111 relations: Adi Shamir, Advanced electronic signature, Adversary (cryptography), Algeria, Algorithm, Authentication, Automotive Network Exchange, Bit array, Bitcoin, Blind signature, Boneh–Lynn–Shacham, California, Certificate authority, Certificate revocation list, Chosen-plaintext attack, Cloud, Collision resistance, Computer security, Contract, Contract management software, Cryptographic engineering, Cryptographic hash function, Cryptographic protocol, Cryptomathic, Data integrity, Detached signature, Digital Signature Algorithm, Digital signature forgery, Digital signature in Estonia, Discrete uniform distribution, EdDSA, EIDAS, Electronic lab notebook, Electronic signature, Electronic signatures and law, Electronic Signatures Directive, ElGamal signature scheme, Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm, Elliptic-curve cryptography, Email, ESign (India), Euler's totient function, European Union, Evaluation Assurance Level, FIPS 140-2, FIPS 201, Full Domain Hash, GMR (cryptography), GNU Privacy Guard, Healthcare industry, ..., IBM Notes, India, International Cryptology Conference, Interoperability, Key escrow, Key generation, Key size, Keystroke logging, Lamport signature, Leonard Adleman, Leslie Lamport, Malleability (cryptography), Martin Hellman, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Merkle tree, Mexico, Michael O. Rabin, Mihir Bellare, Modular arithmetic, Moni Naor, Moti Yung, Multi-factor authentication, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Negligible function, Non-repudiation, Numeric keypad, Online Certificate Status Protocol, Oracle machine, Pairing, Permutation, Personal identification number, Peter Landrock, Pointcheval–Stern signature algorithm, Probabilistic signature scheme, Public key certificate, Public key infrastructure, Public-key cryptography, Rabin signature algorithm, Ron Rivest, Ross J. Anderson, RSA (cryptosystem), SAFE-BioPharma Association, Schnorr signature, Secure multi-party computation, Server-based signatures, Shafi Goldwasser, Signatures with efficient protocols, Silvio Micali, Smart card, Switzerland, Title 21 CFR Part 11, Trapdoor function, Turkey, Unary numeral system, Undeniable signature, University of Chicago, Uruguay, Utah, Whitfield Diffie, Zero-knowledge proof. Expand index (61 more) » « Shrink index
Adi Shamir (עדי שמיר; born July 6, 1952) is an Israeli cryptographer.
An advanced electronic signature (AdES) is an electronic signature that has met the requirements set forth under EU Regulation No 910/2014 (eIDAS-regulation) on electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the internal market.
In cryptography, an adversary (rarely opponent, enemy) is a malicious entity whose aim is to prevent the users of the cryptosystem from achieving their goal (primarily privacy, integrity, and availability of data).
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm is an unambiguous specification of how to solve a class of problems.
Authentication (from authentikos, "real, genuine", from αὐθέντης authentes, "author") is the act of confirming the truth of an attribute of a single piece of data claimed true by an entity.
ANXeBusiness Corp. (ANX) is the company that owns and operates the Automotive Network Exchange (ANX), a large private extranet that connects automotive suppliers to automotive manufacturers.
A bit array (also known as bit map, bit set, bit string, or bit vector) is an array data structure that compactly stores bits.
Bitcoin (₿) is the world's first cryptocurrency, a form of electronic cash.
In cryptography a blind signature, as introduced by David Chaum, is a form of digital signature in which the content of a message is disguised (blinded) before it is signed.
In cryptography, the Boneh–Lynn–Shacham (BLS) signature scheme allows a user to verify that a signer is authentic.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
In cryptography, a certificate authority or certification authority (CA) is an entity that issues digital certificates.
A certificate revocation list (or CRL) is "a list of digital certificates that have been revoked by the issuing certificate authority (CA) before their scheduled expiration date and should no longer be trusted.".
A chosen-plaintext attack (CPA) is an attack model for cryptanalysis which presumes that the attacker can obtain the ciphertexts for arbitrary plaintexts.
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.
Collision resistance is a property of cryptographic hash functions: a hash function H is collision resistant if it is hard to find two inputs that hash to the same output; that is, two inputs a and b such that H(a).
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
A contract is a promise or set of promises that are legally enforceable and, if violated, allow the injured party access to legal remedies.
Contract management software is the range of computer programmes, libraries and data used to support contract management, contract lifecycle management, and contractor management on projects.
Cryptographic Engineering is the discipline of using cryptography to solve human problems.
A cryptographic hash function is a special class of hash function that has certain properties which make it suitable for use in cryptography.
A security protocol (cryptographic protocol or encryption protocol) is an abstract or concrete protocol that performs a security-related function and applies cryptographic methods, often as sequences of cryptographic primitives.
Cryptomathic is a software company specializing in the area of cryptography for e-commerce security systems.
Data integrity is the maintenance of, and the assurance of the accuracy and consistency of, data over its entire life-cycle, and is a critical aspect to the design, implementation and usage of any system which stores, processes, or retrieves data.
