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# Differential geometry

Differential geometry is a mathematical discipline that uses the techniques of differential calculus, integral calculus, linear algebra and multilinear algebra to study problems in geometry. [1]

141 relations: Abstract differential geometry, Affine connection, Affine differential geometry, Albert Einstein, Algebraic geometry, Almost complex manifold, Ambient space, Analysis on fractals, Analytical mechanics, Annulus (mathematics), Arc length, Area, Atlas (topology), Banach space, Beamforming, Bernhard Riemann, Bilinear form, Biophysics, Black hole, Calculus, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi, Chemistry, Complex manifold, Computer graphics, Computer vision, Computer-aided design, Connection (mathematics), Contact geometry, Control theory, Courant algebroid, Covariant derivative, CR manifold, Curvature, Curve, Darboux's theorem, Definite quadratic form, Degenerate bilinear form, Diffeomorphism, Differentiable manifold, Differential calculus, Differential equation, Differential form, Differential geometry of curves, Differential geometry of surfaces, Differential topology, Digital image processing, Digital signal processing, Directional derivative, Discrete differential geometry, ... Expand index (91 more) »

## Abstract differential geometry

The adjective abstract has often been applied to differential geometry before, but the abstract differential geometry (ADG) of this article is a form of differential geometry without the calculus notion of smoothness, developed by Anastasios Mallios and others from 1998 onwards.

## Affine connection

In the branch of mathematics called differential geometry, an affine connection is a geometric object on a smooth manifold which connects nearby tangent spaces, so it permits tangent vector fields to be differentiated as if they were functions on the manifold with values in a fixed vector space.

## Affine differential geometry

Affine differential geometry, is a type of differential geometry in which the differential invariants are invariant under volume-preserving affine transformations.

## Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

## Algebraic geometry

Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics, classically studying zeros of multivariate polynomials.

## Almost complex manifold

In mathematics, an almost complex manifold is a smooth manifold equipped with a smooth linear complex structure on each tangent space.

## Ambient space

An ambient space or ambient configuration space is the space surrounding an object.

## Analysis on fractals

Analysis on fractals or calculus on fractals is a generalization of calculus on smooth manifolds to calculus on fractals.

## Analytical mechanics

In theoretical physics and mathematical physics, analytical mechanics, or theoretical mechanics is a collection of closely related alternative formulations of classical mechanics.

## Annulus (mathematics)

In mathematics, an annulus (the Latin word for "little ring" is anulus/annulus, with plural anuli/annuli) is a ring-shaped object, a region bounded by two concentric circles.

## Arc length

Determining the length of an irregular arc segment is also called rectification of a curve.

## Area

Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane.

## Atlas (topology)

In mathematics, particularly topology, one describes a manifold using an atlas.

## Banach space

In mathematics, more specifically in functional analysis, a Banach space (pronounced) is a complete normed vector space.

## Beamforming

Beamforming or spatial filtering is a signal processing technique used in sensor arrays for directional signal transmission or reception.

## Bernhard Riemann

Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann (17 September 1826 – 20 July 1866) was a German mathematician who made contributions to analysis, number theory, and differential geometry.

## Bilinear form

In mathematics, more specifically in abstract algebra and linear algebra, a bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear map, where K is the field of scalars.

## Biophysics

Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that applies the approaches and methods of physics to study biological systems.

## Black hole

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.

## Calculus

Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.

## Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.

## Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi

Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi (10 December 1804 – 18 February 1851) was a German mathematician, who made fundamental contributions to elliptic functions, dynamics, differential equations, and number theory.

## Chemistry

Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.

## Complex manifold

In differential geometry, a complex manifold is a manifold with an atlas of charts to the open unit disk in Cn, such that the transition maps are holomorphic.

## Computer graphics

Computer graphics are pictures and films created using computers.

## Computer vision

Computer vision is a field that deals with how computers can be made for gaining high-level understanding from digital images or videos.

## Computer-aided design

Computer-aided design (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the creation, modification, analysis, or optimization of a design.

## Connection (mathematics)

In geometry, the notion of a connection makes precise the idea of transporting data along a curve or family of curves in a parallel and consistent manner.

## Contact geometry

In mathematics, contact geometry is the study of a geometric structure on smooth manifolds given by a hyperplane distribution in the tangent bundle satisfying a condition called 'complete non-integrability'.

