104 relations: Acoustic impedance, Acoustic space, Airy disk, Angle–sensitive pixel, Angular resolution, Atmospheric diffraction, Augustin-Jean Fresnel, Babinet's principle, Bessel function, Binary star, Boundary element method, Bragg's law, Brocken spectre, Buckminsterfullerene, Christiaan Huygens, Classical physics, Cloud iridescence, Coherence (physics), Coherence length, Coherent diffraction imaging, Convolution, Del in cylindrical and spherical coordinates, Diffraction formalism, Diffraction grating, Diffraction spike, Diffraction topography, Diffraction-limited system, Diffractometer, Double-slit experiment, Dynamical theory of diffraction, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron diffraction, Electron microscope, Energy level, Entrance pupil, F-number, Finite element method, Fourier optics, Fourier transform, Francesco Maria Grimaldi, Fraunhofer diffraction, Frequency domain, Fresnel diffraction, Fresnel Imager, Fresnel number, Fresnel zone, Gaussian beam, Green's function, Helmholtz equation, Holography, ..., Hot spring, Huygens–Fresnel principle, Iridescence, Isaac Newton, James Gregory (mathematician), Jetty, Kirchhoff's diffraction formula, Laplace operator, Laser, Lens (optics), Lunch meat, Matter wave, Momentum, Near and far field, Neutron diffraction, Oxford University Press, Planck constant, Powder diffraction, Prism, Quantum mechanics, Radar engineering details, Radio wave, Reflection (physics), Refraction, Refractive index, Royal Society, Schaefer–Bergmann diffraction, Self-focusing, Sinc function, Sine, Sound, Speckle pattern, Spherical coordinate system, Steam, Superposition principle, Surface integral, The Slate Group, Thinned-array curse, Thomas Young (scientist), Treatise on Light, Ultrasonic transducer, Umbra, penumbra and antumbra, Visible spectrum, Wave, Wave equation, Wave function, Wave interference, Wavelength, Wind wave, X-ray, X-ray crystallography, X-ray scattering techniques, Young's interference experiment, Zeta Boötis. Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
Acoustic impedance and specific acoustic impedance are measures of the opposition that a system presents to the acoustic flow resulting of an acoustic pressure applied to the system.
Acoustic space is an acoustic environment in which sound can be heard by an observer.
In optics, the Airy disk (or Airy disc) and Airy pattern are descriptions of the best focused spot of light that a perfect lens with a circular aperture can make, limited by the diffraction of light.
An angle-sensitive pixel (ASP) is a light sensor made entirely in CMOS with a sensitivity to incoming light that is sinusoidal in incident angle.
Angular resolution or spatial resolution describes the ability of any image-forming device such as an optical or radio telescope, a microscope, a camera, or an eye, to distinguish small details of an object, thereby making it a major determinant of image resolution.
Atmospheric diffraction is manifested in the following principal ways.
Augustin-Jean Fresnel (10 May 178814 July 1827) was a French civil engineer and physicist whose research in optics led to the almost unanimous acceptance of the wave theory of light, excluding any remnant of Newton's corpuscular theory, from the late 1830s until the end of the 19th century.
In physics, Babinet's principle states that the diffraction pattern from an opaque body is identical to that from a hole of the same size and shape except for the overall forward beam intensity.
Bessel functions, first defined by the mathematician Daniel Bernoulli and then generalized by Friedrich Bessel, are the canonical solutions of Bessel's differential equation for an arbitrary complex number, the order of the Bessel function.
A binary star is a star system consisting of two stars orbiting around their common barycenter.
The boundary element method (BEM) is a numerical computational method of solving linear partial differential equations which have been formulated as integral equations (i.e. in boundary integral form).
In physics, Bragg's law, or Wulff–Bragg's condition, a special case of Laue diffraction, gives the angles for coherent and incoherent scattering from a crystal lattice.
A Brocken spectre (Brockengespenst), also called Brocken bow or mountain spectre, is the magnified (and apparently enormous) shadow of an observer cast upon clouds opposite of the Sun's direction.
Buckminsterfullerene is a type of fullerene with the formula C60.
Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.
Classical physics refers to theories of physics that predate modern, more complete, or more widely applicable theories.
Cloud iridescence is a colorful optical phenomenon that occurs in a cloud and appears in the general proximity of the Sun or Moon.
In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.
