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Diesel fuel

Index Diesel fuel

Diesel fuel in general is any liquid fuel used in diesel engines, whose fuel ignition takes place, without any spark, as a result of compression of the inlet air mixture and then injection of fuel. [1]

186 relations: Acid rain, Adsorption, Agriculture, Algae, Alkane, Alkyl, Alkylbenzenes, Ammonia, Animal fat, Argus-Press, Armoured fighting vehicle, Aromatic hydrocarbon, ASTM D6751, Atmospheric pressure, Atom, Australia, AviaBellanca Aircraft, Backwoods Home Magazine, Baranov Central Institute of Aviation Motor Development, Beardmore Cyclone, Benz(a)anthracene, Bicycle, Biodiesel, Biogas, Biomass, Biomass to liquid, Black ice, BMW 109-718, Bottled gas, Bronchitis, Bus, Car, Carbon, Carbon monoxide, Central heating, Cetane number, Charles Lindbergh, Charomskiy ACh-30, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Coal liquefaction, Common ethanol fuel mixtures, Compression ratio, Cycloalkane, Daimler-Benz, Daimler-Benz DB 602, Dead centre (engineering), Detroit, Diesel automobile racing, Diesel engine, Diesel engine runaway, ..., Diesel exhaust, Diesel particulate filter, Dieselisation, Diluent, Dimethyl ether, Electronic control unit, EN 14214, EN 590, Engine efficiency, Ethanol fuel, European emission standards, Exposition Universelle (1900), External combustion engine, Fibre-reinforced plastic, Fischer–Tropsch process, Flash point, Fractional distillation, Fuel dyes, Fuel economy in automobiles, Fuel efficiency, Fuel filter, Fuel oil, Fuel tax, Gas to liquids, Gas turbine, Gasoline, Gasoline gallon equivalent, Gel, Germany, Glowplug, Greenhouse gas, Gulf of Mexico, H-Bio, Heating oil, Heavy equipment, Highway, Hybrid vehicle, Hydrocarbon, Hydrogenation, Indonesia, Injection pump, Jane's Information Group, Junkers, Junkers Jumo 205, Kerosene, Langley Air Force Base, Lean-burn, Lipid, Liquefied petroleum gas, Liquid fuel, Liquid–liquid extraction, List of diesel automobiles, Longman, Lubricant, Lubrication, LZ 129 Hindenburg, Methanol, Microorganism, Minneapolis, Molecule, Motorcycle, Multifuel, Naphthalene, Natural gas, Nitric acid, Non-commercial, Non-road engine, Norfolk, Virginia, NOx, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear fuel, Oil additive, Oil refinery, Operating temperature, Packard DR-980, Packard Proving Grounds, Palladium, Peanut oil, Pertamina, Petrol engine, Petroleum, Pilot plant, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Polymerization, PUREX, R101, Radial engine, Radioactive waste, Raffinate, Rapeseed, Redox, Rhodium, Roundabout, Rudolf Diesel, Ruthenium, Solvation, Soviet Union, Soybean oil, Stall (engine), Stoichiometry, Sulfate, Sulfide, Sulfur, Sulfur dioxide, Sulfur oxide, Sulfur trioxide, Sulfuric acid, Syngas, Tax, Tax evasion, Thermal efficiency, Tire, Tractor, Tractor vaporising oil, Transesterification, Transport, Triglyceride, Truck, Turbo-diesel, Turbocharger, Ultra-low-sulfur diesel, United States Department of Agriculture, United States Department of Health and Human Services, United States v. Imperial Petroleum, Inc., Unsaturated fat, Urea, Utica, Michigan, Vegetable oil, Vegetable oil refining, Viscosity, Walter E. Lees, William Beardmore and Company, Winter diesel fuel, World War II, 1-Nitropyrene, 2-Nitrofluorene. Expand index (136 more) »

Acid rain

Acid rain is a rain or any other form of precipitation that is unusually acidic, meaning that it has elevated levels of hydrogen ions (low pH).