## Control theory

Control theory in control systems engineering deals with the control of continuously operating dynamical systems in engineered processes and machines.

## Courant algebroid

In a field of mathematics known as differential geometry, a Courant algebroid is a structure which, in a certain sense, blends the concepts of Lie algebroid and of quadratic Lie algebra.

## Covariant derivative

In mathematics, the covariant derivative is a way of specifying a derivative along tangent vectors of a manifold.

## CR manifold

In mathematics, a CR manifold is a differentiable manifold together with a geometric structure modeled on that of a real hypersurface in a complex vector space, or more generally modeled on an edge of a wedge.

## Curvature

In mathematics, curvature is any of a number of loosely related concepts in different areas of geometry.

## Curve

In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is, generally speaking, an object similar to a line but that need not be straight.

## Darboux's theorem

Darboux's theorem is a theorem in the mathematical field of differential geometry and more specifically differential forms, partially generalizing the Frobenius integration theorem.

## Definite quadratic form

In mathematics, a definite quadratic form is a quadratic form over some real vector space that has the same sign (always positive or always negative) for every nonzero vector of.

## Degenerate bilinear form

In mathematics, specifically linear algebra, a degenerate bilinear form on a vector space V is a bilinear form such that the map from V to V∗ (the dual space of V) given by is not an isomorphism.

## Diffeomorphism

In mathematics, a diffeomorphism is an isomorphism of smooth manifolds.

## Differentiable manifold

In mathematics, a differentiable manifold (also differential manifold) is a type of manifold that is locally similar enough to a linear space to allow one to do calculus.

## Differential calculus

In mathematics, differential calculus is a subfield of calculus concerned with the study of the rates at which quantities change.

## Differential equation

A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.

## Differential form

In the mathematical fields of differential geometry and tensor calculus, differential forms are an approach to multivariable calculus that is independent of coordinates.

## Differential geometry of curves

Differential geometry of curves is the branch of geometry that deals with smooth curves in the plane and in the Euclidean space by methods of differential and integral calculus.

## Differential geometry of surfaces

In mathematics, the differential geometry of surfaces deals with the differential geometry of smooth surfaces with various additional structures, most often, a Riemannian metric.

## Differential topology

In mathematics, differential topology is the field dealing with differentiable functions on differentiable manifolds.

## Digital image processing

In computer science, Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images.

## Digital signal processing

Digital signal processing (DSP) is the use of digital processing, such as by computers or more specialized digital signal processors, to perform a wide variety of signal processing operations.

## Directional derivative

In mathematics, the directional derivative of a multivariate differentiable function along a given vector v at a given point x intuitively represents the instantaneous rate of change of the function, moving through x with a velocity specified by v. It therefore generalizes the notion of a partial derivative, in which the rate of change is taken along one of the curvilinear coordinate curves, all other coordinates being constant.

## Discrete differential geometry

Discrete differential geometry is the study of discrete counterparts of notions in differential geometry.

## Econometrics

Econometrics is the application of statistical methods to economic data and is described as the branch of economics that aims to give empirical content to economic relations.

## Economics

Economics is the social science that studies the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

## Engineering

Engineering is the creative application of science, mathematical methods, and empirical evidence to the innovation, design, construction, operation and maintenance of structures, machines, materials, devices, systems, processes, and organizations.

## Euclidean geometry

Euclidean geometry is a mathematical system attributed to Alexandrian Greek mathematician Euclid, which he described in his textbook on geometry: the Elements.

## Euclidean space

In geometry, Euclidean space encompasses the two-dimensional Euclidean plane, the three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, and certain other spaces.

## Exterior derivative

On a differentiable manifold, the exterior derivative extends the concept of the differential of a function to differential forms of higher degree.

## Finsler manifold

In mathematics, particularly differential geometry, a Finsler manifold is a differentiable manifold where a (possibly asymmetric) Minkowski norm is provided on each tangent space, allowing to define the length of any smooth curve as Finsler manifolds are more general than Riemannian manifolds since the tangent norms need not be induced by inner products.

## Fisher information metric

In information geometry, the Fisher information metric is a particular Riemannian metric which can be defined on a smooth statistical manifold, i.e., a smooth manifold whose points are probability measures defined on a common probability space.

