191 relations: Abbreviation, Abjad, Albanian language, Allography, Allophone, Alphabet, Alveolar and postalveolar approximants, Armenian language, Aspirated consonant, Assibilation, Bactrian language, Basque language, Belgium, Bigram, Bosnian language, Brahmic scripts, Breton language, Catalan language, Ch (digraph), Character (symbol), Clapham, Close back rounded vowel, Close front unrounded vowel, Close-mid back rounded vowel, Close-mid front rounded vowel, Code point, Collation, Colloquial Welsh morphology, Compound (linguistics), Consonant, Consonant mutation, Croatian language, Cyrillic alphabets, Czech language, Czech orthography, Daighi tongiong pingim, Danish and Norwegian alphabet, Dž, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Diacritic, Diaeresis (diacritic), Diaphoneme, Digraphs and trigraphs, Diphthong, Dutch language, Dutch orthography, Dz (digraph), Early Modern English, English orthography, ..., Estonian orthography, Etymology, Finnish orthography, French language, French orthography, French phonology, Front vowel, Gaj's Latin alphabet, Gemination, Georgian scripts, German orthography, Gh (digraph), Grapheme, Great Vowel Shift, Greek language, Hangul, Hebrew alphabet, Hexagraph, Hungarian alphabet, Hungarian dzs, Hungarian language, Hungarian ly, Hyphen, IJ (digraph), IJmeer, IJmuiden, Inuktitut syllabics, Italian orthography, Kana, Katakana, Labialization, Languages of the Caucasus, Lateral consonant, Letter (alphabet), List of English words containing Q not followed by U, List of Latin-script digraphs, List of Latin-script letters, List of Latin-script trigraphs, Lj (digraph), Ll, Mid central vowel, Middle English, Montenegrin language, Mora (linguistics), Morpheme, Multigraph (orthography), Murmured voice, N (kana), Near-close front rounded vowel, Near-close front unrounded vowel, Netherlands, Nh (digraph), Nj (digraph), Norwegian dialects, Norwegian language, Norwegian orthography, Ny (digraph), Okinawan scripts, Old English, Open front unrounded vowel, Open-mid back rounded vowel, Orthography, Palatal approximant, Palatal consonant, Palatal lateral approximant, Palatal nasal, Palatalization (phonetics), Pentagraph, Phoneme, Phonological history of English vowels, Polish language, Portuguese orthography, Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩, Pronunciation of English ⟨wh⟩, Rhotic consonant, Romanization, Romanization of Japanese, Royal Spanish Academy, Russian language, Saintongeais dialect, Schwa, Serbian Cyrillic alphabet, Serbian language, Sh (digraph), Silent e, Silent letter, Slack voice, Slavic languages, Slovak language, Slovak orthography, South Asia, Spanish language, Spanish orthography, Svan language, Syllable, Sz (digraph), Taiwanese Hokkien, Tatar language, Tetragraph, Th (digraph), Thai language, Transcription into Japanese, Trigraph (orthography), Trill consonant, Tsakonian language, Typographic ligature, Unicode, Unicode Consortium, Urdu, Valencian, Velar nasal, Voice (phonetics), Voiced alveolar affricate, Voiced alveolo-palatal affricate, Voiced dental fricative, Voiced palatal stop, Voiced postalveolar affricate, Voiced postalveolar fricative, Voiced retroflex affricate, Voiced retroflex fricative, Voiced velar stop, Voiceless alveolar fricative, Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Voiceless dental fricative, Voiceless labiodental fricative, Voiceless palatal fricative, Voiceless palatal stop, Voiceless postalveolar affricate, Voiceless postalveolar fricative, Voiceless retroflex affricate, Voiceless retroflex fricative, Voiceless uvular fricative, Voiceless velar fricative, Voiceless velar stop, Vowel, Vowel length, Welsh language, Welsh orthography, Wymysorys language, Yōon, Yiddish. Expand index (141 more) » « Shrink index
An abbreviation (from Latin brevis, meaning short) is a shortened form of a word or phrase.
An abjad (pronounced or) is a type of writing system where each symbol or glyph stands for a consonant, leaving the reader to supply the appropriate vowel.