A detached signature is a type of digital signature that is kept separate from its signed data, as opposed to bundled together into a single file.
The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is a Federal Information Processing Standard for digital signatures.
In a cryptographic digital signature or MAC system, digital signature forgery is the ability to create a pair consisting of a message, m, and a signature (or MAC), \sigma, that is valid for m, where m has not been signed in the past by the legitimate signer.
Electronic signature allows users to electronically perform the actions for which they previously had to give a signature on paper.
In probability theory and statistics, the discrete uniform distribution is a symmetric probability distribution whereby a finite number of values are equally likely to be observed; every one of n values has equal probability 1/n.
In public-key cryptography, Edwards-curve Digital Signature Algorithm (EdDSA) is a digital signature scheme using a variant of Schnorr signature based on Twisted Edwards curves.
eIDAS (electronic IDentification, Authentication and trust Services) is an EU regulation on / a set of standards for electronic identification and trust services for electronic transactions in the European Single Market.
An electronic lab notebook (also known as electronic laboratory notebook, or ELN) is a computer program designed to replace paper laboratory notebooks.
An electronic signature, or e-signature, refers to data in electronic form, which is logically associated with other data in electronic form and which is used by the signatory to sign.
Worldwide, legislation concerning the effect and validity of electronic signatures, including, but not limited to, cryptographic digital signatures, includes.
The Electronic Signatures Directive was a European Union Directive on the use of electronic signatures (e-signatures) in electronic contracts within the European Union (EU).
The ElGamal signature scheme is a digital signature scheme which is based on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithms.
In cryptography, the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) offers a variant of the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) which uses elliptic curve cryptography.
Elliptic-curve cryptography (ECC) is an approach to public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields.
Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of exchanging messages ("mail") between people using electronic devices.
Aadhaar eSign is an online electronic signature service in India to facilitate an Aadhaar holder to digitally sign a document.
In number theory, Euler's totient function counts the positive integers up to a given integer that are relatively prime to.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The Evaluation Assurance Level (EAL1 through EAL7) of an IT product or system is a numerical grade assigned following the completion of a Common Criteria security evaluation, an international standard in effect since 1999.
The Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS) Publication 140-2, (FIPS PUB 140-2), is a U.S. government computer security standard used to approve cryptographic modules.
FIPS 201 (Federal Information Processing Standard Publication 201) is a United States federal government standard that specifies Personal Identity Verification (PIV) requirements for Federal employees and contractors.
In cryptography, the Full Domain Hash (FDH) is an RSA-based signature scheme that follows the hash-and-sign paradigm.
In cryptography, GMR is a digital signature algorithm named after its inventors Shafi Goldwasser, Silvio Micali and Ron Rivest.
GNU Privacy Guard (GnuPG or GPG) is a free software replacement for Symantec's PGP cryptographic software suite.
The healthcare industry (also called the medical industry or health economy) is the range of companies and non-profit organizations that provide medical services, manufacture medical equipment, and develop pharmaceuticals.
IBM Notes (formerly Lotus Notes; see branding, below) and IBM Domino (formerly Lotus Domino) are the client and server, respectively, of a collaborative client-server software platform sold by IBM.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
CRYPTO, the International Cryptology Conference, is one of the largest academic conferences in cryptography and cryptanalysis.
Interoperability is a characteristic of a product or system, whose interfaces are completely understood, to work with other products or systems, at present or in the future, in either implementation or access, without any restrictions.
Key escrow (also known as a “fair” cryptosystem) is an arrangement in which the keys needed to decrypt encrypted data are held in escrow so that, under certain circumstances, an authorized third party may gain access to those keys.
Key generation is the process of generating keys in cryptography.
In cryptography, key size or key length is the number of bits in a key used by a cryptographic algorithm (such as a cipher).
Keystroke logging, often referred to as keylogging or keyboard capturing, is the action of recording (logging) the keys struck on a keyboard, typically covertly, so that the person using the keyboard is unaware that their actions are being monitored.
In cryptography, a Lamport signature or Lamport one-time signature scheme is a method for constructing a digital signature.
Leonard Adleman (born December 31, 1945) is an American computer scientist.
Leslie B. Lamport (born February 7, 1941) is an American computer scientist.
Malleability is a property of some cryptographic algorithms.
Martin Edward Hellman (born October 2, 1945) is an American cryptologist, best known for his invention of public key cryptography in cooperation with Whitfield Diffie and Ralph Merkle.
Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
In cryptography and computer science, a hash tree or Merkle tree is a tree in which every leaf node is labelled with the hash of a data block and every non-leaf node is labelled with the cryptographic hash of the labels of its child nodes.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Michael Oser Rabin (מִיכָאֵל עוזר רַבִּין, born September 1, 1931) is an Israeli computer scientist and a recipient of the Turing Award.
Mihir Bellare is a cryptographer and professor at the University of California San Diego.