## Gaussian curvature

In differential geometry, the Gaussian curvature or Gauss curvature Κ of a surface at a point is the product of the principal curvatures, κ1 and κ2, at the given point: For example, a sphere of radius r has Gaussian curvature 1/r2 everywhere, and a flat plane and a cylinder have Gaussian curvature 0 everywhere.

## General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

## Geometric calculus

In mathematics, geometric calculus extends the geometric algebra to include differentiation and integration.

## Geometric modeling

Geometric modeling is a branch of applied mathematics and computational geometry that studies methods and algorithms for the mathematical description of shapes.

## Geometrothermodynamics

In physics, geometrothermodynamics (GTD) is a formalism developed in 2007 by Hernando Quevedo to describe the properties of thermodynamic systems in terms of concepts of differential geometry.

## Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

## George David Birkhoff

George David Birkhoff (March 21, 1884 – November 12, 1944) was an American mathematician best known for what is now called the ergodic theorem.

## Glossary of differential geometry and topology

This is a glossary of terms specific to differential geometry and differential topology.

## Grassmannian

In mathematics, the Grassmannian is a space which parametrizes all -dimensional linear subspaces of the n-dimensional vector space.

## Gravitational lens

A gravitational lens is a distribution of matter (such as a cluster of galaxies) between a distant light source and an observer, that is capable of bending the light from the source as the light travels towards the observer.

## Grigori Perelman

Grigori Yakovlevich Perelman (a; born 13 June 1966) is a Russian mathematician.

## Group (mathematics)

In mathematics, a group is an algebraic structure consisting of a set of elements equipped with an operation that combines any two elements to form a third element and that satisfies four conditions called the group axioms, namely closure, associativity, identity and invertibility.

## Hamiltonian mechanics

Hamiltonian mechanics is a theory developed as a reformulation of classical mechanics and predicts the same outcomes as non-Hamiltonian classical mechanics.

## Hamiltonian system

A Hamiltonian system is a dynamical system governed by Hamilton's equations.

## Henri Poincaré

Jules Henri Poincaré (29 April 1854 – 17 July 1912) was a French mathematician, theoretical physicist, engineer, and philosopher of science.

## Hermitian manifold

In mathematics, and more specifically in differential geometry, a Hermitian manifold is the complex analogue of a Riemannian manifold.

## Holomorphic function

In mathematics, a holomorphic function is a complex-valued function of one or more complex variables that is complex differentiable in a neighborhood of every point in its domain.

## Information geometry

Information geometry is a branch of mathematics that applies the techniques of differential geometry to the field of probability theory.

## Information theory

Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.

## Integral

In mathematics, an integral assigns numbers to functions in a way that can describe displacement, area, volume, and other concepts that arise by combining infinitesimal data.

## Integral geometry

In mathematics, integral geometry is the theory of measures on a geometrical space invariant under the symmetry group of that space.

## Introduction to the mathematics of general relativity

The mathematics of general relativity is complex.

## Isometry

In mathematics, an isometry (or congruence, or congruent transformation) is a distance-preserving transformation between metric spaces, usually assumed to be bijective.

## Joseph-Louis Lagrange

Joseph-Louis Lagrange (or;; born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia, Encyclopædia Britannica or Giuseppe Ludovico De la Grange Tournier, Turin, 25 January 1736 – Paris, 10 April 1813; also reported as Giuseppe Luigi Lagrange or Lagrangia) was an Italian Enlightenment Era mathematician and astronomer.

## Kähler manifold

In mathematics and especially differential geometry, a Kähler manifold is a manifold with three mutually compatible structures: a complex structure, a Riemannian structure, and a symplectic structure.

## Kodaira embedding theorem

In mathematics, the Kodaira embedding theorem characterises non-singular projective varieties, over the complex numbers, amongst compact Kähler manifolds.

## Lagrangian mechanics

Lagrangian mechanics is a reformulation of classical mechanics, introduced by the Italian-French mathematician and astronomer Joseph-Louis Lagrange in 1788.

## Leonhard Euler

Leonhard Euler (Swiss Standard German:; German Standard German:; 15 April 170718 September 1783) was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, astronomer, logician and engineer, who made important and influential discoveries in many branches of mathematics, such as infinitesimal calculus and graph theory, while also making pioneering contributions to several branches such as topology and analytic number theory.

## Levi-Civita connection

In Riemannian geometry, the Levi-Civita connection is a specific connection on the tangent bundle of a manifold.