Albanian (shqip, or gjuha shqipe) is a language of the Indo-European family, in which it occupies an independent branch.
Allography, from the Greek for "other writing", has several meanings which all relate to how words and sounds are written down.
In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.
An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that is used to write one or more languages based upon the general principle that the letters represent phonemes (basic significant sounds) of the spoken language.
The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
In linguistics, assibilation is a sound change resulting in a sibilant consonant.
Bactrian (Αριαο, Aryao, arjaːu̯ɔ) is an Iranian language which was spoken in the Central Asian region of Bactria (present-day Afghanistan and Tajikistan) and used as the official language of the Kushan and the Hephthalite empires.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
A bigram or digram is a sequence of two adjacent elements from a string of tokens, which are typically letters, syllables, or words.
The Bosnian language (bosanski / босански) is the standardized variety of Serbo-Croatian mainly used by Bosniaks.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
Breton (brezhoneg or in Morbihan) is a Southwestern Brittonic Celtic language spoken in Brittany.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Ch is a digraph in the Latin script.
A character is a sign or symbol.
Clapham is a district of south-west London lying mostly within the London Borough of Lambeth, but with some areas (most notably Clapham Common) extending into the neighbouring London Borough of Wandsworth.
The close back rounded vowel, or high back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
The close front unrounded vowel, or high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound that occurs in most spoken languages, represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet by the symbol i. It is similar to the vowel sound in the English word meet—and often called long-e in American English.
The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The close-mid front rounded vowel, or high-mid front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
In character encoding terminology, a code point or code position is any of the numerical values that make up the code space.
Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.
The morphology of the Welsh language has many characteristics likely to be unfamiliar to speakers of English or continental European languages like French or German, but has much in common with the other modern Insular Celtic languages: Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Cornish, and Breton.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Consonant mutation is change in a consonant in a word according to its morphological or syntactic environment.
Croatian (hrvatski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used by Croats, principally in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Serbian province of Vojvodina and other neighboring countries.
Numerous Cyrillic alphabets are based on the Cyrillic script.
Czech (čeština), historically also Bohemian (lingua Bohemica in Latin), is a West Slavic language of the Czech–Slovak group.
Czech orthography is a system of rules for correct writing (orthography) in the Czech language.
Daī-ghî tōng-iōng pīng-im (Taiwanese phonetic transcription system, abbr: DT) is an orthography in the Latin alphabet for Taiwanese Hokkien based upon Tongyong Pinyin.
The Danish and Norwegian alphabet, called the Dano-Norwegian alphabet is based upon the Latin alphabet and has consisted of the following 29 letters since 1917 (Norwegian) and 1948 (Danish).
Dž (titlecase form; all-capitals form DŽ, lowercase dž) is the seventh letter of the Gaj's Latin alphabet for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian), after D and before Đ. It is pronounced.
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
A diacritic – also diacritical mark, diacritical point, diacritical sign, or an accent – is a glyph added to a letter, or basic glyph.
The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the tréma (also: trema) or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.
A diaphoneme is an abstract phonological unit that identifies a correspondence between related sounds of two or more varieties of a language or language cluster.
In computer programming, digraphs and trigraphs are sequences of two and three characters, respectively, that appear in source code and, according to a programming language's specification, should be treated as if they were single characters.
A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
Dz is a digraph of the Latin script, consisting of the consonants D and Z. It may represent,, or, depending on the language.
Early Modern English, Early New English (sometimes abbreviated to EModE, EMnE or EME) is the stage of the English language from the beginning of the Tudor period to the English Interregnum and Restoration, or from the transition from Middle English, in the late 15th century, to the transition to Modern English, in the mid-to-late 17th century.
English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning.
Estonian orthography is the system used for writing the Estonian language and is based on the Latin alphabet.
EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".
Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 29 letters.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
French orthography encompasses the spelling and punctuation of the French language.
