106 relations: Abstract and concrete, Amplifier, Analog signal, Analog-to-digital converter, Analogue filter, Audio bit depth, Audio power amplifier, Bandwidth (signal processing), Baseband, Behzad Razavi, BIBO stability, Binary number, Bit, Capacitor, CD player, Color depth, Compact disc, Computer data storage, Current source, Decibel, Delta-sigma modulation, Differential nonlinearity, Digital data, Digital potentiometer, Digital Revolution, Digital signal (signal processing), Digital speaker, Digital Visual Interface, Dirac delta function, Distortion, Dynamic range, Effective number of bits, Electric current, Electronic component, Electronics, Enabling technology, Figure of merit, Fixed-point arithmetic, Flat panel display, Frequency response, Gamma correction, Hardware architecture, Harmonic, HDMI, High fidelity, High-pass filter, I²S, IBM Selectric typewriter, Integral linearity, Integral nonlinearity, ..., Integrated circuit, Integrator, Interpolation, Jitter, Johnson–Nyquist noise, Line level, Linearity, Logarithm, Loudspeaker, Low-pass filter, Microphone, Mobile phone, Modem, Monotonic function, MP3, MP3 player, Negative feedback, Network packet, Noise floor, Noise shaping, Nyquist frequency, Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem, Oscilloscope, Oversampling, Phase distortion, Portable media player, Pressure, Pulse-density modulation, Pulse-width modulation, Quantization (signal processing), Radar, RAMDAC, Random-access memory, RC circuit, Reconstruction filter, Rectangular function, Resistor, Resistor ladder, Sampling (signal processing), Sign function, Signal, Sound card, Spurious-free dynamic range, Step function, Television, Time series, Total harmonic distortion, Transport (recording), Unary coding, USB, Voice over IP, Voltage, Whippletree (mechanism), White noise, Zero-order hold, 1-bit DAC. Expand index (56 more) »

## Abstract and concrete

Abstract and concrete are classifications that denote whether a term describes an object with a physical referent or one with no physical referents.

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## Amplifier

An amplifier, electronic amplifier or (informally) amp is an electronic device that can increase the power of a signal (a time-varying voltage or current).

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## Analog signal

An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal.

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## Analog-to-digital converter

In electronics, an analog-to-digital converter (ADC, A/D, or A-to-D) is a system that converts an analog signal, such as a sound picked up by a microphone or light entering a digital camera, into a digital signal.

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## Analogue filter

Analogue filters are a basic building block of signal processing much used in electronics.

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## Audio bit depth

In digital audio using pulse-code modulation (PCM), bit depth is the number of bits of information in each sample, and it directly corresponds to the resolution of each sample.

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## Audio power amplifier

An audio power amplifier (or power amp) is an electronic amplifier that reproduces low-power electronic audio signals such as the signal from radio receiver or electric guitar pickup at a level that is strong enough for driving (or powering) loudspeakers or headphones.

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## Bandwidth (signal processing)

Bandwidth is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a continuous band of frequencies.

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## Baseband

Baseband is a signal that has a very narrow and near-zero frequency range, i.e. a spectral magnitude that is nonzero only for frequencies in the vicinity of the origin (termed f.

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## Behzad Razavi

Behzad Razavi (بهزاد رضوی) is an Iranian-American professor and researcher of electrical and electronic engineering.

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## BIBO stability

In signal processing, specifically control theory, bounded-input, bounded-output (BIBO) stability is a form of stability for linear signals and systems that take inputs.

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## Binary number

In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).

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## Bit

The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

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## Capacitor

A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores potential energy in an electric field.

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## CD player

A CD player is an electronic device that plays audio compact discs, which are a digital optical disc data storage format.

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## Color depth

Color depth or colour depth (see spelling differences), also known as bit depth, is either the number of bits used to indicate the color of a single pixel, in a bitmapped image or video frame buffer, or the number of bits used for each color component of a single pixel.

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## Compact disc

Compact disc (CD) is a digital optical disc data storage format that was co-developed by Philips and Sony and released in 1982.

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## Computer data storage

Computer data storage, often called storage or memory, is a technology consisting of computer components and recording media that are used to retain digital data.

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## Current source

A current source is an electronic circuit that delivers or absorbs an electric current which is independent of the voltage across it.