In physics, coherence length is the propagation distance over which a coherent wave (e.g. an electromagnetic wave) maintains a specified degree of coherence.
Coherent diffractive imaging (CDI) is a “lensless” technique for 2D or 3D reconstruction of the image of nanoscale structures such as nanotubes, nanocrystals, porous nanocrystalline layers, defects, potentially proteins, and more.
In mathematics (and, in particular, functional analysis) convolution is a mathematical operation on two functions (f and g) to produce a third function, that is typically viewed as a modified version of one of the original functions, giving the integral of the pointwise multiplication of the two functions as a function of the amount that one of the original functions is translated.
This is a list of some vector calculus formulae for working with common curvilinear coordinate systems.
Diffraction processes affecting waves are amenable to quantitative description and analysis.
In optics, a diffraction grating is an optical component with a periodic structure that splits and diffracts light into several beams travelling in different directions.
Diffraction spikes are lines radiating from bright light sources in photographs and in vision.
Diffraction topography (short: "topography") is an quantum beam imaging technique based on Bragg diffraction.
The resolution of an optical imaging system a microscope, telescope, or camera can be limited by factors such as imperfections in the lenses or misalignment.
A diffractometer (pronunciation: di-"frak-'tä-m&-t&r) is a measuring instrument for analyzing the structure of a material from the scattering pattern produced when a beam of radiation or particles (such as X-rays or neutrons) interacts with it.
In modern physics, the double-slit experiment is a demonstration that light and matter can display characteristics of both classically defined waves and particles; moreover, it displays the fundamentally probabilistic nature of quantum mechanical phenomena.
The dynamical theory of diffraction describes the interaction of waves with a regular lattice.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
Electron diffraction refers to the wave nature of electrons.
An electron microscope is a microscope that uses a beam of accelerated electrons as a source of illumination.
A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.
In an optical system, the entrance pupil is the optical image of the physical aperture stop, as 'seen' through the front of the lens system.
The f-number of an optical system (such as a camera lens) is the ratio of the system's focal length to the diameter of the entrance pupil.
The finite element method (FEM), is a numerical method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics.
Fourier optics is the study of classical optics using Fourier transforms (FTs), in which the wave is regarded as a superposition of plane waves that are not related to any identifiable sources; instead they are the natural modes of the propagation medium itself.
The Fourier transform (FT) decomposes a function of time (a signal) into the frequencies that make it up, in a way similar to how a musical chord can be expressed as the frequencies (or pitches) of its constituent notes.
Francesco Maria Grimaldi (2 April 1618 – 28 December 1663) was an Italian Jesuit priest, mathematician and physicist who taught at the Jesuit college in Bologna.
In optics, the Fraunhofer diffraction equation is used to model the diffraction of waves when the diffraction pattern is viewed at a long distance from the diffracting object, and also when it is viewed at the focal plane of an imaging lens.
In electronics, control systems engineering, and statistics, the frequency domain refers to the analysis of mathematical functions or signals with respect to frequency, rather than time.
In optics, the Fresnel diffraction equation for near-field diffraction is an approximation of the Kirchhoff–Fresnel diffraction that can be applied to the propagation of waves in the near field.
--> A Fresnel imager is a proposed ultra-lightweight design for a space telescope that uses a Fresnel array as primary optics instead of a typical lens.
The Fresnel number (F), named after the physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel, is a dimensionless number occurring in optics, in particular in scalar diffraction theory.
A Fresnel zone, named for physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel, is one of a series of concentric prolate ellipsoidal regions of space between and around a transmitting antenna and a receiving antenna system.
In optics, a Gaussian beam is a beam of monochromatic electromagnetic radiation whose transverse magnetic and electric field amplitude profiles are given by the Gaussian function; this also implies a Gaussian intensity (irradiance) profile.
In mathematics, a Green's function is the impulse response of an inhomogeneous linear differential equation defined on a domain, with specified initial conditions or boundary conditions.
In mathematics & physics, the Helmholtz equation, named for Hermann von Helmholtz, is the partial differential equation where ∇2 is the Laplacian, k is the wavenumber, and A is the amplitude.
Holography is the science and practice of making holograms.
A hot spring is a spring produced by the emergence of geothermally heated groundwater that rises from the Earth's crust.
The Huygens–Fresnel principle (named after Dutch physicist Christiaan Huygens and French physicist Augustin-Jean Fresnel) is a method of analysis applied to problems of wave propagation both in the far-field limit and in near-field diffraction.