French phonology is the sound system of French.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Gaj's Latin alphabet (gâj); abeceda, latinica, or gajica) is the form of the Latin script used for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin). It was devised by Croatian linguist Ljudevit Gaj in 1835, based on Jan Hus's Czech alphabet. A slightly reduced version is used as the script of the Slovene language, and a slightly expanded version is used as a script of the modern standard Montenegrin language. A modified version is used for the romanization of the Macedonian language. Pavao Ritter Vitezović had proposed an idea for the orthography of the Croatian language, stating that every sound should have only one letter. Gaj's alphabet is currently used in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
The Georgian scripts are the three writing systems used to write the Georgian language: Asomtavruli, Nuskhuri and Mkhedruli.
German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.
Gh is a digraph found in many languages.
In linguistics, a grapheme is the smallest unit of a writing system of any given language.
The Great Vowel Shift was a major series of changes in the pronunciation of the English language that took place, beginning in southern England, primarily between 1350 and the 1600s and 1700s, today influencing effectively all dialects of English.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Korean alphabet, known as Hangul (from Korean hangeul 한글), has been used to write the Korean language since its creation in the 15th century by Sejong the Great.
The Hebrew alphabet (אָלֶף־בֵּית עִבְרִי), known variously by scholars as the Jewish script, square script and block script, is an abjad script used in the writing of the Hebrew language, also adapted as an alphabet script in the writing of other Jewish languages, most notably in Yiddish (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-German), Djudío (lit. "Jewish" for Judeo-Spanish), and Judeo-Arabic.
A hexagraph (from the ἕξ, héx, "six" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a sequence of six letters used to represent a single sound (phoneme), or a combination of sounds that do not correspond to the individual values of the letters.
The Hungarian alphabet is an extension of the Latin alphabet used for writing the Hungarian language.
Dzs is the eighth letter, and only trigraph, of the Hungarian alphabet.
Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.
Ly is a digraph of the Latin alphabet, used in Hungarian.
The hyphen (‐) is a punctuation mark used to join words and to separate syllables of a single word.
IJ (lowercase ij) is a digraph of the letters i and j. Occurring in the Dutch language, it is sometimes considered a ligature, or even a letter in itselfalthough in most fonts that have a separate character for ij, the two composing parts are not connected but are separate glyphs, sometimes slightly kerned.
The IJmeer is a 'bordering lake' (Randmeer) in the Netherlands.
IJmuiden is a port city in the Dutch province of North Holland and is the main town in the municipality of Velsen.
Inuktitut syllabics (Inuktitut: ᖃᓂᐅᔮᖅᐸᐃᑦ or ᑎᑎᕋᐅᓯᖅ ᓄᑖᖅ) is an abugida-type writing system used in Canada by the Inuktitut-speaking Inuit of the territory of Nunavut and the Nunavik region in Quebec.
Italian orthography uses a variant of the Latin alphabet consisting of 21 letters to write the Italian language.
are syllabic Japanese scripts, a part of the Japanese writing system contrasted with the logographic Chinese characters known in Japan as kanji (漢字).
is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin script (known as rōmaji).
Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.
The Caucasian languages are a large and extremely varied array of languages spoken by more than ten million people in and around the Caucasus Mountains, which lie between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
A letter is a grapheme (written character) in an alphabetic system of writing.
In English, the letter Q is usually followed by the letter U, but there are some exceptions.
This is a list of digraphs used in various Latin alphabets.
This is a list of letters of the Latin script.
A number of trigraphs are found in the Latin script, most of these used especially in Irish orthography.
Lj (lj in lower case) is a letter present in some Slavic languages, such as the Latin version of Serbo-Croatian and in romanised Macedonian, where it represents a palatal lateral approximant.
Ll/ll is a digraph which occurs in several natural languages.
The mid central vowel (also known as schwa) is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Montenegrin (црногорски / crnogorski) is the variety of the Serbo-Croatian language used as the official language of Montenegro.
A mora (plural morae or moras; often symbolized μ) is a unit in phonology that determines syllable weight, which in some languages determines stress or timing.
A morpheme is the smallest grammatical unit in a language.
A multigraph (or pleongraph) is a sequence of letters that behaves as a unit and is not the sum of its parts, such as English or French.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
ん, in hiragana, or ン in katakana, is one of the Japanese kana, which each represent one mora.
