault

Groupe Renault is a French multinational automobile manufacturer established in 1899.

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Revolutions per minute

Revolutions per minute (abbreviated rpm, RPM, rev/min, r/min) is the number of turns in one minute.

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Richard Hornsby & Sons

Richard Hornsby & Sons was an engine and machinery manufacturer in Lincolnshire, England from 1828 until 1918.

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Robert Bosch GmbH

Robert Bosch GmbH, or Bosch, is a German multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany.

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Rolls-Royce Holdings

Rolls-Royce Holdings plc is a British multinational public limited company incorporated in February 2011 that owns Rolls-Royce, a business established in 1904 which today designs, manufactures and distributes power systems for aviation and other industries.

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Roots-type supercharger

The Roots type blower is a positive displacement lobe pump which operates by pumping a fluid with a pair of meshing lobes not unlike a set of stretched gears.

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Rudolf Diesel

Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (18 March 185829 September 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine, and for his mysterious death.

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Saurer

Adolph Saurer AG was a Swiss manufacturer of trucks and buses under the Saurer and Berna (beginning in 1929) brand names.

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Scania AB

Scania AB, formerly AB Scania-Vabis, is a major Swedish manufacturer of commercial vehicles – specifically heavy trucks and buses.

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Scavenging (automotive)

Uniflow scavenging In automotive usage, scavenging is the process of pushing exhausted gas-charge out of the cylinder and drawing in a fresh draught of air or fuel/air mixture for the next cycle.

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Scroll-type supercharger

The scroll-type supercharger is a positive displacement orbiting-spiral supercharger.

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SEAT

SEAT, S.A. (Sociedad Española de Automóviles de Turismo) is a Spanish automobile manufacturer with its head office in Martorell, Catalonia.

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SEAT León

The SEAT León (also spelled Leon outside of Spain) is a hatchback small family car built by the Spanish car manufacturer SEAT since October 1998.

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Ship

A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing.

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Six-stroke engine

The term six-stroke engine has been applied to a number of alternative internal combustion engine designs that attempt to improve on traditional two-stroke and four-stroke engines.

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Smart (marque)

smart is a German automotive marque and division of Daimler AG, based in Böblingen, Germany.

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Smart Fortwo

The Smart Fortwo (stylized as "smart fortwo") is a rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive, 2-seater hatchback city car manufactured and marketed by the Smart division of Daimler AG, introduced in 1998, now in its third generation.

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Solenoid

A solenoid (/ˈsolə.nɔɪd/) (from the French solénoïde, derived in turn from the Greek solen ("pipe, channel") and eidos ("form, shape")) is a coil wound into a tightly packed helix.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Spark plug

A spark plug (sometimes, in British English, a sparking plug, and, colloquially, a plug) is a device for delivering electric current from an ignition system to the combustion chamber of a spark-ignition engine to ignite the compressed fuel/air mixture by an electric spark, while containing combustion pressure within the engine.

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Stand-alone power system

A stand-alone power system (SAPS or SPS), also known as remote area power supply (RAPS), is an off-the-grid electricity system for locations that are not fitted with an electricity distribution system.

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Standby generator

Standby generators A standby generator is a back-up electrical system that operates automatically.

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Starter (engine)

A starter (also self-starter, self, cranking motor, or starter motor) is a device used to rotate (crank) an internal-combustion engine so as to initiate the engine's operation under its own power.

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Steam engine

A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.

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Steam turbine

A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft.

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Stirling engine

A Stirling engine is a heat engine that operates by cyclic compression and expansion of air or other gas (the working fluid) at different temperatures, such that there is a net conversion of heat energy to mechanical work.

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Stoewer

Stoewer was a German automobile manufacturer before World War II whose headquarters were in Stettin (Now Szczecin, Poland).

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Straight engine

The straight or inline engine is an internal-combustion engine with all cylinders aligned in one row and having no offset.

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Straight-14 engine

A straight-14 engine or inline-14 engine is a fourteen-cylinder internal combustion engine with all fourteen cylinders mounted in a straight line along the crankcase.

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Straight-twin engine

A straight-twin engine, also known as straight-two, inline-twin, vertical-twin, or parallel-twin is a two-cylinder piston engine which has its cylinders arranged side by side and its pistons connected to a common crankshaft.