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Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid to a surface.

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Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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In organic chemistry, an alkane, or paraffin (a historical name that also has other meanings), is an acyclic saturated hydrocarbon.

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In organic chemistry, an alkyl substituent is an alkane missing one hydrogen.

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The alkylbenzenes are derivatives of benzene, in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl groups of different sizes.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Animal fat

Animal fats and oils are lipid materials derived from animals.

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The Argus-Press is a daily newspaper published in Owosso, Michigan.

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Armoured fighting vehicle

An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.

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Aromatic hydrocarbon

An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.

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ASTM D6751

ASTM D6751 details standards and specifications for biodiesels blended with middle distillate fuels.

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Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).

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An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.

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AviaBellanca Aircraft

AviaBellanca Aircraft Corporation is an American aircraft design and manufacturing company.

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Backwoods Home Magazine

Backwoods Home Magazine is a bi-monthly American magazine.

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Baranov Central Institute of Aviation Motor Development

The P. I. Baranov Central Institute of Aviation Motor Development (also known as the "Central Institute for Aviation Motor Development named after P. I. Baranov" or simply "Central Institute of Aviation Motors", CIAM or TsIAM, Tsentralniy Institut Aviatsionnogo Motorostroeniya, Центральный Институт Авиационного Моторостроения) is the only specialized Russian research and engineering facility dealing with advanced aerospace propulsion research, aircraft engine certification and other gas dynamics-related issues.

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Beardmore Cyclone

The Beardmore Cyclone was an aero engine produced by William Beardmore & Co with the aim of producing an engine generating a high power output at low revolutions by designing an engine of large displacement.

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Benzanthracene or benzoanthracene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C18H12.

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A bicycle, also called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other.

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Biodiesel refers to a vegetable oil- or animal fat-based diesel fuel consisting of long-chain alkyl (methyl, ethyl, or propyl) esters.

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Biogas typically refers to a mixture of different gases produced by the breakdown of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.

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Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.

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Biomass to liquid

Biomass to liquid (BtL or BMtL) is a multi-step process of producing synthetic hydrocarbon fuels made from biomass via a thermochemical route.

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Black ice

Black ice, sometimes called clear ice, is a thin coating of glaze ice on a surface, especially on roads.

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BMW 109-718

The BMW 109-718 was a liquid-fuelled rocket engine developed by BMW at their Bruckmühl facility, in Germany during the Second World War.

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Bottled gas

Bottled gas is a term used for substances which are gaseous at standard temperature and pressure (STP) and have been compressed and stored in carbon steel, stainless steel, aluminum, or composite bottles known as gas cylinders.

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Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (large and medium-sized airways) in the lungs.

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A bus (archaically also omnibus, multibus, motorbus, autobus) is a road vehicle designed to carry many passengers.

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A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.

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Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.

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Carbon monoxide

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas that is slightly less dense than air.

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Central heating

A central heating system provides warmth to the whole interior of a building (or portion of a building) from one point to multiple rooms.

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Cetane number

Cetane number (cetane rating) is an indicator of the combustion speed of diesel fuel and compression needed for ignition.

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Charles Lindbergh

Charles Augustus Lindbergh (February 4, 1902 – August 26, 1974), nicknamed Lucky Lindy, The Lone Eagle, and Slim was an American aviator, military officer, author, inventor, explorer, and environmental activist.

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Charomskiy ACh-30

The Charomskiy ACh-30 was a Soviet aircraft diesel engine developed during World War II.

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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a type of obstructive lung disease characterized by long-term breathing problems and poor airflow.

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Coal liquefaction

Coal liquefaction is a process of converting coal into liquid hydrocarbons: liquid fuels and petrochemicals.

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Common ethanol fuel mixtures

Several common ethanol fuel mixtures are in use around the world.

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Compression ratio

The static compression ratio of an internal combustion engine or external combustion engine is a value that represents the ratio of the volume of its combustion chamber from its largest capacity to its smallest capacity.

