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# Differential form

In the mathematical fields of differential geometry and tensor calculus, differential forms are an approach to multivariable calculus that is independent of coordinates. [1]

118 relations: Abelian group, Anticommutativity, Antisymmetric tensor, Atlas (topology), Élie Cartan, Bilinear form, Calculus on Manifolds (book), Chain (algebraic topology), Chain complex, Circle group, Clifford algebra, Closed and exact differential forms, Cohomology, Complex differential form, Connection form, Contour integration, Coordinate system, Coordinate vector, Cornell University, Cotangent bundle, Covariance and contravariance of vectors, Covariant derivative, Cross product, Curl (mathematics), Curvature form, De Rham cohomology, Density on a manifold, Derivative, Differentiable manifold, Differential geometry, Differential of a function, Differential operator, Directional derivative, Divergence, Divergence theorem, Duality (mathematics), Electromagnetic tensor, Electromagnetism, Equivariant differential form, Exact sequence, Exterior algebra, Exterior derivative, Fréchet derivative, Fundamental class, Fundamental theorem of calculus, Gauge theory, Geometric algebra, Geometrized unit system, Gradient theorem, Gramian matrix, ... Expand index (68 more) »

## Abelian group

In abstract algebra, an abelian group, also called a commutative group, is a group in which the result of applying the group operation to two group elements does not depend on the order in which they are written.

## Anticommutativity

In mathematics, anticommutativity is a specific property of some non-commutative operations.

## Antisymmetric tensor

In mathematics and theoretical physics, a tensor is antisymmetric on (or with respect to) an index subset if it alternates sign (+/−) when any two indices of the subset are interchanged.

## Atlas (topology)

In mathematics, particularly topology, one describes a manifold using an atlas.

## Élie Cartan

Élie Joseph Cartan, ForMemRS (9 April 1869 &ndash; 6 May 1951) was an influential French mathematician who did fundamental work in the theory of Lie groups and their geometric applications.

## Bilinear form

In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map, where K is the field of scalars.

## Calculus on Manifolds (book)

Calculus on Manifolds: A Modern Approach to Classical Theorems of Advanced Calculus (1965) by Michael Spivak is a brief (146 pp.) monograph on the theory of vector-valued functions of several real variables (f: Rn→Rm) and differentiable manifolds in Euclidean space.

## Chain (algebraic topology)

In algebraic topology, a -chain is a formal linear combination of the -cells in a cell complex.

## Chain complex

In mathematics, a chain complex is an algebraic structure that consists of a sequence of abelian groups (or modules) and a sequence of homomorphisms between consecutive groups such that the image of each homomorphism is included in the kernel of the next.

## Circle group

In mathematics, the circle group, denoted by T, is the multiplicative group of all complex numbers with absolute value 1, that is, the unit circle in the complex plane or simply the unit complex numbers The circle group forms a subgroup of C&times;, the multiplicative group of all nonzero complex numbers.

## Clifford algebra

In mathematics, a Clifford algebra is an algebra generated by a vector space with a quadratic form, and is a unital associative algebra.

## Closed and exact differential forms

In mathematics, especially vector calculus and differential topology, a closed form is a differential form α whose exterior derivative is zero (dα.

## Cohomology

In mathematics, specifically in homology theory and algebraic topology, cohomology is a general term for a sequence of abelian groups associated to a topological space, often defined from a cochain complex.

## Complex differential form

In mathematics, a complex differential form is a differential form on a manifold (usually a complex manifold) which is permitted to have complex coefficients.

## Connection form

In mathematics, and specifically differential geometry, a connection form is a manner of organizing the data of a connection using the language of moving frames and differential forms.

## Contour integration

In the mathematical field of complex analysis, contour integration is a method of evaluating certain integrals along paths in the complex plane.

## Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.

## Coordinate vector

In linear algebra, a coordinate vector is a representation of a vector as an ordered list of numbers that describes the vector in terms of a particular ordered basis.

## Cornell University

Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university located in Ithaca, New York.

## Cotangent bundle

In mathematics, especially differential geometry, the cotangent bundle of a smooth manifold is the vector bundle of all the cotangent spaces at every point in the manifold.

## Covariance and contravariance of vectors

In multilinear algebra and tensor analysis, covariance and contravariance describe how the quantitative description of certain geometric or physical entities changes with a change of basis.

