108 relations: Acetylcholine, Alpha-amylase, Amino acid, Ampulla of Vater, Amylase, Aromatic amino acid, Autonomic nervous system, Bicarbonate, Bile, Bile acid, Brush border, Carbohydrate, Carboxypeptidase, Carnivorous plant, Cell (biology), Cellulose, Centroacinar cell, Chief cell, Cholecystokinin, Chyme, Chymotrypsin, Chymotrypsinogen, Colipase, Common bile duct, Cystic duct, Delta cell, Deoxyribonuclease, Digestion, Ductal cells, Elastase, Elastin, Endocrine system, Enteric nervous system, Enteropeptidase, Enzyme, Erepsin, Exocrine gland, Fat, Fatty acid, Food, Foveolar cell, G cell, Gastric chief cell, Gastric glands, Gastric inhibitory polypeptide, Gastric lipase, Gastrin, Gastrointestinal tract, Glucagon, Glucose, ..., Glycerol, Glycogen, Haptocorrin, Hydrochloric acid, Hydrogen atom, Hydrolysis, Ileum, Insulin, Intrinsic factor, Lactase, Lactose intolerance, Lingual lipase, Lipase, Lipid, Lysosome, Lysozyme, Macromolecule, Maltase, Monosaccharide, Motilin, Mouth, Mucin, Mucous gland, Nuclease, Nucleic acid, Nucleotide, Pancreas, Pancreatic juice, Pancreatic lipase family, Parasympathetic nervous system, Parietal cell, Parotid gland, Pepsin, Peptide, Philippe-Frédéric Blandin, Phospholipase, Protease, Protein, Pylorus, Ribonuclease, S cell, Saliva, Salivary gland, Secretin, Serous gland, Small intestine, Somatostatin, Sphincter of Oddi, Starch, Sterol esterase, Stomach, Sucrase, Sugar, Trypsin, Trypsinogen, Vagus nerve, Viscosity, Zymogen. Expand index (58 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals, including humans, as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells.
α-Amylase is a protein enzyme that hydrolyses alpha bonds of large, alpha-linked polysaccharides, such as starch and glycogen, yielding glucose and maltose.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
The ampulla of Vater, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla or the hepatopancreatic duct, is formed by the union of the pancreatic duct and the common bile duct.
An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.
An aromatic amino acid (AAA) is an amino acid that includes an aromatic ring.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in the bile of mammals and other vertebrates.
A brush border (striated border or brush border membrane) is the microvilli-covered surface of simple cuboidal epithelium and simple columnar epithelium cells found in certain locations of the body.
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).
A carboxypeptidase (EC number 3.4.16 - 3.4.18) is a protease enzyme that hydrolyzes (cleaves) a peptide bond at the carboxy-terminal (C-terminal) end of a protein or peptide.
Carnivorous plants are plants that derive some or most of their nutrients (but not energy) from trapping and consuming animals or protozoans, typically insects and other arthropods.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.
Centroacinar cells are spindle-shaped cells in the exocrine pancreas.
In human anatomy, there are three types of chief cells, the gastric chief cell, the parathyroid chief cell, and the type 1 chief cells found in the carotid body.
Cholecystokinin (CCK or CCK-PZ; from Greek chole, "bile"; cysto, "sac"; kinin, "move"; hence, move the bile-sac (gallbladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein.
Chyme or chymus (from Greek χυμός khymos, "juice") is the semi-fluid mass of partly digested food that is expelled by the stomach, through the pyloric valve, into the duodenum (the beginning of the small intestine).
Chymotrypsin (chymotrypsins A and B, alpha-chymar ophth, avazyme, chymar, chymotest, enzeon, quimar, quimotrase, alpha-chymar, alpha-chymotrypsin A, alpha-chymotrypsin) is a digestive enzyme component of pancreatic juice acting in the duodenum, where it performs proteolysis, the breakdown of proteins and polypeptides.
Chymotrypsinogen is a proteolytic enzyme and a precursor (zymogen) of the digestive enzyme chymotrypsin.
Colipase is a protein co-enzyme required for optimal enzyme activity of pancreatic lipase.
The common bile duct, sometimes abbreviated CBD, is a duct in the gastrointestinal tract of organisms that have a gall bladder.
The cystic duct is the short duct that joins the gallbladder to the common bile duct.
Delta cells (δ-cells or D cells) are somatostatin-producing cells.
A deoxyribonuclease (DNase, for short) is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of phosphodiester linkages in the DNA backbone, thus degrading DNA.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Ductal cells refer to cells lining the pancreatic duct and are responsible for production of bicarbonate-rich secretion.
In molecular biology, elastase is an enzyme from the class of proteases (peptidases) that break down proteins.
Elastin is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue and allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
The enteric nervous system (ENS) or intrinsic nervous system is one of the main divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) and consists of a mesh-like system of neurons that governs the function of the gastrointestinal tract.
Enteropeptidase (also called enterokinase) is an enzyme produced by cells of the duodenum and is involved in digestion in humans and other animals.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Erepsin is a protein fraction found in the intestinal juices and contains a group of enzymes that digest peptones into amino acids.
Exocrine glands are glands that produce and secrete substances onto an epithelial surface by way of a duct.
Fat is one of the three main macronutrients, along with carbohydrate and protein.