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In organic chemistry, the cycloalkanes (also called naphthenes, but distinct from naphthalene) are the monocyclic saturated hydrocarbons.

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Daimler-Benz AG was a German manufacturer of motor vehicles and internal combustion engines, which was founded in 1926.

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Daimler-Benz DB 602

The Daimler-Benz DB 602 was a German diesel cycle aero engine designed and built in the early 1930s.

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Dead centre (engineering)

In a reciprocating engine, the dead centre is the position of a piston in which it is farthest from, or nearest to, the crankshaft.

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Detroit is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Michigan, the largest city on the United States–Canada border, and the seat of Wayne County.

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Diesel automobile racing

Diesel automobile racing can refer to any use of diesel as a fuel for racing cars.

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Diesel engine

The diesel engine (also known as a compression-ignition or CI engine), named after Rudolf Diesel, is an internal combustion engine in which ignition of the fuel which is injected into the combustion chamber is caused by the elevated temperature of the air in the cylinder due to mechanical compression (adiabatic compression).

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Diesel engine runaway

Diesel engine runaway is a rare condition affecting diesel engines, in which the engine draws extra fuel from an unintended source and overspeeds at higher and higher RPM and producing up to 10 times the engine's rated output until destroyed by mechanical failure or bearing seizure through lack of lubrication.

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Diesel exhaust

Diesel exhaust is the gaseous exhaust produced by a diesel type of internal combustion engine, plus any contained particulates.

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Diesel particulate filter

A diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a device designed to remove diesel particulate matter or soot from the exhaust gas of a diesel engine.

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Dieselisation or dieselization is a term generally used for the increasingly common use of diesel fuel in vehicles, or known to be said "Rise of diesel power" as opposed to gasoline or steam engines.

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A diluent (also referred to as a filler, dilutant or thinner) is a diluting agent.

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Dimethyl ether

Dimethyl ether (DME), also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3, simplified to C2H6O.

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Electronic control unit

An Electronic Control Unit (ECU) is any embedded system in automotive electronics that controls one or more of the electrical systems or subsystems in a vehicle.

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EN 14214

EN 14214 is a standard published by the European Committee for Standardization that describes the requirements and test methods for FAME - the most common type of biodiesel.

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EN 590

EN 590 is a standard published by the European Committee for Standardization that describes the physical properties that all automotive diesel fuel must meet if it is to be sold in the European Union and several other European countries.

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Engine efficiency

Engine efficiency of thermal engines is the relationship between the total energy contained in the fuel, and the amount of energy used to perform useful work.

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Ethanol fuel

Ethanol fuel is ethyl alcohol, the same type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, used as fuel.

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European emission standards

European emission standards define the acceptable limits for exhaust emissions of new vehicles sold in EU and EEA member states.

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Exposition Universelle (1900)

The Exposition Universelle of 1900 was a world's fair held in Paris, France, from 14 April to 12 November 1900, to celebrate the achievements of the past century and to accelerate development into the next.

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External combustion engine

An external combustion engine (EC engine) is a heat engine where a working fluid, contained internally, is heated by combustion in an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger.

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Fibre-reinforced plastic

Fibre-reinforced plastic (FRP) (also called fiber-reinforced polymer, or fiber-reinforced plastic) is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres.

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Fischer–Tropsch process

The Fischer–Tropsch process is a collection of chemical reactions that converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons.

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Flash point

The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source.

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Fractional distillation

Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions.

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Fuel dyes

Fuel dyes are dyes added to fuels, as in some countries it is required by law to dye a low-tax fuel to deter its use in applications intended for higher-taxed ones.

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Fuel economy in automobiles

The fuel economy of an automobile is the relationship between the distance traveled and the amount of fuel consumed by the vehicle.

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Fuel efficiency

Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio from effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work.

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Fuel filter

A fuel filter is a filter in the fuel line that screens out dirt and rust particles from the fuel, normally made into cartridges containing a filter paper.