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Stroke (engine)

In the context of an Internal combustion engine, the term stroke has the following related meanings.

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Subaru

(or) is the automobile manufacturing division of Japanese transportation conglomerate Subaru Corporation (formerly known as Fuji Heavy Industries), the twenty-second largest automaker by production worldwide in 2012.

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Submarine

A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.

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Sulfur

Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sulzer (manufacturer)

Sulzer Ltd. is a Swiss industrial engineering and manufacturing firm, founded by Salomon Sulzer-Bernet in 1775 and established as Sulzer Brothers Ltd. (Gebrüder Sulzer) in 1834 in Winterthur, Switzerland. Today it is a publicly traded company with international subsidiaries. The company's shares are listed on the Swiss Stock Exchange. Sulzer's core strengths are flow control and applicators. The company specializes in pumping solutions and services for rotating equipment, as well as separation, mixing and application technology. Sulzer Brothers helped develop shuttleless weaving, and their core business was loom manufacture. Rudolf Diesel worked for Sulzer in 1879, and in 1893 Sulzer bought certain rights to diesel engines. Sulzer built their first diesel engine in 1898.

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Super Chief

The Super Chief was one of the named passenger trains and the flagship of the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway.

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Supercharger

A supercharger is an air compressor that increases the pressure or density of air supplied to an internal combustion engine.

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Supermini

Supermini (also called B-segment across Europe) is a class of car larger than a city car but smaller than a small family car.

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Synthetic fuel

Synthetic fuel or synfuel is a liquid fuel, or sometimes gaseous fuel, obtained from syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, in which the syngas was derived from gasification of solid feedstocks such as coal or biomass or by reforming of natural gas.

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T-34

The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank that had a profound and lasting effect on the field of tank design.

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Tatra (company)

Tatra is a Czech vehicle manufacturer in Kopřivnice.

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Tatra 111

The Tatra 111 was a truck produced in Czechoslovakia by the Tatra company.

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Telescoping (mechanics)

Telescoping in mechanics describes the movement of one part sliding out from another, lengthening an object (such as a telescope or the lift arm of an aerial work platform) from its rest state.

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The Scotsman

The Scotsman is a Scottish compact newspaper and daily news website headquartered in Edinburgh.

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Thermal efficiency

In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency (\eta_ \) is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, furnace, or a refrigerator for example.

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Third World

The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.

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Toroid

In mathematics, a toroid is a surface of revolution with a hole in the middle, like a doughnut, forming a solid body.

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Torque

Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.

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Tractor

A tractor is an engineering vehicle specifically designed to deliver at a high tractive effort (or torque) at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction.

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Tractor vaporising oil

Tractor vaporising oil (or TVO) is a fuel for petrol-paraffin engines.

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Train

A train is a form of transport consisting of a series of connected vehicles that generally runs along a rail track to transport cargo or passengers.

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Transesterification

In organic chemistry, transesterfication is the process of exchanging the organic group R″ of an ester with the organic group R′ of an alcohol.

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Truck

A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo.

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Turbo-diesel

Turbo-diesel, also written as turbodiesel and turbo diesel, refers to any diesel engine equipped with a turbocharger.

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Turbocharged direct injection

Turbocharged direct injection or TDI is a design of turbodiesel engines featuring turbocharging and cylinder-direct fuel injection that was developed and produced by the Volkswagen Group (VW AG).

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Turbocharger

A turbocharger, or colloquially turbo, is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra air into the combustion chamber.

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Turbulence

In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.

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Two-stroke diesel engine

A two-stroke diesel engine is a diesel engine that works in two strokes.

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Two-stroke engine

A two-stroke (or two-cycle) engine is a type of internal combustion engine which completes a power cycle with two strokes (up and down movements) of the piston during only one crankshaft revolution.

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U-boat

U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".

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Unit injector

Unit injector (UI) is an integrated direct fuel injection system for diesel engines, combining the injector nozzle and the injection pump in a single component.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United States Army

The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.

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United States Environmental Protection Agency

The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.