## Covariant derivative

In mathematics, the covariant derivative is a way of specifying a derivative along tangent vectors of a manifold.

## Cross product

In mathematics and vector algebra, the cross product or vector product (occasionally directed area product to emphasize the geometric significance) is a binary operation on two vectors in three-dimensional space \left(\mathbb^3\right) and is denoted by the symbol \times.

## Curl (mathematics)

In vector calculus, the curl is a vector operator that describes the infinitesimal rotation of a vector field in three-dimensional Euclidean space.

## Curvature form

In differential geometry, the curvature form describes the curvature of a connection on a principal bundle.

## De Rham cohomology

In mathematics, de Rham cohomology (after Georges de Rham) is a tool belonging both to algebraic topology and to differential topology, capable of expressing basic topological information about smooth manifolds in a form particularly adapted to computation and the concrete representation of cohomology classes.

## Density on a manifold

In mathematics, and specifically differential geometry, a density is a spatially varying quantity on a differentiable manifold that can be integrated in an intrinsic manner.

## Derivative

The derivative of a function of a real variable measures the sensitivity to change of the function value (output value) with respect to a change in its argument (input value).

## Differentiable manifold

In mathematics, a differentiable manifold (also differential manifold) is a type of manifold that is locally similar enough to a linear space to allow one to do calculus.

## Differential geometry

Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multilinear algebra to study problems in geometry.

## Differential of a function

In calculus, the differential represents the principal part of the change in a function y.

## Differential operator

In mathematics, a differential operator is an operator defined as a function of the differentiation operator.

## Directional derivative

In mathematics, the directional derivative of a multivariate differentiable function along a given vector v at a given point x intuitively represents the instantaneous rate of change of the function, moving through x with a velocity specified by v. It therefore generalizes the notion of a partial derivative, in which the rate of change is taken along one of the curvilinear coordinate curves, all other coordinates being constant.

## Divergence

In vector calculus, divergence is a vector operator that produces a scalar field, giving the quantity of a vector field's source at each point.

## Divergence theorem

In vector calculus, the divergence theorem, also known as Gauss's theorem or Ostrogradsky's theorem, reprinted in is a result that relates the flow (that is, flux) of a vector field through a surface to the behavior of the vector field inside the surface.

## Duality (mathematics)

In mathematics, a duality, generally speaking, translates concepts, theorems or mathematical structures into other concepts, theorems or structures, in a one-to-one fashion, often (but not always) by means of an involution operation: if the dual of A is B, then the dual of B is A. Such involutions sometimes have fixed points, so that the dual of A is A itself.

## Electromagnetic tensor

In electromagnetism, the electromagnetic tensor or electromagnetic field tensor (sometimes called the field strength tensor, Faraday tensor or Maxwell bivector) is a mathematical object that describes the electromagnetic field in spacetime.

## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

## Equivariant differential form

In differential geometry, an equivariant differential form on a manifold M acted by a Lie group G is a polynomial map from the Lie algebra \mathfrak.

## Exact sequence

An exact sequence is a concept in mathematics, especially in group theory, ring and module theory, homological algebra, as well as in differential geometry.

## Exterior algebra

In mathematics, the exterior product or wedge product of vectors is an algebraic construction used in geometry to study areas, volumes, and their higher-dimensional analogs.

## Exterior derivative

On a differentiable manifold, the exterior derivative extends the concept of the differential of a function to differential forms of higher degree.

## Fréchet derivative

In mathematics, the Fréchet derivative is a derivative defined on Banach spaces.

## Fundamental class

In mathematics, the fundamental class is a homology class associated to an oriented manifold M of dimension n, which corresponds to the generator of the homology group H_n(M;\mathbf)\cong\mathbf.

## Fundamental theorem of calculus

The fundamental theorem of calculus is a theorem that links the concept of differentiating a function with the concept of integrating a function.

## Gauge theory

In physics, a gauge theory is a type of field theory in which the Lagrangian is invariant under certain Lie groups of local transformations.

## Geometric algebra

The geometric algebra (GA) of a vector space is an algebra over a field, noted for its multiplication operation called the geometric product on a space of elements called multivectors, which is a superset of both the scalars F and the vector space V. Mathematically, a geometric algebra may be defined as the Clifford algebra of a vector space with a quadratic form.