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Fuel oil

Fuel oil (also known as heavy oil, marine fuel or furnace oil) is a fraction obtained from petroleum distillation, either as a distillate or a residue.

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Fuel tax

A fuel tax (also known as a petrol, gasoline or gas tax, or as a fuel duty) is an excise tax imposed on the sale of fuel.

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Gas to liquids

Gas to liquids (GTL) is a refinery process to convert natural gas or other gaseous hydrocarbons into longer-chain hydrocarbons, such as gasoline or diesel fuel.

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Gas turbine

A gas turbine, also called a combustion turbine, is a type of continuous combustion, internal combustion engine.

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Gasoline (American English), or petrol (British English), is a transparent, petroleum-derived liquid that is used primarily as a fuel in spark-ignited internal combustion engines.

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Gasoline gallon equivalent

Gasoline gallon equivalent (GGE) or gasoline-equivalent gallon (GEG) is the amount of alternative fuel it takes to equal the energy content of one liquid gallon of gasoline.

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A gel is a solid jelly-like material that can have properties ranging from soft and weak to hard and tough.

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Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.

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A glowplug (alternatively spelled as glow plug or glow-plug) is a heating device used to aid starting diesel engines.

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Greenhouse gas

A greenhouse gas is a gas in an atmosphere that absorbs and emits radiant energy within the thermal infrared range.

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Gulf of Mexico

The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.

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H-Bio is an oil-refining processes which involves converting vegetable oil into high-quality diesel via hydrogenation.

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Heating oil

Heating oil is a low viscosity, liquid petroleum product used as a fuel oil for furnaces or boilers in buildings.

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Heavy equipment

Heavy equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations.

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A highway is any public or private road or other public way on land.

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Hybrid vehicle

A hybrid vehicle uses two or more distinct types of power, such as internal combustion engine to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, e.g. in diesel-electric trains using diesel engines to drive an electric generator that powers an electric motor, and submarines that use diesels when surfaced and batteries when submerged.

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In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.

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Hydrogenation – to treat with hydrogen – is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen (H2) and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst such as nickel, palladium or platinum.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Injection pump

An Injection Pump is the device that pumps diesel (as the fuel) into the cylinders of a diesel engine.

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Jane's Information Group

Jane's Information Group (often referred to as Jane's) is a British publishing company specialising in military, aerospace and transportation topics.

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Junkers Flugzeug- und Motorenwerke AG (JFM, earlier JCO or JKO in World War I), more commonly Junkers, was a major German aircraft and aircraft engine manufacturer.

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Junkers Jumo 205

The Junkers Jumo 205 aircraft engine was the most famous of a series of aircraft Diesel engines that were the first, and for more than half a century the only successful aviation Diesel powerplants.

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Kerosene, also known as paraffin, lamp oil, and coal oil (an obsolete term), is a combustible hydrocarbon liquid which is derived from petroleum.

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Langley Air Force Base

Langley Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located adjacent to Hampton and Newport News, Virginia.

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Lean-burn refers to the burning of fuel with an excess of air in an internal combustion engine.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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Liquefied petroleum gas

Liquefied petroleum gas or liquid petroleum gas (LPG or LP gas), also referred to as simply propane or butane, are flammable mixtures of hydrocarbon gases used as fuel in heating appliances, cooking equipment, and vehicles.

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Liquid fuel

Liquid fuels are combustible or energy-generating molecules that can be harnessed to create mechanical energy, usually producing kinetic energy; they also must take the shape of their container.

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Liquid–liquid extraction

Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).

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List of diesel automobiles

The following is a list of automobiles (including pickup trucks, SUVs, and vans) made with diesel engines.

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Longman, commonly known as Pearson Longman, is a publishing company founded in London, England, in 1724 and is owned by Pearson PLC.

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A lubricant is a substance, usually organic, introduced to reduce friction between surfaces in mutual contact, which ultimately reduces the heat generated when the surfaces move.