In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.
Foveolar cells or surface mucous cells are mucus-producing cells which cover the inside of the stomach, protecting it from the corrosive nature of gastric acid.
In anatomy, the G cell (or γ-cell) is a type of cell in the stomach and duodenum that secretes gastrin.
A gastric chief cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a type of cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and gastric lipase and is the cell responsible for secretion of chymosin in ruminants.
The gastric glands are located in different regions of the stomach.
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) or gastroinhibitory peptide, also known as the glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, is an inhibiting hormone of the secretin family of hormones.
Gastric lipase, also known as LIPF, is an enzymatic protein that, in humans, is encoded by the LIPF gene.
Gastrin is a peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
Glucagon is a peptide hormone, produced by alpha cells of the pancreas.
Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.
Glycerol (also called glycerine or glycerin; see spelling differences) is a simple polyol compound.
Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
Haptocorrin also known as transcobalamin-1 (TC-1) or cobalophilin is a transcobalamin protein that in humans is encoded by the TCN1 gene.
Hydrochloric acid is a colorless inorganic chemical system with the formula.
A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
The ileum is the final section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
Intrinsic factor (IF), also known as gastric intrinsic factor (GIF), is a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach.
Lactase is an enzyme produced by many organisms.
Lactose intolerance is a condition in which people have symptoms due to the decreased ability to digest lactose, a sugar found in dairy products.
Lingual lipase is a member of a family of digestive enzymes called triacylglycerol lipases, EC 18.104.22.168, that use the catalytic triad of aspartate, histidine, and serine to hydrolyze medium and long-chain triglycerides into partial glycerides and free fatty acids.
A lipase is any enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fats (lipids).
In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
Lysozyme, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase is an antimicrobial enzyme produced by animals that forms part of the innate immune system.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
Maltase (alpha-glucosidase, glucoinvertase, glucosidosucrase, maltase-glucoamylase, alpha-glucopyranosidase, glucosidoinvertase, alpha-D-glucosidase, alpha-glucoside hydrolase, alpha-1,4-glucosidase, alpha-D-glucoside glucohydrolase) is an enzyme located in on the brush border of the small intestine that breaks down the disaccharide maltose.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the most basic units of carbohydrates.
Motilin is a 22-amino acid polypeptide hormone in the motilin family that, in humans, is encoded by the MLN gene.
In animal anatomy, the mouth, also known as the oral cavity, buccal cavity, or in Latin cavum oris, is the opening through which many animals take in food and issue vocal sounds.
Mucins are a family of high molecular weight, heavily glycosylated proteins (glycoconjugates) produced by epithelial tissues in most animals.
Mucous gland, also known as muciparous glands, are found in several different parts of the body, and they typically stain lighter than serous glands during standard histological preparation.
A nuclease (also archaically known as nucleodepolymerase or polynucleotidase) is an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between monomers of nucleic acids.
Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.
Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.
Pancreatic juice is a liquid secreted by the pancreas, which contains a variety of enzymes, including trypsinogen, chymotrypsinogen, elastase, carboxypeptidase, pancreatic lipase, nucleases and amylase.
Triglyceride lipases are a family of lipolytic enzymes that hydrolyse ester linkages of triglycerides.
The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system (a division of the peripheral nervous system (PNS)), the other being the sympathetic nervous system.
Parietal cells (also known as oxyntic or delomorphous cells), are the epithelial cells that secrete hydrochloric acid (HCl) and intrinsic factor.
The parotid gland is a major salivary gland in many animals.
Pepsin is an endopeptidase that breaks down proteins into smaller peptides (that is, a protease).
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Philippe-Frédéric Blandin (2 December 1798 – 16 April 1849) was a French surgeon born in Aubigny, department of Cher.
A phospholipase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic substances.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The pylorus, or pyloric part, connects the stomach to the duodenum.
Ribonuclease (commonly abbreviated RNase) is a type of nuclease that catalyzes the degradation of RNA into smaller components.
S cells are cells which release secretin, found in the jejunum and duodenum.
Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.
The salivary glands in mammals are exocrine glands that produce saliva through a system of ducts.
Secretin is a hormone that regulates water homeostasis throughout the body and influences the environment of the duodenum by regulating secretions in the stomach, pancreas, and liver.
Serous glands contain serous acini, a grouping of serous cells that secrete serous fluid, isotonic with blood plasma, that contains enzymes such as alpha-amylase.
The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.
Somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH) or by several other names, is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with G protein-coupled somatostatin receptors and inhibition of the release of numerous secondary hormones.
The sphincter of Oddi (also hepatopancreatic sphincter or Glisson's sphincter), abbreviated as SO, is a muscular valve that controls the flow of digestive juices (bile and pancreatic juice) through the ampulla of Vater into the second part of the duodenum.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
In enzymology, a sterol esterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are sterol ester and H2O, whereas its two products are sterol and fatty acid.
The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.
Sucrase is a digestive enzyme secreted in the small intestine.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.
Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins.
Trypsinogen (EC 22.214.171.124/20/21/23/24/26) is the precursor form or zymogen of trypsin, a digestive enzyme.
The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve or CN X, and interfaces with parasympathetic control of the heart, lungs, and digestive tract.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
A zymogen, also called a proenzyme, is an inactive precursor of an enzyme.