In mathematics, modular arithmetic is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" upon reaching a certain value—the modulus (plural moduli).
Moni Naor (מוני נאור) is an Israeli computer scientist, currently a professor at the Weizmann Institute of Science.
Mordechai M. (Moti) Yung is an Israeli-American cryptographer and computer scientist with an extensive industrial research career.
Multi-factor authentication (MFA) is a method of confirming a user's claimed identity in which a user is granted access only after successfully presenting 2 or more pieces of evidence (or factors) to an authentication mechanism: knowledge (something they and only they know), possession (something they and only they have), and inherence (something they and only they are).
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
In mathematics, a negligible function is a function \mu:\mathbb\to\mathbb such that for every positive integer c there exists an integer Nc such that for all x > Nc, Equivalently, we may also use the following definition.
Non-repudiation refers to a state of affairs where the author of a statement will not be able to successfully challenge the authorship of the statement or validity of an associated contract.
A numeric keypad, number pad, numpad, or ten key, is the palm-sized, 17-key section of a standard computer keyboard, usually on the far right.
The Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) is an Internet protocol used for obtaining the revocation status of an X.509 digital certificate.
In complexity theory and computability theory, an oracle machine is an abstract machine used to study decision problems.
In mathematics, a pairing is an R-bilinear map of modules, where R is the underlying ring.
In mathematics, the notion of permutation relates to the act of arranging all the members of a set into some sequence or order, or if the set is already ordered, rearranging (reordering) its elements, a process called permuting.
A personal identification number (PIN, pronounced "pin"; is often spoken out loud "PIN number" by mistake) is a numeric or alpha-numeric password or code used in the process of authenticating or identifying a user to a system and system to a user.
Peter Landrock (born August 20, 1948 in Horsens) is a Danish cryptographer and mathematician.
In cryptography, the Pointcheval–Stern signature algorithm is a digital signature scheme based on the closely related ElGamal signature scheme.
Probabilistic Signature Scheme (PSS) is a cryptographic signature scheme designed by Mihir Bellare and Phillip Rogaway.
In cryptography, a public key certificate, also known as a digital certificate or identity certificate, is an electronic document used to prove the ownership of a public key.
A public key infrastructure (PKI) is a set of roles, policies, and procedures needed to create, manage, distribute, use, store, and revoke digital certificates and manage public-key encryption.
Public-key cryptography, or asymmetric cryptography, is any cryptographic system that uses pairs of keys: public keys which may be disseminated widely, and private keys which are known only to the owner.
In cryptography the Rabin signature algorithm is a method of digital signature originally proposed by Michael O. Rabin in 1979.
Ronald Linn Rivest (born May 6, 1947) is a cryptographer and an Institute Professor at MIT.
Ross John Anderson, FRS, FREng (born 15 September 1956) is a researcher, writer, and industry consultant in security engineering.
RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is one of the first public-key cryptosystems and is widely used for secure data transmission.
SAFE-BioPharma Association is the non-profit association that created and manages the SAFE-BioPharma digital identity and digital signature standard for the global pharmaceutical, biotech and healthcare industries.
In cryptography, a Schnorr signature is a digital signature produced by the Schnorr signature algorithm.
Secure multi-party computation (also known as secure computation, multi-party computation/MPC, or privacy-preserving computation) is a subfield of cryptography with the goal of creating methods for parties to jointly compute a function over their inputs while keeping those inputs private.
In cryptography, server-based signatures are digital signatures in which a publicly available server participates in the signature creation process.
Shafrira Goldwasser (שפרירה גולדווסר; born 1959) is an American-Israeli computer scientist and winner of the Turing Award in 2012.
Signatures with efficient protocols are a form of digital signature invented by Jan Camenisch and Anna Lysyanskaya in 2001.
Silvio Micali (born October 13, 1954) is an Italian computer scientist at MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and a professor of computer science in MIT's Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science since 1983.
A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC), is any pocket-sized card that has embedded integrated circuits.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Title 21 CFR Part 11 is the part of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations that establishes the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations on electronic records and electronic signatures (ERES).
A trapdoor function is a function that is easy to compute in one direction, yet difficult to compute in the opposite direction (finding its inverse) without special information, called the "trapdoor".
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The unary numeral system is the bijective base-1 numeral system.
An undeniable signature is a digital signature scheme which allows the signer to be selective to whom they allow to verify signatures.
The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
Utah is a state in the western United States.
Bailey Whitfield 'Whit' Diffie (born June 5, 1944) is an American cryptographer and one of the pioneers of public-key cryptography along with Martin Hellman and Ralph Merkle.
In cryptography, a zero-knowledge proof or zero-knowledge protocol is a method by which one party (the prover Peggy) can prove to another party (the verifier Victor) that she knows a value x, without conveying any information apart from the fact that she knows the value x. Another way of understanding this would be: Interactive zero-knowledge proofs require interaction between the individual (or computer system) proving their knowledge and the individual validating the proof.
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