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Lubrication is the process or technique of using a lubricant to reduce friction and/or wear in a contact between two surfaces.

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LZ 129 Hindenburg

LZ 129 Hindenburg (Luftschiff Zeppelin #129; Registration: D-LZ 129) was a large German commercial passenger-carrying rigid airship, the lead ship of the ''Hindenburg'' class, the longest class of flying machine and the largest airship by envelope volume.

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Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol among others, is a chemical with the formula CH3OH (a methyl group linked to a hydroxyl group, often abbreviated MeOH).

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Minneapolis is the county seat of Hennepin County, and the larger of the Twin Cities, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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A motorcycle, often called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two-> or three-wheeled motor vehicle.

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Multifuel, sometimes spelled multi-fuel, is any type of engine, boiler, or heater or other fuel-burning device which is designed to burn multiple types of fuels in its operation.

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Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula.

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Natural gas

Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.

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Nitric acid

Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.

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Non-commercial (also spelled noncommercial) refers to an activity or entity that does not, in some sense, involve commerce, at least relative to similar activities that do have a commercial objective or emphasis.

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Non-road engine

Non-road engine (which may include non-road equipment and non-road vehicle) is an internal combustion engine or a gas turbine engine used for other purposes than being an engine of a vehicle operated on public roadways.

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Norfolk, Virginia

Norfolk is an independent city in the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.

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In atmospheric chemistry, is a generic term for the nitrogen oxides that are most relevant for air pollution, namely nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide.

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Nuclear fission product

Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.

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Nuclear fuel

Nuclear fuel is a substance that is used in nuclear power stations to produce heat to power turbines.

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Oil additive

Oil additives are chemical compounds that improve the lubricant performance of base oil (or oil "base stock").

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Oil refinery

Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.

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Operating temperature

An operating temperature is the temperature at which an electrical or mechanical device operates.

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Packard DR-980

The Packard DR-980 is an American nine-cylinder air-cooled aircraft Diesel engine first certificated in 1930.

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Packard Proving Grounds

The Packard Proving Grounds (the remains of which are now called the Packard Proving Grounds Gateway Complex), was a proving ground established in Shelby Charter Township, Michigan in 1927 by the Packard Motor Car Company of Detroit.

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Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46.

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Peanut oil

Peanut oil, also known as groundnut oil or arachis oil, is a mild-tasting vegetable oil derived from peanuts.

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PT Pertamina (Persero) or Pertamina (was Perusahaan Pertambangan Minyak dan Gas Bumi Negara, lit. 'State Oil and Natural Gas Mining Company') is an Indonesian state-owned oil and natural gas corporation based in Jakarta.

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Petrol engine

A petrol engine (known as a gasoline engine in American English) is an internal combustion engine with spark-ignition, designed to run on petrol (gasoline) and similar volatile fuels.

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Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.

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Pilot plant

A pilot plant is a pre-commercial production system that employs new production technology and/or produces small volumes of new technology-based products, mainly for the purpose of learning about the new technology.

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).

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In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.

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PUREX is a chemical method used to purify fuel for nuclear reactors or nuclear weapons.

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R101 was one of a pair of British rigid airships completed in 1929 as part of a British government programme to develop civil airships capable of service on long-distance routes within the British Empire.

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Radial engine

The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders "radiate" outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel.

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Radioactive waste

Radioactive waste is waste that contains radioactive material.

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In chemical separation terminology, the raffinate (from French raffiner, to refine) is a product which has had a component or components removed.

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Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as rape, oilseed rape, (and, in the case of one particular group of cultivars, canola), is a bright-yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage family), cultivated mainly for its oil-rich seed.

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Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Rhodium is a chemical element with symbol Rh and atomic number 45.

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A roundabout, also called a traffic circle, road circle, rotary, rotunda or island, is a type of circular intersection or junction in which road traffic flows almost continuously in one direction around a central island.

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Rudolf Diesel

Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel (18 March 185829 September 1913) was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine, and for his mysterious death.

