178 relations: Adverse event, Aegle marmelos, Allergy, Alliance for Natural Health, Alpha-Linolenic acid, Alternative medicine, Amino acid, Anabolic steroid, Antioxidant, Arginine, Arsenic, Attorney general, Biosynthesis, Bodybuilding supplement, Boron, Branched-chain amino acid, Breast cancer, Buyers club, Cadmium, Calcium, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Carbon, Cardiovascular disease, Catechin, CBC News, Chemical element, Chlorine, Chromium, Clinical research, Cobalt, Collagen, Commissary, Common cold, Compendium, Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials, Constipation, Consumer Reports, ConsumerLab.com, Copper, Coronary artery disease, Cranberry, Curcumin, Cysteine, Database, Department of Health (Australia), Diarrhea, Dietary fiber, Dietary Reference Intake, Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, Dietary Supplements (database), ..., Direct selling, DNA, Docosahexaenoic acid, Drug, Eastern Europe, Economic impact analysis, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Essential fatty acid, European Commission, European Court of Justice, European Food Safety Authority, European Medicines Agency, European Union, Examine.com, Exogeny, Extract, Fatty acid, FDA warning letter, Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, Federal Trade Commission, Fetus, Folate, Food, Food additive, Food and Drug Administration, Food fortification, Gastrointestinal tract, Genetics, Ginkgo biloba, Ginseng, Glucosamine, Good manufacturing practice, Government Accountability Office, Health, Health claim, Health insurance, Health professional, Healthy diet, Hepatocyte, Hepatotoxicity, Herbalism, HIV, Hydrogen, Hypericum perforatum, Immune system, Injunction, Iodine, Iron, Iron-deficiency anemia, JAMA Internal Medicine, Jaundice, Lawsuit, Lead, Linoleic acid, Liver disease, Magnesium, Maine, Manganese, Meal replacement, Medical food, Medication, Megavitamin therapy, Melatonin, Mercury (element), Methylsulfonylmethane, Microbiota, Mineral (nutrient), Molybdenum, Monounsaturated fat, Multivitamin, Myocardial infarction, National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Institutes of Health, Natural Health Products Directorate, Natural Standard, Neural tube defect, New York (state), Nitrogen, Nutraceutical, Nutrient, Omega-3 fatty acid, Omega-6 fatty acid, Organic compound, Organism, Oxygen, Packaging and labeling, Pharmacy, Phosphorus, Pigment, Plant-based diet, Polyphenol, Polyunsaturated fat, Potassium, Preservative, Probiotic, Protein-sparing modified fast, Psychiatry, Public health, Respiratory tract infection, Resveratrol, Sarcopenia, Saturated fat, Search and seizure, Seaweed, Selenium, Silicon, Sodium, Stroke, Sulfur, Supermarket, Taurine, The Times, Therapeutic Goods Administration, Tuberculosis, Undercover operation, United Kingdom, United States, United States Congress, United States National Agricultural Library, United States National Library of Medicine, Vitamin, Vitamin A, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin deficiency, Western pattern diet, Zinc. Expand index (128 more) » « Shrink index
An adverse event (AE) is any untoward medical occurrence in a patient or clinical investigation subject administered a pharmaceutical product and which does not necessarily have a causal relationship with this treatment.
Aegle marmelos L., commonly known as bael (or bili or bhel), also Bengal quince, golden apple, Japanese bitter orange, stone apple or wood apple, is a species of tree native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
The Alliance for Natural Health (ANH) is an advocacy group founded in 2002 by Robert Verkerk and based in the United Kingdom.
α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is an n−3 fatty acid.
