93 relations: A.C.E. mixture, Acetone, Activated alumina, Alcohol dehydrogenase, Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Alkali metal, Alkoxide, Aluminium oxide, Analgesic, Anodyne, Antioxidant, August Sigmund Frobenius, Benzophenone, Boston, Butanol, Butylated hydroxytoluene, Cancer Research (journal), Carbureted compression ignition model engine, Cardiac muscle, Catalysis, Cellular respiration, Cellulose acetate, Cetane number, Chemical equilibrium, Chloroform, Compound spirit of ether, Crawford Long, Cytochrome P450, Debye, Dehydration reaction, Density, Diazepam, Diethyl ether peroxide, Diethyl sulfide, Dimethyl ether, Dissociation (chemistry), Electronegativity, Electrophile, Ethanol, Ether, Ether Dome, Ethylene, Flammable liquid, Flash point, General anaesthetic, Grignard reaction, Haloalkane, Halothane, Hydration reaction, Hydronium, ..., Isomer, Jabir ibn Hayyan, Le Chatelier's principle, Lemkos, Liquid–liquid extraction, Medicinal chemistry, Merck Index, Methoxypropane, Milk, North Carolina State University, Nucleophile, Nucleophilic substitution, Orange juice, Organic compound, Oxazepam, Paracelsus, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacopoeia, Phosphoric acid, Poise (unit), Properties of water, Protic solvent, Protonation, Ramon Llull, Recreational drug use, Shot glass, Single displacement reaction, Sodium, Sodium hydroxide, Solubility, Solvent, Starting fluid, Sulfuric acid, Therapeutic index, Toluene, United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, United States Pharmacopeia, Valerius Cordus, Volatility (chemistry), WHO Model List of Essential Medicines, William Procter Jr., William T. G. Morton, Williamson ether synthesis. Expand index (43 more) » « Shrink index
A.C.E. mixture (or ACE mixture) is a historical anaesthetic agent for general anaesthesia.
Acetone (systematically named propanone) is the organic compound with the formula (CH3)2CO.
Activated alumina is manufactured from aluminium hydroxide by dehydroxylating it in a way that produces a highly porous material; this material can have a surface area significantly over 200 m²/g.
Alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones with the reduction of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ to NADH).
Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research is a scientific journal covering research concerning alcohol abuse and its treatment.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom.
Aluminium oxide (British English) or aluminum oxide (American English) is a chemical compound of aluminium and oxygen with the chemical formula 23.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
An anodyne is a drug used to lessen pain through reducing the sensitivity of the brain or nervous system.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
August Sigmund Frobenius (1727 (first mentioned) – 1741?), FRS, also known as Sigismond Augustus Frobenius, Joannes Sigismundus Augustus Frobenius, and Johann Sigismund August Froben, was a German-born chemist in the 18th century who is known for the first detailed description of the properties of diethyl ether and the naming of this substance (Spiritus Vini Æthereus).
Benzophenone is the organic compound with the formula (C6H5)2CO, generally abbreviated Ph2CO.
Boston is the capital city and most populous municipality of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in the United States.
Butanol (also called butyl alcohol (or βουτανόλη in Greek)) is a four-carbon alcohol with a formula of C4H9OH, which occurs in five isomeric structures, from a straight-chain primary alcohol to a branched-chain tertiary alcohol; all are a butyl or isobutyl group linked to a hydroxyl group (sometimes represented as BuOH, n-BuOH, and i-BuOH).
Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), also known as dibutylhydroxytoluene, is a lipophilic organic compound, chemically a derivative of phenol, that is useful for its antioxidant properties.
Cancer Research is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Association for Cancer Research.
A carbureted compression ignition model engine, popularly known as a model diesel engine, is a simple compression ignition engine made for model propulsion, usually model aircraft but also model boats.
Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) is one of the three major types of muscle, the others being skeletal and smooth muscle.
Catalysis is the increase in the rate of a chemical reaction due to the participation of an additional substance called a catalysthttp://goldbook.iupac.org/C00876.html, which is not consumed in the catalyzed reaction and can continue to act repeatedly.
Cellular respiration is a set of metabolic reactions and processes that take place in the cells of organisms to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products.