## Geometrized unit system

A geometrized unit system or geometric unit system is a system of natural units in which the base physical units are chosen so that the speed of light in vacuum, c, and the gravitational constant, G, are set equal to unity.

The gradient theorem, also known as the fundamental theorem of calculus for line integrals, says that a line integral through a gradient field can be evaluated by evaluating the original scalar field at the endpoints of the curve.

## Gramian matrix

In linear algebra, the Gram matrix (Gramian matrix or Gramian) of a set of vectors v_1,\dots, v_n in an inner product space is the Hermitian matrix of inner products, whose entries are given by G_.

## Green's theorem

In mathematics, Green's theorem gives the relationship between a line integral around a simple closed curve C and a double integral over the plane region D bounded by C. It is named after George Green, though its first proof is due to Bernhard Riemann and is the two-dimensional special case of the more general Kelvin–Stokes theorem.

## Gromov's inequality for complex projective space

In Riemannian geometry, Gromov's optimal stable 2-systolic inequality is the inequality \;\mathrm_(\mathbb^n), valid for an arbitrary Riemannian metric on the complex projective space, where the optimal bound is attained by the symmetric Fubini–Study metric, providing a natural geometrisation of quantum mechanics.

## Hausdorff measure

In mathematics a Hausdorff measure is a type of outer measure, named for Felix Hausdorff, that assigns a number in to each set in Rn or, more generally, in any metric space.

## Herbert Federer

Herbert Federer (July 23, 1920 – April 21, 2010) was an American mathematician.

## Hodge star operator

In mathematics, the Hodge isomorphism or Hodge star operator is an important linear map introduced in general by W. V. D. Hodge.

## Homology (mathematics)

In mathematics, homology is a general way of associating a sequence of algebraic objects such as abelian groups or modules to other mathematical objects such as topological spaces.

## Homotopy

In topology, two continuous functions from one topological space to another are called homotopic (from Greek ὁμός homós "same, similar" and τόπος tópos "place") if one can be "continuously deformed" into the other, such a deformation being called a homotopy between the two functions.

## Inner product space

In linear algebra, an inner product space is a vector space with an additional structure called an inner product.

## Integral

In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.

## Integration along fibers

In differential geometry, the integration along fibers of a ''k''-form yields a (k-m)-form where m is the dimension of the fiber, via "integration".

## Integration by substitution

In calculus, integration by substitution, also known as u-substitution, is a method for finding integrals.

## Interior product

In mathematics, the interior product (aka interior derivative/, interior multiplication, inner multiplication, inner derivative, or inner derivation) is a degree &minus;1 antiderivation on the exterior algebra of differential forms on a smooth manifold.

## International Union of Pure and Applied Physics

The International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) is an international non-governmental organization whose mission is to assist in the worldwide development of physics, to foster international cooperation in physics, and to help in the application of physics toward solving problems of concern to humanity.

## Jacobian matrix and determinant

In vector calculus, the Jacobian matrix is the matrix of all first-order partial derivatives of a vector-valued function.

## Kronecker delta

In mathematics, the Kronecker delta (named after Leopold Kronecker) is a function of two variables, usually just non-negative integers.

## Lebesgue measure

In measure theory, the Lebesgue measure, named after French mathematician Henri Lebesgue, is the standard way of assigning a measure to subsets of n-dimensional Euclidean space.

## Lie algebra

In mathematics, a Lie algebra (pronounced "Lee") is a vector space \mathfrak g together with a non-associative, alternating bilinear map \mathfrak g \times \mathfrak g \rightarrow \mathfrak g; (x, y) \mapsto, called the Lie bracket, satisfying the Jacobi identity.

## Lie derivative

In differential geometry, the Lie derivative, named after Sophus Lie by Władysław Ślebodziński, evaluates the change of a tensor field (including scalar function, vector field and one-form), along the flow defined by another vector field.

## Lie group

In mathematics, a Lie group (pronounced "Lee") is a group that is also a differentiable manifold, with the property that the group operations are compatible with the smooth structure.

## Linear combination

In mathematics, a linear combination is an expression constructed from a set of terms by multiplying each term by a constant and adding the results (e.g. a linear combination of x and y would be any expression of the form ax + by, where a and b are constants).