## Lie algebroid

In mathematics, Lie algebroids serve the same role in the theory of Lie groupoids that Lie algebras serve in the theory of Lie groups: reducing global problems to infinitesimal ones.

## Lie derivative

In differential geometry, the Lie derivative, named after Sophus Lie by Władysław Ślebodziński, evaluates the change of a tensor field (including scalar function, vector field and one-form), along the flow defined by another vector field.

## Lie group

In mathematics, a Lie group (pronounced "Lee") is a group that is also a differentiable manifold, with the property that the group operations are compatible with the smooth structure.

## Linear algebra

Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning linear equations such as linear functions such as and their representations through matrices and vector spaces.

## List of differential geometry topics

This is a list of differential geometry topics.

## Mathematics

Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.

## Metric tensor

In the mathematical field of differential geometry, a metric tensor is a type of function which takes as input a pair of tangent vectors and at a point of a surface (or higher dimensional differentiable manifold) and produces a real number scalar in a way that generalizes many of the familiar properties of the dot product of vectors in Euclidean space.

## MIMO

In radio, multiple-input and multiple-output, or MIMO (pronounced or), is a method for multiplying the capacity of a radio link using multiple transmit and receive antennas to exploit multipath propagation.

## Multilinear algebra

In mathematics, multilinear algebra extends the methods of linear algebra.

## Multivariable calculus

Multivariable calculus (also known as multivariate calculus) is the extension of calculus in one variable to calculus with functions of several variables: the differentiation and integration of functions involving multiple variables, rather than just one.

## Nash embedding theorem

The Nash embedding theorems (or imbedding theorems), named after John Forbes Nash, state that every Riemannian manifold can be isometrically embedded into some Euclidean space.

## Non-Euclidean geometry

In mathematics, non-Euclidean geometry consists of two geometries based on axioms closely related to those specifying Euclidean geometry.

## Noncommutative geometry

Noncommutative geometry (NCG) is a branch of mathematics concerned with a geometric approach to noncommutative algebras, and with the construction of spaces that are locally presented by noncommutative algebras of functions (possibly in some generalized sense).

## Order of approximation

In science, engineering, and other quantitative disciplines, orders of approximation refer to formal or informal terms for how precise an approximation is, and to indicate progressively more refined approximations: in increasing order of precision, a zeroth-order approximation, a first-order approximation, a second-order approximation, and so forth.

## Parallel transport

In geometry, parallel transport is a way of transporting geometrical data along smooth curves in a manifold.

## Phase space

In dynamical system theory, a phase space is a space in which all possible states of a system are represented, with each possible state corresponding to one unique point in the phase space.

## Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

## Poincaré conjecture

In mathematics, the Poincaré conjecture is a theorem about the characterization of the 3-sphere, which is the hypersphere that bounds the unit ball in four-dimensional space.

## Poincaré–Birkhoff theorem

In symplectic topology and dynamical systems, Poincaré–Birkhoff theorem (also known as Poincaré–Birkhoff fixed point theorem and Poincaré's last geometric theorem) states that every area-preserving, orientation-preserving homeomorphism of an annulus that rotates the two boundaries in opposite directions has at least two fixed points.

## Principal bundle

In mathematics, a principal bundle is a mathematical object that formalizes some of the essential features of the Cartesian product of a space with a group.

## Probability

Probability is the measure of the likelihood that an event will occur.

## Projective differential geometry

In mathematics, projective differential geometry is the study of differential geometry, from the point of view of properties of mathematical objects such as functions, diffeomorphisms, and submanifolds, that are invariant under transformations of the projective group.

## Pseudo-Riemannian manifold

In differential geometry, a pseudo-Riemannian manifold (also called a semi-Riemannian manifold) is a generalization of a Riemannian manifold in which the metric tensor need not be positive-definite, but need only be a non-degenerate bilinear form, which is a weaker condition.

## Representation of a Lie group

In mathematics and theoretical physics, the idea of a representation of a Lie group plays an important role in the study of continuous symmetry.

## Ricci flow

In differential geometry, the Ricci flow (Italian) is an intrinsic geometric flow.

## Riemann curvature tensor

In the mathematical field of differential geometry, the Riemann curvature tensor or Riemann–Christoffel tensor (after Bernhard Riemann and Elwin Bruno Christoffel) is the most common method used to express the curvature of Riemannian manifolds.