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## Decibel

The decibel (symbol: dB) is a unit of measurement used to express the ratio of one value of a physical property to another on a logarithmic scale.

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## Delta-sigma modulation

Delta-sigma (ΔΣ; or sigma-delta, ΣΔ) modulation is a method for encoding analog signals into digital signals as found in an analog-to-digital converter (ADC).

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## Differential nonlinearity

Differential nonlinearity (acronym DNL) is a term describing the deviation between two analog values corresponding to adjacent input digital values.

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## Digital data

Digital data, in information theory and information systems, is the discrete, discontinuous representation of information or works.

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## Digital potentiometer

A digital potentiometer (also called a resistive digital-to-analog converter, or informally a digipot) is a digitally-controlled electronic component that mimics the analog functions of a potentiometer.

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## Digital Revolution

The Digital Revolution, also known as the Third Industrial Revolution, is the shift from mechanical and analogue electronic technology to digital electronics which began anywhere from the late 1950s to the late 1970s with the adoption and proliferation of digital computers and digital record keeping that continues to the present day.

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## Digital signal (signal processing)

In the context of digital signal processing (DSP), a digital signal is a discrete-time signal for which not only the time but also the amplitude has discrete values; in other words, its samples take on only values from a discrete set (a countable set that can be mapped one-to-one to a subset of integers).

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## Digital speaker

Digital speakers or Digital Sound Reconstruction (DSR) system are a form of loudspeaker technology.

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## Digital Visual Interface

Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is a video display interface developed by the Digital Display Working Group (DDWG).

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## Dirac delta function

In mathematics, the Dirac delta function (function) is a generalized function or distribution introduced by the physicist Paul Dirac.

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## Distortion

Distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of something.

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## Dynamic range

Dynamic range, abbreviated DR, DNR, or DYR is the ratio between the largest and smallest values that a certain quantity can assume.

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## Effective number of bits

Effective number of bits (ENOB) is a measure of the dynamic range of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and its associated circuitry.

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## Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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## Electronic component

An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields.

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## Electronics

Electronics is the discipline dealing with the development and application of devices and systems involving the flow of electrons in a vacuum, in gaseous media, and in semiconductors.

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## Enabling technology

An enabling technology is an invention or innovation, that can be applied to drive radical change in the capabilities of a user or culture.

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## Figure of merit

A figure of merit is a quantity used to characterize the performance of a device, system or method, relative to its alternatives.

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## Fixed-point arithmetic

In computing, a fixed-point number representation is a real data type for a number that has a fixed number of digits after (and sometimes also before) the radix point (after the decimal point '.' in English decimal notation).

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## Flat panel display

Flat-panel displays are electronic viewing technologies used to enable people to see content (still images, moving images, text, or other visual material) in a range of entertainment, consumer electronics, personal computer, and mobile devices, and many types of medical, transportation and industrial equipment.

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## Frequency response

Frequency response is the quantitative measure of the output spectrum of a system or device in response to a stimulus, and is used to characterize the dynamics of the system.

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## Gamma correction

Gamma correction, or often simply gamma, is a nonlinear operation used to encode and decode luminance or tristimulus values in video or still image systems.

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## Hardware architecture

In engineering, hardware architecture refers to the identification of a system's physical components and their interrelationships.

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## Harmonic

A harmonic is any member of the harmonic series, a divergent infinite series.

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## HDMI

HDMI (High-Definition Multimedia Interface) is a proprietary audio/video interface for transmitting uncompressed video data and compressed or uncompressed digital audio data from an HDMI-compliant source device, such as a display controller, to a compatible computer monitor, video projector, digital television, or digital audio device.

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## High fidelity

High fidelity (often shortened to hi-fi or hifi) is a term used by listeners, audiophiles and home audio enthusiasts to refer to high-quality reproduction of sound.

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## High-pass filter

A high-pass filter (HPF) is an electronic filter that passes signals with a frequency higher than a certain cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency.

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## I²S

I²S (Inter-IC Sound), pronounced eye-squared-ess, is an electrical serial bus interface standard used for connecting digital audio devices together.

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## IBM Selectric typewriter

The IBM Selectric typewriter was a highly successful model line of electric typewriters introduced by IBM on 31 July 1961.