## Linear form

In linear algebra, a linear functional or linear form (also called a one-form or covector) is a linear map from a vector space to its field of scalars.

## Linear function

In mathematics, the term linear function refers to two distinct but related notions.

## Linear map

In mathematics, a linear map (also called a linear mapping, linear transformation or, in some contexts, linear function) is a mapping between two modules (including vector spaces) that preserves (in the sense defined below) the operations of addition and scalar multiplication.

## Manifold

In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point.

## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

## Maurer–Cartan form

In mathematics, the Maurer&ndash;Cartan form for a Lie group is a distinguished differential one-form on that carries the basic infinitesimal information about the structure of.

## Maxwell's equations

Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.

## Measure (mathematics)

In mathematical analysis, a measure on a set is a systematic way to assign a number to each suitable subset of that set, intuitively interpreted as its size.

## Metric tensor

In the mathematical field of differential geometry, a metric tensor is a type of function which takes as input a pair of tangent vectors and at a point of a surface (or higher dimensional differentiable manifold) and produces a real number scalar in a way that generalizes many of the familiar properties of the dot product of vectors in Euclidean space.

## Multilinear form

In abstract algebra and multilinear algebra, a multilinear form on V is a map of the type f: V^k \to K,where V is a vector space over the field K (or more generally, a module over a commutative ring), that is separately K-linear in each of its k arguments.

## Multilinear map

In linear algebra, a multilinear map is a function of several variables that is linear separately in each variable.

## Multivariable calculus

Multivariable calculus (also known as multivariate calculus) is the extension of calculus in one variable to calculus with functions of several variables: the differentiation and integration of functions involving multiple variables, rather than just one.

## One-form

In linear algebra, a one-form on a vector space is the same as a linear functional on the space.

## Open set

In topology, an open set is an abstract concept generalizing the idea of an open interval in the real line.

## Orientability

In mathematics, orientability is a property of surfaces in Euclidean space that measures whether it is possible to make a consistent choice of surface normal vector at every point.

## Orientation (vector space)

In mathematics, orientation is a geometric notion that in two dimensions allows one to say when a cycle goes around clockwise or counterclockwise, and in three dimensions when a figure is left-handed or right-handed.

## Parametrization

Parametrization (or parameterization; also parameterisation, parametrisation) is the process of finding parametric equations of a curve, a surface, or, more generally, a manifold or a variety, defined by an implicit equation.

## Partial derivative

In mathematics, a partial derivative of a function of several variables is its derivative with respect to one of those variables, with the others held constant (as opposed to the total derivative, in which all variables are allowed to vary).

## Pointwise

In mathematics, the qualifier pointwise is used to indicate that a certain property is defined by considering each value f(x) of some function f. An important class of pointwise concepts are the pointwise operations &mdash; operations defined on functions by applying the operations to function values separately for each point in the domain of definition.

## Principal bundle

In mathematics, a principal bundle is a mathematical object that formalizes some of the essential features of the Cartesian product of a space with a group.

## Pseudo-Riemannian manifold

In differential geometry, a pseudo-Riemannian manifold (also called a semi-Riemannian manifold) is a generalization of a Riemannian manifold in which the metric tensor need not be positive-definite, but need only be a non-degenerate bilinear form, which is a weaker condition.

## Pullback (differential geometry)

Suppose that φ:M→ N is a smooth map between smooth manifolds M and N; then there is an associated linear map from the space of 1-forms on N (the linear space of sections of the cotangent bundle) to the space of 1-forms on M. This linear map is known as the pullback (by φ), and is frequently denoted by φ*.

## Riemannian manifold

In differential geometry, a (smooth) Riemannian manifold or (smooth) Riemannian space (M,g) is a real, smooth manifold M equipped with an inner product g_p on the tangent space T_pM at each point p that varies smoothly from point to point in the sense that if X and Y are differentiable vector fields on M, then p \mapsto g_p(X(p),Y(p)) is a smooth function.

## Riesz representation theorem

There are several well-known theorems in functional analysis known as the Riesz representation theorem.

## Section (fiber bundle)

In the mathematical field of topology, a section (or cross section) of a fiber bundle E is a continuous right inverse of the projection function \pi.