## Riemannian geometry

Riemannian geometry is the branch of differential geometry that studies Riemannian manifolds, smooth manifolds with a Riemannian metric, i.e. with an inner product on the tangent space at each point that varies smoothly from point to point.

## Riemannian manifold

In differential geometry, a (smooth) Riemannian manifold or (smooth) Riemannian space (M,g) is a real, smooth manifold M equipped with an inner product g_p on the tangent space T_pM at each point p that varies smoothly from point to point in the sense that if X and Y are differentiable vector fields on M, then p \mapsto g_p(X(p),Y(p)) is a smooth function.

## Satellite

In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

## Skew-symmetric matrix

In mathematics, particularly in linear algebra, a skew-symmetric (or antisymmetric or antimetric) matrix is a square matrix whose transpose equals its negative; that is, it satisfies the condition In terms of the entries of the matrix, if aij denotes the entry in the and; i.e.,, then the skew-symmetric condition is For example, the following matrix is skew-symmetric: 0 & 2 & -1 \\ -2 & 0 & -4 \\ 1 & 4 & 0\end.

## Smoothness

In mathematical analysis, the smoothness of a function is a property measured by the number of derivatives it has that are continuous.

## Spacetime

In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

## Statistics

Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

## Structural geology

Structural geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of rock units with respect to their deformational histories.

## Surface (topology)

In topology and differential geometry, a surface is a two-dimensional manifold, and, as such, may be an "abstract surface" not embedded in any Euclidean space.

## Symmetric bilinear form

A symmetric bilinear form on a vector space is a bilinear map from two copies of the vector space to the field of scalars such that the order of the two vectors does not affect the value of the map.

## Symmetric space

In differential geometry, representation theory and harmonic analysis, a symmetric space is a pseudo-Riemannian manifold whose group of symmetries contains an inversion symmetry about every point.

## Symplectic geometry

Symplectic geometry is a branch of differential geometry and differential topology that studies symplectic manifolds; that is, differentiable manifolds equipped with a closed, nondegenerate 2-form.

## Symplectic manifold

In mathematics, a symplectic manifold is a smooth manifold, M, equipped with a closed nondegenerate differential 2-form, ω, called the symplectic form.

## Symplectomorphism

In mathematics, a symplectomorphism or symplectic map is an isomorphism in the category of symplectic manifolds.

## Synthetic differential geometry

In mathematics, synthetic differential geometry is a formalization of the theory of differential geometry in the language of topos theory.

## Systolic geometry

In mathematics, systolic geometry is the study of systolic invariants of manifolds and polyhedra, as initially conceived by Charles Loewner and developed by Mikhail Gromov, Michael Freedman, Peter Sarnak, Mikhail Katz, Larry Guth, and others, in its arithmetical, ergodic, and topological manifestations.

## Tangent bundle

In differential geometry, the tangent bundle of a differentiable manifold M is a manifold TM which assembles all the tangent vectors in M. As a set, it is given by the disjoint unionThe disjoint union ensures that for any two points x1 and x2 of manifold M the tangent spaces T1 and T2 have no common vector.

## Tensor

In mathematics, tensors are geometric objects that describe linear relations between geometric vectors, scalars, and other tensors.

## Theorema Egregium

Gauss's Theorema Egregium (Latin for "Remarkable Theorem") is a major result of differential geometry proved by Carl Friedrich Gauss that concerns the curvature of surfaces.

## Thermodynamics

Thermodynamics is the branch of physics concerned with heat and temperature and their relation to energy and work.

## Topology

In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.

## Vector bundle

In mathematics, a vector bundle is a topological construction that makes precise the idea of a family of vector spaces parameterized by another space X (for example X could be a topological space, a manifold, or an algebraic variety): to every point x of the space X we associate (or "attach") a vector space V(x) in such a way that these vector spaces fit together to form another space of the same kind as X (e.g. a topological space, manifold, or algebraic variety), which is then called a vector bundle over X.

## Vector field

In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space.

## Volume

Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.

## Volume form

In mathematics, a volume form on a differentiable manifold is a top-dimensional form (i.e., a differential form of top degree).

## William Rowan Hamilton

Sir William Rowan Hamilton MRIA (4 August 1805 – 2 September 1865) was an Irish mathematician who made important contributions to classical mechanics, optics, and algebra.

## Wireless

Wireless communication, or sometimes simply wireless, is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor.

## References

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