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## Integral linearity

A measurement system consists of a sensor, to input the physical parameter that is of interest, and an output to a medium that is suitable for reading by the system that needs to know the value of the parameter.

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## Integral nonlinearity

Integral nonlinearity (acronym INL) is a commonly used measure of performance in digital-to-analog (DAC) and analog-to-digital (ADC) converters.

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## Integrated circuit

An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.

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## Integrator

An integrator in measurement and control applications is an element whose output signal is the time integral of its input signal.

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## Interpolation

In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points.

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## Jitter

In electronics and telecommunications, jitter is the deviation from true periodicity of a presumably periodic signal, often in relation to a reference clock signal.

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## Johnson–Nyquist noise

Johnson–Nyquist noise (thermal noise, Johnson noise, or Nyquist noise) is the electronic noise generated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers (usually the electrons) inside an electrical conductor at equilibrium, which happens regardless of any applied voltage.

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## Line level

Line level is the specified strength of an audio signal used to transmit analog sound between audio components such as CD and DVD players, television sets, audio amplifiers, and mixing consoles.

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## Linearity

Linearity is the property of a mathematical relationship or function which means that it can be graphically represented as a straight line.

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## Logarithm

In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.

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## Loudspeaker

A loudspeaker (or loud-speaker or speaker) is an electroacoustic transducer; which converts an electrical audio signal into a corresponding sound.

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## Low-pass filter

A low-pass filter (LPF) is a filter that passes signals with a frequency lower than a certain cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency.

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## Microphone

A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.

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## Mobile phone

A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.

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## Modem

A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.

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## Monotonic function

In mathematics, a monotonic function (or monotone function) is a function between ordered sets that preserves or reverses the given order.

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## MP3

MP3 (formally MPEG-1 Audio Layer III or MPEG-2 Audio Layer III) is an audio coding format for digital audio.

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## MP3 player

An MP3 player or Digital Audio Player is an electronic device that can play digital audio files.

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## Negative feedback

Negative feedback (or balancing feedback) occurs when some function of the output of a system, process, or mechanism is fed back in a manner that tends to reduce the fluctuations in the output, whether caused by changes in the input or by other disturbances.

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## Network packet

A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network.

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## Noise floor

In signal theory, the noise floor is the measure of the signal created from the sum of all the noise sources and unwanted signals within a measurement system, where noise is defined as any signal other than the one being monitored.

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## Noise shaping

Noise shaping is a technique typically used in digital audio, image, and video processing, usually in combination with dithering, as part of the process of quantization or bit-depth reduction of a digital signal.

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## Nyquist frequency

The Nyquist frequency, named after electronic engineer Harry Nyquist, is half of the sampling rate of a discrete signal processing system.

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## Nyquist–Shannon sampling theorem

In the field of digital signal processing, the sampling theorem is a fundamental bridge between continuous-time signals (often called "analog signals") and discrete-time signals (often called "digital signals").

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## Oscilloscope

An oscilloscope, previously called an oscillograph, and informally known as a scope or o-scope, CRO (for cathode-ray oscilloscope), or DSO (for the more modern digital storage oscilloscope), is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time.

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## Oversampling

In signal processing, oversampling is the process of sampling a signal with a sampling frequency significantly higher than the Nyquist rate.

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## Phase distortion

In signal processing, phase distortion or phase-frequency distortion is distortion, that is, change in the shape of the waveform, that occurs when (a) a filter's phase response is not linear over the frequency range of interest, that is, the phase shift introduced by a circuit or device is not directly proportional to frequency, or (b) the zero-frequency intercept of the phase-frequency characteristic is not 0 or an integral multiple of 2π radians.

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## Portable media player

A portable media player (PMP) or digital audio player (DAP) is a portable consumer electronics device capable of storing and playing digital media such as audio, images, and video files.

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## Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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## Pulse-density modulation

Pulse-density modulation, or PDM, is a form of modulation used to represent an analog signal with a binary signal.

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## Pulse-width modulation

Pulse-width modulation (PWM), or pulse-duration modulation (PDM), is a modulation technique used to encode a message into a pulsing signal.

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## Quantization (signal processing)

Quantization, in mathematics and digital signal processing, is the process of mapping input values from a large set (often a continuous set) to output values in a (countable) smaller set.