## Skew-symmetric matrix

In mathematics, particularly in linear algebra, a skew-symmetric (or antisymmetric or antimetric) matrix is a square matrix whose transpose equals its negative; that is, it satisfies the condition In terms of the entries of the matrix, if aij denotes the entry in the and; i.e.,, then the skew-symmetric condition is For example, the following matrix is skew-symmetric: 0 & 2 & -1 \\ -2 & 0 & -4 \\ 1 & 4 & 0\end.

## Smoothness

In mathematical analysis, the smoothness of a function is a property measured by the number of derivatives it has that are continuous.

## Stokes' theorem

In vector calculus, and more generally differential geometry, Stokes' theorem (also called the generalized Stokes theorem or the Stokes–Cartan theorem) is a statement about the integration of differential forms on manifolds, which both simplifies and generalizes several theorems from vector calculus.

## Surface (topology)

In topology and differential geometry, a surface is a two-dimensional manifold, and, as such, may be an "abstract surface" not embedded in any Euclidean space.

## Surface integral

In mathematics, a surface integral is a generalization of multiple integrals to integration over surfaces.

## Symmetric group

In abstract algebra, the symmetric group defined over any set is the group whose elements are all the bijections from the set to itself, and whose group operation is the composition of functions.

## Systolic geometry

In mathematics, systolic geometry is the study of systolic invariants of manifolds and polyhedra, as initially conceived by Charles Loewner and developed by Mikhail Gromov, Michael Freedman, Peter Sarnak, Mikhail Katz, Larry Guth, and others, in its arithmetical, ergodic, and topological manifestations.

## Tangent bundle

In differential geometry, the tangent bundle of a differentiable manifold M is a manifold TM which assembles all the tangent vectors in M. As a set, it is given by the disjoint unionThe disjoint union ensures that for any two points x1 and x2 of manifold M the tangent spaces T1 and T2 have no common vector.

## Tangent space

In mathematics, the tangent space of a manifold facilitates the generalization of vectors from affine spaces to general manifolds, since in the latter case one cannot simply subtract two points to obtain a vector that gives the displacement of the one point from the other.

## Tangent vector

In mathematics, a tangent vector is a vector that is tangent to a curve or surface at a given point.

## Tensor calculus

In mathematics, tensor calculus or tensor analysis is an extension of vector calculus to tensor fields (tensors that may vary over a manifold, e.g. in spacetime).

## Tensor field

In mathematics and physics, a tensor field assigns a tensor to each point of a mathematical space (typically a Euclidean space or manifold).

## Topology

In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.

## Unitary group

In mathematics, the unitary group of degree n, denoted U(n), is the group of unitary matrices, with the group operation of matrix multiplication.

## Vector field

In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space.

## Vector space

A vector space (also called a linear space) is a collection of objects called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars.

## Vector-valued differential form

In mathematics, a vector-valued differential form on a manifold M is a differential form on M with values in a vector space V. More generally, it is a differential form with values in some vector bundle E over M. Ordinary differential forms can be viewed as R-valued differential forms.

## Volume element

In mathematics, a volume element provides a means for integrating a function with respect to volume in various coordinate systems such as spherical coordinates and cylindrical coordinates.

## Volume form

In mathematics, a volume form on a differentiable manifold is a top-dimensional form (i.e., a differential form of top degree).

## Wedge (symbol)

Wedge (∧) is a symbol that looks similar to an in-line caret (^).

## Weyl algebra

In abstract algebra, the Weyl algebra is the ring of differential operators with polynomial coefficients (in one variable), namely expressions of the form More precisely, let F be the underlying field, and let F be the ring of polynomials in one variable, X, with coefficients in F. Then each fi lies in F. ∂X is the derivative with respect to X. The algebra is generated by X and ∂X.

## Wirtinger inequality (2-forms)

In mathematics, the Wirtinger inequality for 2-forms, named after Wilhelm Wirtinger, states that on a Kähler manifold M, the exterior kth power of the symplectic form (Kähler form) ω, when evaluated on a simple (decomposable) (2k)-vector ζ of unit volume, is bounded above by k!.

## Yang–Mills theory

Yang–Mills theory is a gauge theory based on the SU(''N'') group, or more generally any compact, reductive Lie algebra.

## References

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