Alternative medicine, fringe medicine, pseudomedicine or simply questionable medicine is the use and promotion of practices which are unproven, disproven, impossible to prove, or excessively harmful in relation to their effect — in the attempt to achieve the healing effects of medicine.--> --> --> They differ from experimental medicine in that the latter employs responsible investigation, and accepts results that show it to be ineffective. The scientific consensus is that alternative therapies either do not, or cannot, work. In some cases laws of nature are violated by their basic claims; in some the treatment is so much worse that its use is unethical. Alternative practices, products, and therapies range from only ineffective to having known harmful and toxic effects.--> Alternative therapies may be credited for perceived improvement through placebo effects, decreased use or effect of medical treatment (and therefore either decreased side effects; or nocebo effects towards standard treatment),--> or the natural course of the condition or disease. Alternative treatment is not the same as experimental treatment or traditional medicine, although both can be misused in ways that are alternative. Alternative or complementary medicine is dangerous because it may discourage people from getting the best possible treatment, and may lead to a false understanding of the body and of science.-->---> Alternative medicine is used by a significant number of people, though its popularity is often overstated.--> Large amounts of funding go to testing alternative medicine, with more than US$2.5 billion spent by the United States government alone.--> Almost none show any effect beyond that of false treatment,--> and most studies showing any effect have been statistical flukes. Alternative medicine is a highly profitable industry, with a strong lobby. This fact is often overlooked by media or intentionally kept hidden, with alternative practice being portrayed positively when compared to "big pharma". --> The lobby has successfully pushed for alternative therapies to be subject to far less regulation than conventional medicine.--> Alternative therapies may even be allowed to promote use when there is demonstrably no effect, only a tradition of use. Regulation and licensing of alternative medicine and health care providers varies between and within countries. Despite laws making it illegal to market or promote alternative therapies for use in cancer treatment, many practitioners promote them.--> Alternative medicine is criticized for taking advantage of the weakest members of society.--! Terminology has shifted over time, reflecting the preferred branding of practitioners.. Science Based Medicine--> For example, the United States National Institutes of Health department studying alternative medicine, currently named National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health, was established as the Office of Alternative Medicine and was renamed the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine before obtaining its current name. Therapies are often framed as "natural" or "holistic", in apparent opposition to conventional medicine which is "artificial" and "narrow in scope", statements which are intentionally misleading. --> When used together with functional medical treatment, alternative therapies do not "complement" (improve the effect of, or mitigate the side effects of) treatment.--> Significant drug interactions caused by alternative therapies may instead negatively impact functional treatment, making it less effective, notably in cancer.--> Alternative diagnoses and treatments are not part of medicine, or of science-based curricula in medical schools, nor are they used in any practice based on scientific knowledge or experience.--> Alternative therapies are often based on religious belief, tradition, superstition, belief in supernatural energies, pseudoscience, errors in reasoning, propaganda, fraud, or lies.--> Alternative medicine is based on misleading statements, quackery, pseudoscience, antiscience, fraud, and poor scientific methodology. Promoting alternative medicine has been called dangerous and unethical.--> Testing alternative medicine that has no scientific basis has been called a waste of scarce research resources.--> Critics state that "there is really no such thing as alternative medicine, just medicine that works and medicine that doesn't",--> that the very idea of "alternative" treatments is paradoxical, as any treatment proven to work is by definition "medicine".-->.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Anabolic steroids, also known more properly as anabolic–androgenic steroids (AAS), are steroidal androgens that include natural androgens like testosterone as well as synthetic androgens that are structurally related and have similar effects to testosterone.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General (sometimes abbreviated as AG) or Attorney-General (plural: Attorneys General (traditional) or Attorney Generals) is the main legal advisor to the government, and in some jurisdictions, they may also have executive responsibility for law enforcement, prosecutions or even responsibility for legal affairs generally.
Biosynthesis (also called anabolism) is a multi-step, enzyme-catalyzed process where substrates are converted into more complex products in living organisms.
s are s commonly used by those involved in bodybuilding, weightlifting, mixed martial arts, and athletics for the purpose of facilitating an increase in lean body mass.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
A branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) is an amino acid having aliphatic side-chains with a branch (a central carbon atom bound to three or more carbon atoms).
Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.
A buyers club or buying club is a club organized to pool members' collective buying power, enabling them to make purchases at lower prices than are generally available, or to purchase goods that might be difficult to obtain independently.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (Société Radio-Canada), branded as CBC/Radio-Canada, is a Canadian federal Crown corporation that serves as the national public broadcaster for both radio and television.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Catechin is a flavan-3-ol, a type of natural phenol and antioxidant.
CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chlorine is a chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17.
Chromium is a chemical element with symbol Cr and atomic number 24.
Clinical research is a branch of healthcare science that determines the safety and effectiveness (efficacy) of medications, devices, diagnostic products and treatment regimens intended for human use.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.
A commissary is a government official charged with oversight or an ecclesiastical official who exercises in special circumstances the jurisdiction of a bishop.
The common cold, also known simply as a cold, is a viral infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract that primarily affects the nose.
A compendium (plural: compendia) is a concise compilation of a body of knowledge.
CONSORT (Consolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials) encompasses various initiatives developed by the CONSORT Group to alleviate the problems arising from inadequate reporting of randomized controlled trials.
Constipation refers to bowel movements that are infrequent or hard to pass.
Consumer Reports is an American magazine published since 1930 by Consumers Union, a nonprofit organization dedicated to unbiased product testing, consumer-oriented research, public education, and advocacy.
ConsumerLab.com, LLC. is a privately held American company registered in White Plains, NY.
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium.
Curcumin is a bright yellow chemical produced by some plants.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.
The Department of Health is a department of the Government of Australia charged with overseeing the running of Australia's health system, including supporting universal and affordable access to medical, pharmaceutical and hospital services, as well as helping people to stay healthy through health promotion, participation and exercise and other disease prevention activities.
Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea, is the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day.
Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.
The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of the National Academies (United States).
The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 ("DSHEA"), is a 1994 statute of United States Federal legislation which defines and regulates dietary supplements.
The PubMed Dietary Supplement Subset (PMDSS) is a joint project between the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Library of Medicine (NLM) and the NIH Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS).
Modern direct selling includes sales made through the party plan, one-on-one demonstrations, and other personal contact arrangements as well as internet sales.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid that is a primary structural component of the human brain, cerebral cortex, skin, and retina.
A drug is any substance (other than food that provides nutritional support) that, when inhaled, injected, smoked, consumed, absorbed via a patch on the skin, or dissolved under the tongue causes a temporary physiological (and often psychological) change in the body.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
An economic impact analysis (EIA) examines the effect of an event on the economy in a specified area, ranging from a single neighborhood to the entire globe.
Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; also icosapentaenoic acid) is an omega-3 fatty acid.
Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that humans and other animals must ingest because the body requires them for good health but cannot synthesize them.
The European Commission (EC) is an institution of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
The European Court of Justice (ECJ), officially just the Court of Justice (Cour de Justice), is the supreme court of the European Union in matters of European Union law.
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) is the agency of the European Union (EU) that provides independent scientific advice and communicates on existing and emerging risks associated with the food chain.
The European Medicines Agency (EMA) is a European Union agency for the evaluation of medicinal products.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Examine.com is a Canadian company that runs an online encyclopedia covering health, nutrition, and supplementation.
In a variety of contexts, exogeny or exogeneity is the fact of an action or object originating externally.
An extract is a substance made by extracting a part of a raw material, often by using a solvent such as ethanol or water.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
An FDA warning letter is an official message from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to a manufacturer or other organization that has violated some rule in a federally regulated activity.
The United States Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (abbreviated as FFDCA, FDCA, or FD&C), is a set of laws passed by Congress in 1938 giving authority to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to oversee the safety of food, drugs, and cosmetics.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act.
A fetus is a stage in the prenatal development of viviparous organisms.
Folate, distinct forms of which are known as folic acid, folacin, and vitamin B9, is one of the B vitamins.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Food fortification or enrichment is the process of adding micronutrients (essential trace elements and vitamins) to food.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Ginkgo biloba, commonly known as ginkgo or gingko (both pronounced), also known as the maidenhair tree, is the only living species in the division Ginkgophyta, all others being extinct.
Ginseng is the root of plants in the genus Panax, such as Korean ginseng (P. ginseng), South China ginseng (P. notoginseng), and American ginseng (P. quinquefolius), typically characterized by the presence of ginsenosides and gintonin.
Glucosamine (C6H13NO5) is an amino sugar and a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids.
Good manufacturing practices (GMP) are the practices required in order to conform to the guidelines recommended by agencies that control the authorization and licensing of the manufacture and sale of food and beverages, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products, dietary supplements, and medical devices.
The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is a legislative branch government agency that provides auditing, evaluation, and investigative services for the United States Congress.
Health is the ability of a biological system to acquire, convert, allocate, distribute, and utilize energy with maximum efficiency.
Health claims on food labels and in food marketing are claims by manufacturers of food products that their food will reduce the risk of developing a disease or condition.
Health insurance is insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons.
A health professional, health practitioner or healthcare provider (sometimes simply "provider") is an individual who provides preventive, curative, promotional or rehabilitative health care services in a systematic way to people, families or communities.
A healthy diet is a diet that helps to maintain or improve overall health.
A hepatocyte is a cell of the main parenchymal tissue of the liver.
Hepatotoxicity (from hepatic toxicity) implies chemical-driven liver damage.
Herbalism (also herbal medicine or phytotherapy) is the study of botany and use of plants intended for medicinal purposes or for supplementing a diet.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
An injunction is an equitable remedy in the form of a court order that compels a party to do or refrain from specific acts.
Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron-deficiency anemia is anemia caused by a lack of iron.
JAMA Internal Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal published monthly by the American Medical Association.
Jaundice, also known as icterus, is a yellowish or greenish pigmentation of the skin and whites of the eyes due to high bilirubin levels.
A lawsuit (or suit in law) is "a vernacular term for a suit, action, or cause instituted or depending between two private persons in the courts of law." A lawsuit is any proceeding by a party or parties against another in a court of law.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Linoleic acid (LA), a carboxylic acid, is a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid, an 18-carbon chain with two double bonds in cis configuration.
Liver disease (also called hepatic disease) is a type of damage to or disease of the liver.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
A meal replacement is a drink, bar, soup, etc.
Medical foods are foods that are specially formulated and intended for the dietary management of a disease that has distinctive nutritional needs that cannot be met by normal diet alone.
A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.