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## Radar

Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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## RAMDAC

A random-access memory digital-to-analog converter (RAMDAC) is a combination of three fast digital-to-analog converters (DACs) with a small static random-access memory (SRAM) used in computer graphics display controllers to store the color palette and to generate the analog signals (usually a voltage amplitude) to drive a color monitor.

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## Random-access memory

Random-access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code currently being used.

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## RC circuit

A resistor–capacitor circuit (RC circuit), or RC filter or RC network, is an electric circuit composed of resistors and capacitors driven by a voltage or current source.

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## Reconstruction filter

In a mixed-signal system (analog and digital), a reconstruction filter is used to construct a smooth analog signal from a digital input, as in the case of a digital to analog converter (DAC) or other sampled data output device.

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## Rectangular function

The rectangular function (also known as the rectangle function, rect function, Pi function, gate function, unit pulse, or the normalized boxcar function) is defined as: 0 & \mbox |t| > \frac \\ \frac & \mbox |t|.

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## Resistor

A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.

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## Resistor ladder

A resistor ladder is an electrical circuit made from repeating units of resistors.

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## Sampling (signal processing)

In signal processing, sampling is the reduction of a continuous-time signal to a discrete-time signal.

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## Sign function

In mathematics, the sign function or signum function (from signum, Latin for "sign") is an odd mathematical function that extracts the sign of a real number.

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## Signal

A signal as referred to in communication systems, signal processing, and electrical engineering is a function that "conveys information about the behavior or attributes of some phenomenon".

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## Sound card

A sound card (also known as an audio card) is an internal expansion card that provides input and output of audio signals to and from a computer under control of computer programs.

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## Spurious-free dynamic range

Spurious-free dynamic range (SFDR) is the strength ratio of the fundamental signal to the strongest spurious signal in the output.

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## Step function

In mathematics, a function on the real numbers is called a step function (or staircase function) if it can be written as a finite linear combination of indicator functions of intervals.

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## Television

Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.

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## Time series

A time series is a series of data points indexed (or listed or graphed) in time order.

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## Total harmonic distortion

The total harmonic distortion (THD) is a measurement of the harmonic distortion present in a signal and is defined as the ratio of the sum of the powers of all harmonic components to the power of the fundamental frequency.

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## Transport (recording)

A transport is a device that handles a particular physical storage medium (such as magnetic tape, audio CD, CD-R, or other type of recordable media) itself, and extracts or records the information to and from the medium, to (and from) an outboard set of processing electronics that the transport is connected to.

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## Unary coding

Unary coding, sometimes called thermometer code, is an entropy encoding that represents a natural number, n, with n ones followed by a zero (if natural number is understood as non-negative integer) or with n − 1 ones followed by a zero (if natural number is understood as strictly positive integer).

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## USB

USB (abbreviation of Universal Serial Bus), is an industry standard that was developed to define cables, connectors and protocols for connection, communication, and power supply between personal computers and their peripheral devices.

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## Voice over IP

Voice over Internet Protocol (also voice over IP, VoIP or IP telephony) is a methodology and group of technologies for the delivery of voice communications and multimedia sessions over Internet Protocol (IP) networks, such as the Internet.

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## Voltage

Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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## Whippletree (mechanism)

A whippletree, or whiffletree, is a mechanism to distribute force evenly through linkages.

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## White noise

In signal processing, white noise is a random signal having equal intensity at different frequencies, giving it a constant power spectral density.

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## Zero-order hold

The zero-order hold (ZOH) is a mathematical model of the practical signal reconstruction done by a conventional digital-to-analog converter (DAC).

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## 1-bit DAC

A Bitstream or 1-bit DAC is a consumer electronics marketing term describing an oversampling digital-to-analog converter (DAC) with an actual 1-bit DAC (that is, a simple "on/off" switch) in a delta-sigma loop operating at multiples of the sampling frequency.

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## Redirects here:

Analog decoding, D to a, D-a-c, D-to-A, D/A, D/A converter, D/A-converter, D2A, DA conversion, DA-converter, Digital to Analog, Digital to analog, Digital to analog converter, Digital to analog convertor, Digital to analogue converter, Digital to analogue convertor, Digital-to-Analog Converter, Digital-to-analog, Digital-to-analog conversion, Digital-to-analog converters, Digital-to-analog convertor, Digital-to-analogue converter.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital-to-analog_converter