The near-close front rounded vowel, or near-high front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The near-close front unrounded vowel, or near-high front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nh is a digraph of the Latin alphabet, a combination of N and H. Together with lh and the interpunct, it is a typical feature of Occitan, a language illustrated by medieval troubadours.
Nj (nj in lower case) is a letter present in South Slavic languages such as the Latin-alphabet version of Serbo-Croatian and in romanised Macedonian.
The Norwegian dialects are commonly divided into 4 main groups, 'Northern Norwegian' (nordnorsk), 'Central Norwegian' (trøndersk), 'Western Norwegian' (vestlandsk), and 'Eastern Norwegian' (østnorsk).
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Norwegian orthography is the method of writing the Norwegian language, of which there are two written standards: Bokmål and Nynorsk.
Ny is a digraph in a number of languages such as Catalan, Ganda, Filipino/Tagalog, Hungarian, Swahili and Malay.
Okinawan language, spoken in Okinawa Island, was once the official language of the Ryukyu Kingdom.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
The open front unrounded vowel, or low front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. It is one of the eight primary cardinal vowels, not directly intended to correspond to a vowel sound of a specific language but rather to serve as a fundamental reference point in a phonetic measuring system. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that represents this sound is, and in the IPA vowel chart it is positioned at the lower-left corner. However, the accuracy of the quadrilateral vowel chart is disputed, and the sound has been analyzed acoustically as an extra-open/low unrounded vowel at a position where the front/back distinction has lost its significance. There are also differing interpretations of the exact quality of the vowel: the classic sound recording of by Daniel Jones is slightly more front but not quite as open as that by John Wells. In practice, it is considered normal by many phoneticians to use the symbol for an open ''central'' unrounded vowel and instead approximate the open front unrounded vowel with (which officially signifies a ''near-open'' front unrounded vowel). This is the usual practice, for example, in the historical study of the English language. The loss of separate symbols for open and near-open front vowels is usually considered unproblematic, because the perceptual difference between the two is quite small, and very few languages contrast the two. If one needs to specify that the vowel is front, one can use symbols like (advanced/fronted), or (lowered), with the latter being more common. The Hamont dialect of Limburgish has been reported to contrast long open front, central and back unrounded vowels, which is extremely unusual.
The open-mid back rounded vowel, or low-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
The voiced palatal approximant is a type of consonant used in many spoken languages.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages.
In phonetics, palatalization (also) or palatization refers to a way of pronouncing a consonant in which part of the tongue is moved close to the hard palate.
A pentagraph (from the πέντε, pénte, "five" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a sequence of five letters used to represent a single sound (phoneme), or a combination of sounds, that do not correspond to the individual values of the letters.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
In the history of English phonology, there were many diachronic sound changes affecting vowels, especially involving phonemic splits and mergers.
Polish (język polski or simply polski) is a West Slavic language spoken primarily in Poland and is the native language of the Poles.
Portuguese orthography is based on the Latin alphabet and makes use of the acute accent, the circumflex accent, the grave accent, the tilde, and the cedilla to denote stress, vowel height, nasalization, and other sound changes.
In English, the digraph th represents in most cases one of two different phonemes: the voiced dental fricative (as in this) and the voiceless dental fricative (thing).
The pronunciation of the wh in English has changed over time, and still varies today between different regions and accents.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
The romanization of Japanese is the use of Latin script to write the Japanese language.
The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Saintongeais (saintonjhais) is a dialect of Poitevin spoken halfway down the western coast of France in the former provinces of Saintonge, Aunis and Angoumois, all of which have been incorporated into the current departments of Charente and Charente-Maritime as well as in parts of their neighbouring departments of Gironde and a town in Dordogne.
In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.
The Serbian Cyrillic alphabet (српска ћирилица/srpska ćirilica, pronounced) is an adaptation of the Cyrillic script for the Serbian language, developed in 1818 by Serbian linguist Vuk Karadžić.
Serbian (српски / srpski) is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs.
Sh is a digraph of the Latin alphabet, a combination of S and H.
In English orthography, many words feature a silent, most commonly at the end of a word or morpheme.
In an alphabetic writing system, a silent letter is a letter that, in a particular word, does not correspond to any sound in the word's pronunciation.