Cellulose acetate is the acetate ester of cellulose.
Cetane number (cetane rating) is an indicator of the combustion speed of diesel fuel and compression needed for ignition.
In a chemical reaction, chemical equilibrium is the state in which both reactants and products are present in concentrations which have no further tendency to change with time, so that there is no observable change in the properties of the system.
Chloroform, or trichloromethane, is an organic compound with formula CHCl3.
Compound spirit of ether, also called Hoffmann's anodyne, Hoffmann's drops, or aetheris spiritus compositus, is a solution of one part diethyl ether in three parts alcohol.
Crawford Williamson Long (November 1, 1815 – June 16, 1878) was an American surgeon and pharmacist best known for his first use of inhaled sulfuric ether as an anesthetic.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
The debye (symbol: D) is a CGS unit (a non-SI metric unit) of electric dipole momentElectric dipole moment is defined as charge times displacement: |- |height.
In chemistry and the biological sciences, a dehydration reaction, also known as Zimmer's hydrogenesis, is a chemical reaction that involves the loss of a water molecule from the reacting molecule.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Diazepam, first marketed as Valium, is a medicine of the benzodiazepine family that typically produces a calming effect.
Diethyl ether peroxides are a class of organic peroxides that slowly form in diethyl ether upon storage under air, light, or in the presence of metal by autoxidation.
Diethyl sulfide is a clear flammable chemical compound with a pungent garlic-like odor.
Dimethyl ether (DME), also known as methoxymethane, is the organic compound with the formula CH3OCH3, simplified to C2H6O.
Dissociation in chemistry and biochemistry is a general process in which molecules (or ionic compounds such as salts, or complexes) separate or split into smaller particles such as atoms, ions or radicals, usually in a reversible manner.
Electronegativity, symbol ''χ'', is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons (or electron density) towards itself.
In organic chemistry, an electrophile is a reagent attracted to electrons.
Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.
Ethers are a class of organic compounds that contain an ether group—an oxygen atom connected to two alkyl or aryl groups.
The Ether Dome is a surgical operating amphitheater in the Bulfinch Building at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston.
Ethylene (IUPAC name: ethene) is a hydrocarbon which has the formula or H2C.
Generally, a flammable liquid is a combustible liquid that can easily catch fire.
The flash point of a volatile material is the lowest temperature at which vapours of the material will ignite, when given an ignition source.
General anaesthetics (or anesthetics, see spelling differences) are often defined as compounds that induce a reversible loss of consciousness in humans or loss of righting reflex in animals.
The Grignard reaction (pronounced) is an organometallic chemical reaction in which alkyl, vinyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an aldehyde or ketone.
The haloalkanes (also known as halogenoalkanes or alkyl halides) are a group of chemical compounds derived from alkanes containing one or more halogens.
Halothane, sold under the brandname Fluothane among others, is a general anesthetic.
In chemistry, a hydration reaction is a chemical reaction in which a substance combines with water.
In chemistry, hydronium is the common name for the aqueous cation, the type of oxonium ion produced by protonation of water.
An isomer (from Greek ἰσομερής, isomerès; isos.
Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (جابر بن حیانl fa, often given the nisbas al-Bariqi, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721c. 815), also known by the Latinization Geber, was a polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.
Le Chatelier's principle, also called Chatelier's principle or "The Equilibrium Law", can be used to predict the effect of a change in conditions on some chemical equilibria.
Lemkos (Лeмки, Łemkowie, Lemko: Лeмкы, translit. Lemkŷ; sing. Лeмкo, Lemko) are an ethnic sub-group inhabiting a stretch of the Carpathian Mountains known as Lemkivshchyna.
Liquid–liquid extraction (LLE), also known as solvent extraction and partitioning, is a method to separate compounds or metal complexes, based on their relative solubilities in two different immiscible liquids, usually water (polar) and an organic solvent (non-polar).
Medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical chemistry are disciplines at the intersection of chemistry, especially synthetic organic chemistry, and pharmacology and various other biological specialties, where they are involved with design, chemical synthesis and development for market of pharmaceutical agents, or bio-active molecules (drugs).
The Merck Index is an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals with over 10,000 monographs on single substances or groups of related compounds.
Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals.
North Carolina State University (also referred to as NCSU, NC State, or just State) is a public research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
In organic and inorganic chemistry, nucleophilic substitution is a fundamental class of reactions in which an electron rich nucleophile selectively bonds with or attacks the positive or partially positive charge of an atom or a group of atoms to replace a leaving group; the positive or partially positive atom is referred to as an electrophile.
Orange juice is the liquid extract of the orange tree fruit, produced by squeezing oranges.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Oxazepam is a short-to-intermediate-acting benzodiazepine.
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
Pharmacodynamics is the study of the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs (especially pharmaceutical drugs).
A pharmacopoeia, pharmacopeia, or pharmacopoea (literally, “drug-making”), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a medical or pharmaceutical society.
Phosphoric acid (also known as orthophosphoric acid or phosphoric(V) acid) is a mineral (inorganic) and weak acid having the chemical formula H3PO4.
The poise (symbol P) is the unit of dynamic viscosity (absolute viscosity) in the centimetre–gram–second system of units.
Water is a polar inorganic compound that is at room temperature a tasteless and odorless liquid, which is nearly colorless apart from an inherent hint of blue. It is by far the most studied chemical compound and is described as the "universal solvent" and the "solvent of life". It is the most abundant substance on Earth and the only common substance to exist as a solid, liquid, and gas on Earth's surface. It is also the third most abundant molecule in the universe. Water molecules form hydrogen bonds with each other and are strongly polar. This polarity allows it to separate ions in salts and strongly bond to other polar substances such as alcohols and acids, thus dissolving them. Its hydrogen bonding causes its many unique properties, such as having a solid form less dense than its liquid form, a relatively high boiling point of 100 °C for its molar mass, and a high heat capacity. Water is amphoteric, meaning that it is both an acid and a base—it produces + and - ions by self-ionization.
In chemistry, a protic solvent is a solvent that has a hydrogen atom bound to an oxygen (as in a hydroxyl group) or a nitrogen (as in an amine group).
In chemistry, protonation is the addition of a proton (H+) to an atom, molecule, or ion, forming the conjugate acid.
Ramon Llull, T.O.S.F. (c. 1232 – c. 1315; Anglicised Raymond Lully, Raymond Lull; in Latin Raimundus or Raymundus Lullus or Lullius) was a philosopher, logician, Franciscan tertiary and Spanish writer.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
A shot glass is a small glass originally designed to hold or measure spirits or liquor, which is either imbibed straight from the glass ("a shot") or poured into a cocktail ("a drink").
A single-displacement reaction, also known as a single-replacement reaction, is a reaction by which one (or more) element(s) replaces an/other element(s) in a compound.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.
Solubility is the property of a solid, liquid or gaseous chemical substance called solute to dissolve in a solid, liquid or gaseous solvent.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
Starting fluid is a volatile, flammable liquid which is used to aid the starting of internal combustion engines, especially during cold weather or in engines that are difficult to start using conventional starting procedures.
Sulfuric acid (alternative spelling sulphuric acid) is a mineral acid with molecular formula H2SO4.
The therapeutic index (TI; also referred to as therapeutic ratio) is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
The United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988 is one of three major drug control treaties currently in force.
The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) is a pharmacopeia (compendium of drug information) for the United States published annually by the United States Pharmacopeial Convention (usually also called the USP), a nonprofit organization that owns the trademark and copyright.
Valerius Cordus (February 18, 1515 – September 25, 1544) was a German physician and botanist who authored one of the greatest pharmacopoeias and one of the most celebrated herbals in history.
In chemistry and physics, volatility is quantified by the tendency of a substance to vaporize.
The WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (EML), published by the World Health Organization (WHO), contains the medications considered to be most effective and safe to meet the most important needs in a health system.
William Procter Jr. (May 3, 1817 – February 10, 1874) was an American pharmacist.
William Thomas Green Morton (August 9, 1819 – July 15, 1868) was an American dentist who first publicly demonstrated the use of inhaled ether as a surgical anesthetic in 1846.
The Williamson ether synthesis is an organic reaction, forming an ether from an organohalide and a deprotonated alcohol (alkoxide).
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