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Ruthenium is a chemical element with symbol Ru and atomic number 44.

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Solvation describes the interaction of solvent with dissolved molecules.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Soybean oil

Soybean oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the soybean (Glycine max).

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Stall (engine)

A stall is the slowing or stopping of a process and in the case of an engine refers to a sudden stopping of the engine turning, usually brought about accidentally.

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Stoichiometry is the calculation of reactants and products in chemical reactions.

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The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.

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Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.

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Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.

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Sulfur dioxide

Sulfur dioxide (also sulphur dioxide in British English) is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Sulfur oxide

Sulfur oxide refers to many types of sulfur and oxygen containing compounds such as SO, SO2, SO3, S7O2, S6O2, S2O2, etc.

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Sulfur trioxide

Sulfur trioxide (alternative spelling sulphur trioxide) is the chemical compound with the formula SO3.

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Sulfuric acid

Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.

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Syngas, or synthesis gas, is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and very often some carbon dioxide.

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A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.

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Tax evasion

Tax evasion is the illegal evasion of taxes by individuals, corporations, and trusts.

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Thermal efficiency

In thermodynamics, the thermal efficiency (\eta_ \) is a dimensionless performance measure of a device that uses thermal energy, such as an internal combustion engine, a steam turbine or a steam engine, a boiler, furnace, or a refrigerator for example.

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A tire (American English) or tyre (British English; see spelling differences) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.

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A tractor is an engineering vehicle specifically designed to deliver at a high tractive effort (or torque) at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction.

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Tractor vaporising oil

Tractor vaporising oil (or TVO) is a fuel for petrol-paraffin engines.

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In organic chemistry, transesterfication is the process of exchanging the organic group R″ of an ester with the organic group R′ of an alcohol.

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Transport or transportation is the movement of humans, animals and goods from one location to another.

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A triglyceride (TG, triacylglycerol, TAG, or triacylglyceride) is an ester derived from glycerol and three fatty acids (from tri- and glyceride).

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A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo.

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Turbo-diesel, also written as turbodiesel and turbo diesel, refers to any diesel engine equipped with a turbocharger.

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A turbocharger, or colloquially turbo, is a turbine-driven forced induction device that increases an internal combustion engine's efficiency and power output by forcing extra air into the combustion chamber.

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Ultra-low-sulfur diesel

Ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) is diesel fuel with substantially lowered sulfur content.

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United States Department of Agriculture

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), also known as the Agriculture Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services.

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United States v. Imperial Petroleum, Inc.

United States vs.

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Unsaturated fat

An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there is at least one double bond within the fatty acid chain.

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Urea, also known as carbamide, is an organic compound with chemical formula CO(NH2)2.

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Utica, Michigan

Utica is a city in Macomb County in the U.S. state of Michigan.

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Vegetable oil

Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.

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Vegetable oil refining

Vegetable oil refining is a process to transform vegetable oil into biofuel by hydrocracking or hydrogenation.

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The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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Walter E. Lees

Walter Edwin Lees (July 16, 1887 – May 16, 1957) was an early American aviator who set a flight endurance record in 1931.

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William Beardmore and Company

William Beardmore and Company was a Scottish engineering and shipbuilding conglomerate based in Glasgow and the surrounding Clydeside area.

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Winter diesel fuel

Winter diesel fuel (also known as winter diesel or winterized diesel (AE)) refers to diesel fuel enhanced to prevent it from gelling in cold weather conditions.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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1-Nitropyrene is a by-product of combustion and is the predominant nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pyrene) emitted in a diesel engine.

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2-Nitrofluorene is a by-product of combustion and is a nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (fluorene).

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D2 Diesel, DERV, Derv, Diesel fuel/redirs, Diesel oil, Dinodiesel, Disel fuel, Fossil diesel, Gas oil, Gazole (fuel), Oil gas, Petrodiesel, Petroleum diesel, Regular diesel, Synthetic diesel, Vacuum gas oil.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diesel_fuel

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