Iridescence (also known as goniochromism) is the phenomenon of certain surfaces that appear to gradually change colour as the angle of view or the angle of illumination changes.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
James Gregory FRS (November 1638 – October 1675) was a Scottish mathematician and astronomer.
A jetty is a structure that projects from the land out into water.
Kirchhoff's diffraction formula (also Fresnel–Kirchhoff diffraction formula) can be used to model the propagation of light in a wide range of configurations, either analytically or using numerical modelling.
In mathematics, the Laplace operator or Laplacian is a differential operator given by the divergence of the gradient of a function on Euclidean space.
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of electromagnetic radiation.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
Lunch meats—also known as cold cuts, luncheon meats, cooked meats, sliced meats, cold meats and deli meats—are precooked or cured meat, often sausages or meat loaves, that are sliced and served cold or hot on sandwiches or on party trays.
Matter waves are a central part of the theory of quantum mechanics, being an example of wave–particle duality.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
The near field and far field are regions of the electromagnetic field (EM) around an object, such as a transmitting antenna, or the result of radiation scattering off an object.
Neutron diffraction or elastic neutron scattering is the application of neutron scattering to the determination of the atomic and/or magnetic structure of a material.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Planck constant (denoted, also called Planck's constant) is a physical constant that is the quantum of action, central in quantum mechanics.
Powder diffraction is a scientific technique using X-ray, neutron, or electron diffraction on powder or microcrystalline samples for structural characterization of materials.
In optics, a prism is a transparent optical element with flat, polished surfaces that refract light.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Radar engineering details are technical details pertaining to the components of a radar and their ability to detect the return energy from moving scatterers — determining an object's position or obstruction in the environment.
Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.
Reflection is the change in direction of a wavefront at an interface between two different media so that the wavefront returns into the medium from which it originated.
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Schaefer–Bergmann diffraction is the resulting diffraction pattern of light interacting with sound waves in transparent crystals or glasses.
Self-focusing is a non-linear optical process induced by the change in refractive index of materials exposed to intense electromagnetic radiation.
In mathematics, physics and engineering, the cardinal sine function or sinc function, denoted by, has two slightly different definitions.
In mathematics, the sine is a trigonometric function of an angle.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
A speckle pattern is an intensity pattern produced by the mutual interference of a set of wavefronts.
In mathematics, a spherical coordinate system is a coordinate system for three-dimensional space where the position of a point is specified by three numbers: the radial distance of that point from a fixed origin, its polar angle measured from a fixed zenith direction, and the azimuth angle of its orthogonal projection on a reference plane that passes through the origin and is orthogonal to the zenith, measured from a fixed reference direction on that plane.
Steam is water in the gas phase, which is formed when water boils.
In physics and systems theory, the superposition principle, also known as superposition property, states that, for all linear systems, the net response caused by two or more stimuli is the sum of the responses that would have been caused by each stimulus individually.
In mathematics, a surface integral is a generalization of multiple integrals to integration over surfaces.
The Slate Group is a US online publishing entity established in June 2008 by Graham Holdings Company.
The thinned array curse (sometimes, sparse array curse) is a theorem in electromagnetic theory of antennas.
Thomas Young FRS (13 June 1773 – 10 May 1829) was a British polymath and physician.
Treatise on Light (Traité de la Lumière) is a 1690 book written by the Dutch polymath Christiaan Huygens on his wave theory of light.
Ultrasonic transducers or ultrasonic sensors are a type of acoustic sensor divided into three broad categories: transmitters, receivers and transceivers.
The umbra, penumbra and antumbra are three distinct parts of a shadow, created by any light source after impinging on an opaque object.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
The wave equation is an important second-order linear partial differential equation for the description of waves—as they occur in classical physics—such as mechanical waves (e.g. water waves, sound waves and seismic waves) or light waves.
A wave function in quantum physics is a mathematical description of the quantum state of an isolated quantum system.
In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds).
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
X-ray scattering techniques are a family of non-destructive analytical techniques which reveal information about the crystal structure, chemical composition, and physical properties of materials and thin films.
Young's interference experiment, also called Young's double-slit interferometer, was the original version of the modern double-slit experiment, performed at the beginning of the nineteenth century by Thomas Young.
Zeta Boötis, Latinized as ζ Boötis, is a binary star system in the constellation of Boötes that consists of two giant stars with matching stellar classifications of A2III.
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