Slack voice (or lax voice) is the pronunciation of consonant or vowels with a glottal opening slightly wider than that occurring in modal voice.
The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) are the Indo-European languages spoken by the Slavic peoples.
Slovak is an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish, and Sorbian).
The first Slovak orthography was proposed by Anton Bernolák (1762–1813) in his Dissertatio philologico-critica de litteris Slavorum, used in the six-volume Slovak-Czech-Latin-German-Hungarian Dictionary (1825–1927) and used pmarily by Slovak Catholics.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.
The Svan language (Svan: ლუშნუ ნინ lušnu nin; სვანური ენა svanuri ena) is a Kartvelian language spoken in the western Georgian region of Svaneti primarily by the Svan people.
A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.
Sz is a digraph of the Latin script, used in Hungarian, Polish, Kashubian and German, and in the Wade–Giles system of Romanization of Chinese.
Taiwanese Hokkien (translated as Taiwanese Min Nan), also known as Taiwanese/Taiwanese language in Taiwan (/), is a branched-off variant of Hokkien spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan.
The Tatar language (татар теле, tatar tele; татарча, tatarça) is a Turkic language spoken by Tatars mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan (European Russia), as well as Siberia.
A tetragraph (from the τετρα-, tetra-, "four" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a sequence of four letters used to represent a single sound (phoneme), or a combination of sounds, that do not necessarily correspond to the individual values of the letters.
Th is a digraph in the Latin script.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
In contemporary Japanese writing, foreign-language loanwords and foreign names are normally written in the katakana script, which is one component of the Japanese writing system.
A trigraph (from the τρεῖς, treîs, "three" and γράφω, gráphō, "write") is a group of three characters used to represent a single sound or a combination of sounds that does not correspond to the written letters combined.
In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.
Tsakonian (also Tsaconian, Tzakonian or Tsakonic; Tsakonian: τσακώνικα, α τσακώνικα γρούσσα; Greek: τσακώνικα) is a modern Hellenic language which is both highly divergent from other spoken varieties of Modern Greek and, from a philological standpoint, is also linguistically classified separately from them.
In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The Unicode Consortium (Unicode Inc.) is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization that coordinates the development of the Unicode standard, based in Mountain View, California.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Valencian (or; endonym: valencià, llengua valenciana, or idioma valencià) is a linguistic variety spoken in the Valencian Community, Spain. In the Valencian Community, Valencian is the traditional language and is co-official with Spanish. It is considered different from Catalan by a slight majority of the people of the Valencian Community (including non-speakers), but this is at odds with the broad academic view, which considers it a dialect of Catalan. A standardized form exists, based on the Southern Valencian dialect. Valencian belongs to the Western group of Catalan dialects. Under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian Academy of the Language (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL) has been established as its regulator. The AVL considers Catalan and Valencian to be simply two names for the same language. Some of the most important works of Valencian literature experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, and Ausiàs March's poetry. The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor (1475).
The velar nasal, also known as agma, from the Greek word for fragment, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
The voiced alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced dental fricative is a consonant sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiced palatal stop, or voiced palatal plosive, is a type of consonantal sound in some vocal languages.
The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
Voiced fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiced palato-alveolar fricative, the voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiced retroflex fricative, and the voiced alveolo-palatal fricative.
The voiced retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.
The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in a number of spoken languages.
The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless palatal stop or voiceless palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in some vocal languages.
The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Voiceless fricatives produced in the postalveolar region include the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative, the voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative, the voiceless retroflex fricative, and the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative.
The voiceless retroflex sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless retroflex sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The voiceless velar stop or voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Welsh orthography uses 29 letters (including eight digraphs) of the Latin script to write native Welsh words as well as established loanwords.
Wymysorys (Wymysiöeryś), also known as Vilamovian or Wilamowicean, is a variety of High German, spoken in the small town of Wilamowice, Poland (Wymysoü in Wymysorys), on the border between Silesia and Lesser Poland, near Bielsko-Biała.
is a feature of the Japanese language in which a mora is formed with an added sound, i.e., palatalized.
Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.