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United States National Radio Quiet Zone

The National Radio Quiet Zone (NRQZ) is a large area of land in the United States designated as a radio quiet zone, in which radio transmissions are heavily restricted by law to facilitate scientific research and military intelligence.

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United States Navy

The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.

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Vandal (tanker)

Vandal was a river tanker designed by Karl Hagelin and Johny Johnson for Branobel.

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Vapor lock

Vapor lock is a problem that mostly affects gasoline-fueled internal combustion engines.

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Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.

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Variable valve timing

In internal combustion engines, variable valve timing (VVT) is the process of altering the timing of a valve lift event, and is often used to improve performance, fuel economy or emissions.

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Variable-geometry turbocharger

Variable-geometry turbochargers (VGTs), (also known as variable nozzle turbines/VNTs), are a family of turbochargers, usually designed to allow the effective aspect ratio (A:R) of the turbo to be altered as conditions change.

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Vegetable oil

Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.

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Vegetable oil fuel

Vegetable oil can be used as an alternative fuel in diesel engines and in heating oil burners.

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Vehicle emissions control

Vehicle emissions control is the study of reducing the emissions produced by motor vehicles, especially internal combustion engines.

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Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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Volatility (chemistry)

In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.

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Volkswagen

Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded on 28 May 1937 by the German Labour Front under Adolf Hitler and headquartered in Wolfsburg.

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Volkswagen emissions scandal

The Volkswagen emissions scandal (also called "emissionsgate" or "dieselgate") began in September 2015, when the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a notice of violation of the Clean Air Act to German automaker Volkswagen Group.

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Volkswagen Group

Volkswagen AG, known internationally as the Volkswagen Group, is a German multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Volvo

The Volvo Group (Volvokoncernen; legally Aktiebolaget Volvo, shortened to AB Volvo) (stylized as VOLVO) is a Swedish multinational manufacturing company headquartered in Gothenburg.

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Waste heat recovery unit

A waste heat recovery unit (WHRU) is an energy recovery heat exchanger that transfers heat from process outputs at high temperature to another part of the process for some purpose, usually increased efficiency.

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Wärtsilä

Wärtsilä is a Finnish corporation which manufactures and services power sources and other equipment in the marine and energy markets.

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Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C

The Wärtsilä RT-flex96C is a two-stroke turbocharged low-speed diesel engine designed by the Finnish manufacturer Wärtsilä.

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Winter diesel fuel

Winter diesel fuel (also known as winter diesel or winterized diesel (AE)) refers to diesel fuel enhanced to prevent it from gelling in cold weather conditions.

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Wood gas

Wood gas is a syngas fuel which can be used as a fuel for furnaces, stoves and vehicles in place of gasoline, diesel or other fuels.

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World Touring Car Championship

The FIA World Touring Car Championship was an international touring car championship promoted by Eurosport Events and sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yacht

A yacht is a watercraft used for pleasure or sports.

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Yacht Safety Bureau

The Yacht Safety Bureau, Inc.

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Yanmar

is a Japanese diesel engine manufacturer founded in Osaka, Japan in 1912.

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Yellow grease

Yellow grease, also termed used cooking oil (UCO), used vegetable oil (UVO), recycled vegetable oil, or waste vegetable oil (WVO) is recovered from businesses and industry that use the oil for cooking.

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12 Hours of Sebring

The 12 Hours of Sebring is an annual motorsport endurance race for sports cars held at Sebring International Raceway, on the site of the former Hendricks Army Airfield World War II air base in Sebring, Florida.

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2006 24 Hours of Le Mans

The 2006 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 74th Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place over 17–18 June 2006.

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2018

2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.

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2019

2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.

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7TP

The 7TP (siedmiotonowy polski - 7-tonne Polish) was a Polish light tank of the Second World War.

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Air-blast injection, Compression heating ignition, Compression ignition, Compression ignition engine, Compression-ignition, Compression-ignition engine, Diesel Engine, Diesel engines, Diesel internal combustion engine, Diesel internal combustion engines, Diesel knock, Diesel mechanic, Diesel motor, Diesel motors, Diesel propulsion, Diesel-engine, High Diesel Injection, Medium speed diesel engine, Medium speed engines, Scavenge blower, Solid injection, Start of injection.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diesel_engine

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