Megavitamin therapy is the use of large doses of vitamins, often many times greater than the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) in the attempt to prevent or treat diseases.
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is an organosulfur compound with the formula (CH3)2SO2.
A microbiota is an "ecological community of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microorganisms" found in and on all multicellular organisms studied to date from plants to animals.
In the context of nutrition, a mineral is a chemical element required as an essential nutrient by organisms to perform functions necessary for life.
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42.
In biochemistry and nutrition, monounsaturated fatty acids (abbreviated MUFAs, or more plainly monounsaturated fats) are fatty acids that have one double bond in the fatty acid chain with all of the remainder carbon atoms being single-bonded.
A multivitamin is a preparation intended to serve as a dietary supplement - with vitamins, dietary minerals, and other nutritional elements.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) is a United States government agency which explores complementary and alternative medicine (CAM).
The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a survey research program conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States, and to track changes over time.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
The Natural Health Products Directorate (NHPD) is the division of the Health Products and Food Branch of Health Canada that is responsible for implementation of the Natural Health Product Regulations, including Good Manufacturing Practices, for Natural Health Products for sale in Canada.
Natural Standard is an international research collaboration that systematically reviews scientific evidence on complementary and alternative medicine.
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects in which an opening in the spinal cord or brain remains from early in human development.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
A Nutraceutical is a pharmaceutical-grade and standardized nutrient.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
Omega−3 fatty acids, also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids, are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs).
Omega-6 fatty acids (also referred to as ω-6 fatty acids or n-6 fatty acids) are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the ''n''-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the methyl end.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Packaging is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use.
Pharmacy is the science and technique of preparing and dispensing drugs.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.
A plant-based diet is a diet based on foods derived from plants, including vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes and fruits, but with few or no animal products.
Polyphenols (also known as polyhydroxyphenols) are a structural class of mainly natural, but also synthetic or semisynthetic, organic chemicals characterized by the presence of large multiples of phenol structural units.
Polyunsaturated fats are fats in which the constituent hydrocarbon chain possesses two or more carbon–carbon double bonds.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
Probiotics are microorganisms that are claimed to provide health benefits when consumed.
A protein-sparing modified fast (PSMF) is a very low calorie diet with some protein, fluids, and vitamin and mineral supplementation.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Respiratory tract infection (RTI) refers to any of a number of infectious diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury or, when the plant is under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi.
Sarcopenia is the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass (0.5–1% loss per year after the age of 50), quality, and strength associated with aging.
A saturated fat is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds.
Search and Seizure is a procedure used in many civil law and common law legal systems by which police or other authorities and their agents, who, suspecting that a crime has been committed, commence a search of a person's property and confiscate any relevant evidence found in connection to the crime.
Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
A supermarket is a self-service shop offering a wide variety of food and household products, organized into aisles.
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is the regulatory body for therapeutic goods (including medicines, medical devices, gene technology, and blood products) in Australia.
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).
To go "undercover" is to avoid detection by the entity one is observing, and especially to disguise one's own identity or use an assumed identity for the purposes of gaining the trust of an individual or organization to learn or confirm confidential information or to gain the trust of targeted individuals in order to gather information or evidence.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States National Agricultural Library (NAL) is one of the world's largest agricultural research libraries, and serves as a national library of the United States and as the library of the United States Department of Agriculture.
The United States National Library of Medicine (NLM), operated by the United States federal government, is the world's largest medical library.
A vitamin is an organic molecule (or related set of molecules) which is an essential micronutrient - that is, a substance which an organism needs in small quantities for the proper functioning of its metabolism - but cannot synthesize it (either at all, or in sufficient quantities), and therefore it must be obtained through the diet.
Vitamin A is a group of unsaturated nutritional organic compounds that includes retinol, retinal, retinoic acid, and several provitamin A carotenoids (most notably beta-carotene).
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.
A vitamin deficiency can cause a disease or syndrome known as an avitaminosis or hypovitaminosis.
The Western pattern diet or Standard American Diet (SAD) is a modern dietary pattern that is generally characterized by high intakes of red and processed meat, butter, fried foods, high-fat dairy products, eggs, refined grains, potatoes, and high-sugar drinks.
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
A dietary supplement, Biologically active dietary supplement, Diet supplement, Dietary Supplement Act, Dietary Supplements, Dietary supplements, Food Supplements Directive, Food supplement, Food supplements, Food supplements Directive, Food supplements directive, Health supplement, Health supplements, Iron fortification, Natural supplement, Nutriflex, Nutritional Supplements, Nutritional fortification, Nutritional supplement, Nutritional supplements, RUSF, Structure/function claims, Supplement industry, The 1993 Snake Oil Protection Act, The Food Supplements Directive, Vitamin and Mineral Supplements, Vitamin and mineral supplements, Vitamin pill, Whole food supplements.